As an increasing number of volcanic reservoirs has been discovered all over the world, the study of volcanic reservoirs has caught more attention. However, researchers mainly focus on the characterization of the external architecture of volcanic rock mass and the superimposed relationship between the rock mass, while paying little attention to the fine anatomy of the internal structure of the rock mass, making it difficult to effectively guide the development of the volcanic reservoir. Taking Zao35 block in Huanghua depression, Bohai (...) Bay Basin, China, as an example, we find a workflow of establishing a high-resolution volcanic stratigraphic structure model and reservoir properties models by integrating well- and seismic-data analysis. The seismic data indicate that the volcanic activities consist of three stages: Stages I and III have positive seismic amplitude reflections, whereas stage II has a negative seismic reflection. The well data indicate that the lithology column of target formation in our study area consists of eight volcanic strata and seven mudstone strata. According to the lithology interpreted using well data, stages III, II, and I consist of five, one, and two volcanic eruption periods, respectively. We have established a structure and stratigraphy model with eight zones of volcanic rock and seven zones of mudstone barrier to effectively distinguish volcanic rocks from sedimentary rocks. Based on the seismic attribute analysis, we have combined the sequential indicator simulation and local anisotropy from the seismic amplitude attribute. The model of volcanism can be reproduced by sequential indication simulation of local variogram with variable range directions. Based on the principle of “facies control”, we have used the sequential indication method to simulate volcanic rocks. The simulation results have a very good agreement with the shape of lava flows spreading around the crater. To describe the internal structure of the volcanic rock body, reveal internal lithology distribution characteristics, and reservoir physical properties, we provide an effective research method for the development of volcanic reservoir geologic research. (shrink)
The application of machine learning touches all activities of human behavior such as computer network and routing packets in LAN. In the field of our research here, emphasis was placed on extracting weights that would affect the speed of the network's response and finding the best path, such as the number of nodes in the path and the congestion on each path, in addition to the cache used for each node. Therefore, the use of these elements in building the neural (...) network is worthy, as is the exploitation of the feed forwarding and the backpropagation in the neural network in order to reach the best prediction for the best path. The goal of the proposed neural network is to minimize the network time delay within the optimization of the packet paths being addressed in this study. The shortest path is considered as the key issue in routing algorithm that can be carried out with real time of path computations. Exploiting the gaps in previous studies, which are represented in the lack of training of the system and the inaccurate prediction as a result of not taking into consideration the hidden layers' feedback, leads to great performance. This study aims to suggest an efficient algorithm that could help in selecting the shortest path to improve the existing methods using weights derived from packet ID and to change neural network iteration simultaneously. In this study, the design of the efficient neural network of appropriate output is discussed in detail including the principles of the network. The findings of the study revealed that exploiting the power of computational system to demonstrate computer simulation is really effective. It is also shown that the system achieved good results when training the neural network system to get 2.4% time delay with 5 nodes in local LAN. Besides, the results showed that the major features of the proposed model will be able to run in real time and are also adaptive to change with path topology. (shrink)
Sandra Field, Jeffrey Flynn, Stephen Macedo, Longxi Zhang, and Martin Powers discussed Powers’ book China and England: The Preindustrial Struggle for Social Justice in Word and Image at the American Philosophical Association’s 2020 Eastern Division meeting in Philadelphia. The panel was sponsored by the APA’s “Committee on Asian and Asian-American Philosophers and Philosophies” and organized by Brian Bruya.
Compared to constraint-based causal discovery, causal discovery based on functional causal models is able to identify the whole causal model under appropriate assumptions [Shimizu et al. 2006; Hoyer et al. 2009; Zhang and Hyvärinen 2009b]. Functional causal models represent the effect as a function of the direct causes together with an independent noise term. Examples include the linear non-Gaussian acyclic model, nonlinear additive noise model, and post-nonlinear model. Currently, there are two ways to estimate the parameters in the models: (...) dependence minimization and maximum likelihood. In this article, we show that for any acyclic functional causal model, minimizing the mutual information between the hypothetical cause and the noise term is equivalent to maximizing the data likelihood with a flexible model for the distribution of the noise term. We then focus on estimation of the PNL causal model and propose to estimate it with the warped Gaussian process with the noise modeled by the mixture of Gaussians. As a Bayesian nonparametric approach, it outperforms the previous one based on mutual information minimization with nonlinear functions represented by multilayer perceptrons; we also show that unlike the ordinary regression, estimation results of the PNL causal model are sensitive to the assumption on the noise distribution. Experimental results on both synthetic and real data support our theoretical claims. (shrink)
Scientists normally earn less money than many other professions which require a similar amount of training and qualification. The economic theory of marginal utility and cost-benefit analysis can be applied to explain this phenomenon. Although scientists make less money than entertainment stars, the scientists do research work out of their interest and they also enjoy a much higher reputation and social status in some countries.
Background Respect for patients’ autonomy is usually considered to be an important ethical principle in Western countries; privacy is one of the implications of such respect. Healthcare professionals frequently encounter ethical dilemmas during their practice. The past few decades have seen an increased use of courts to resolve intractable ethical dilemmas across both the developed and the developing world. However, Chinese and American bioethics differ largely due to the influence of Chinese Confucianism and Western religions, respectively, and there is a (...) dearth of comparative studies that explore cases of ethical dilemmas between China and the United States. Methods This paper discusses four typical cases with significant social impact. First, it compares two cases concerning patient privacy: the “Shihezi University Hospital Case”, in which a patient was used as a clinical teaching object without her permission, and the “New York-Presbyterian Hospital Case”, in which the hospital allowed the filming of a patient’s treatment without his consent. Second, it compares two cases regarding patient autonomy and potentially life-saving medical procedures: the “Case of Ms. L”, concerning a cohabitant’s refusal to sign a consent form for a pregnant woman’s caesarean, and the “Case of Mrs. V”, concerning a hospital’s insistence upon a blood transfusion for a dissenting patient. This paper introduces the supporting and opposing views for each case and discusses their social impact. It then compares and analyses the differences between China and the United States from cultural and legislative perspectives. Conclusions Ethical dilemmas have often occurred in China due to the late development of bioethics. However, the presence of bioethics earlier in the US than in China has not spared the US of ethical dilemmas. This paper highlights lessons and inspiration from the cases for healthcare professionals and introduces readers to the role and weight of privacy and autonomy in China and in the US from the perspectives of different cultures, religions and laws. (shrink)
This book is both a good introduction to Chinese philosophy and an invaluable reference tool for sinologists. Comments by important Chinese thinkers are arranged around sixty-four key concepts to illustrate their meaning and use through twenty-five centuries of Chinese philosophy. This unique guide was prepared by Zhang Dainian, one of China’s most famous living philosophers. Zhang reaches back to include concepts in use before the oracle bones —what could be called a philosophical “prehistory.” But the focus of the (...) work is those concepts that gained currency in classical Chinese philosophy, especially those whose meanings are deeper and more difficult to grasp. Translated and edited by Edmund Ryden in consultation with the author, the book also includes helpful introductory commentary by Ryden for each section. (shrink)
This essay seeks to demonstrate the following: 1. the value of metaphysical cosmology to our relationship with nature, and to making policy about the environment; 2. the mistaken nature and harmful consequences of the hegemonic cosmology of anthropocentrism; and, 3. the possibility of Zhang Zai's Qi/qi Great Harmony cosmology as both the refutation of and replacement for anthropocentrism. The essay concludes that ultimate moral progress of expanding the self from the narrow and exclusionary views of anthropocentrism consists in cosmocentrism, (...) or the transformation of thought to a cosmological perspective as exemplified by Zhang Zai's Great Harmony continual cyclical process of Qi/qi. It is argued that positive metaphysical visions such as Zhang Zai's can negate anthropocentric cosmology and inspire us to view our relationship with the environment in a fundamentally enlightened and more respectful way, which is not arrogantly self-centred, disconnected and supremacist. (shrink)
This co-edited volume compares Chinese and Western experiences of engineering, technology, and development. In doing so, it builds a bridge between the East and West and advances a dialogue in the philosophy of engineering. Divided into three parts, the book starts with studies on epistemological and ontological issues, with a special focus on engineering design, creativity, management, feasibility, and sustainability. Part II considers relationships between the history and philosophy of engineering, and includes a general argument for the necessity of dialogue (...) between history and philosophy. It continues with a general introduction to traditional Chinese attitudes toward engineering and technology, and philosophical case studies of the Chinese steel industry, railroads, and cybernetics in the Soviet Union. Part III focuses on engineering, ethics, and society, with chapters on engineering education and practice in China and the West. The book’s analyses of the interactions of science, engineering, ethics, politics, and policy in different societal contexts are of special interest. The volume as a whole marks a new stage in the emergence of the philosophy of engineering as a new regionalization of philosophy. This carefully edited interdisciplinary volume grew out of an international conference on the philosophy of engineering hosted by the University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing. It includes 30 contributions by leading philosophers, social scientists, and engineers from Australia, China, Europe, and the United States. (shrink)
BackgroundEthics consult services are well established, but often remain underutilized. Our aim was to identify the barriers and perceptions of the Ethics consult service for physicians, advance practice providers, and nurses at our urban academic medical center which might contribute to underutilization.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional single-health system, anonymous written online survey, which was developed by the UCSD Health Clinical Ethics Committee and distributed by Survey Monkey. We compare responses between physicians, APPs, and nurses using standard parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. (...) Satisfaction with ethics consult and likelihood of calling Ethics service again were assessed using a 0–100 scale using a 5-likert response structured and results presented using box plots and interquartile ranges.ResultsFrom January to July 2019, approximately 3800 surveys were sent to all physicians, APPs and nurses with a return rate of 5.5—10%. Although the majority of respondents had encountered an ethical dilemma only approximately half had ever requested an Ethics consult. The primary reason for physicians never having requested a consult was that they never felt the need for help. For APPs the primary reasons were not knowing an Ethics consult service was available or not knowing how to contact Ethics. For nurses, it was not knowing how to contact the Ethics consult service or not feeling the need for help. The median satisfaction score for Ethics consult services rated on a 0–100 scale, from physicians was 76, for AAPs 89, and nurses 70. The median of likelihood of consulting Ethics in the future also on a 0–100 scale was 71 for physicians, 69 for APPs, and 61 for nurses. APP’s and nurses were significantly more likely than physicians to believe that the team did not act on the Ethics consult’s recommendations.ConclusionsBased on the results presented, we were able to identify actionable steps to better engage healthcare providers—and in particular APPs and nurses—and scale up institutional educational efforts to increase awareness of the role of the Ethics consult service at our institution. Actionable steps included implementing a system of ongoing feedback that is critical for the sustainability of the Ethics service role. We hope this project can serve as a blueprint for other hospital-based Ethics consult services to improve the quality of their programs. (shrink)
PurposeThis research studies an important, but relatively unexplored entrepreneurial aspect: motivation and aspiration on opportunity finding/discovery.Design/Methodology/ApproachThis study surveyed 230 nascent entrepreneurs on their opportunity finding behavior. A poisson regression and a logistic analysis were conducted to discover the relationship between motivation/aspiration and opportunity search behavior.FindingsMotivation and aspiration interact to influence active search in a positive way. However, only willingness to become an entrepreneur is found to search for opportunities purposefully.Research Limitations/ImplicationsParticipants of the research are from a Midwest state in United (...) States. Future research may collect sample from more and larger areas.Practical ImplicationsBankers may use entrepreneurial opportunity search behavior as one criterion determining if to fund a person or not.Originality/ValueThis article answers the call to study motivation/aspiration on opportunity finding. It is one of the first studies to explore the above relationship. (shrink)
In the fifth year of the reign of Shaoxi [in the Song dynasty]—in other words, in the year 1194 A.D.—Zhu Xi was returning to his home province after he had been relieved of his position at court as daizhi shijiang when, in the eleventh month of that year he came to Yushan county in Jiangxi Province. The governor of the district invited Master Zhu to give a number of lectures at the local county school, and Master Zhu complied, discoursing on (...) essential teachings in response to the questions that were raised by the students as well as in response to the lectures given by other scholars. At one point, the record says, the scholar Cheng Gong1 rose to ask the question: "Philosophers prior to the Three Ages only spoke about zhong and ji ; how come, then, that when it came to the time of the dialogues of those in the school of Confucius, everything seemed to revolve around the word ren ?" Master Zhu replied: "The discussions of zhong and of ji have often tended to make people misunderstand the meaning of what they were actually saying; alas, we do not ourselves have the leisure here to discuss all of that in detail.". (shrink)
In this selective overview of scholarship generated by _The Hunger Games_—the young adult dystopian fiction and film series which has won popular and critical acclaim—Zhange Ni showcases various investigations into the entanglement of religion and the arts in the new millennium.
Despite the rich body of research on the outward foreign direct investment by Chinese multinationals, little attention has been given to the fact that China’s OFDI is facing a high failure rate even in their initial attempt to enter a foreign market. Grounded on institutional theory, this study provides a nuanced view of the expansion dynamic of Chinese multinational firms overseas using a unique dataset that contains both successful and troubled Chinese foreign market entry attempts between 2018 and 2021. We (...) find that at the firm level, state-owned firms are more likely to face difficulties when trying to enter a new market compared to their private counterparts. Firms’ corporate social responsibility reporting reduces the chance of failure. These effects are conditioned on the political, economic, and cultural distances between the home and host counties. (shrink)
Modern socialist economic reforms which center on the establishment of a commodity based economic system, demand a reconsideration of human nature. Marxism and human sociobiology give different answers to questions about human nature, but neither is complete in itself. It seems timely, therefore, to suggest that a combination of biological understanding with a Marxist-based social understanding would produce a more adequate notion of human nature, thereby helping us to resolve a number of problems posed by reforms currently taking place in (...) socialist countries. We might also hope to face new challenges posed in the future. (shrink)
Drawing on insights from contemporary studies on conceptual metaphor and multimodal metaphor, the present study proposes a tentative analysis of multimodal metaphorical argument from the perspective of the extended theory of pragma-dialectics. A case, Liqun Commercial, is presented as an illustration. This commercial proves to use a conceptual metaphor, life is a journey, that underlies a multimodal metaphorical argument. The conceptual metaphor is highly acceptable in the cultural context of the Chinese target audience. Due to the restrictions imposed by the (...) institutional context, the commercial tries to convince the audience by using implicit argumentative means. In this endeavor, multimodal metaphorical argument is used to enhance the commercial’s effectiveness by foregrounding through framing the aspects the protagonist desires to show and by using a strategy to evade sanctions for ignoring institutional constraints. (shrink)
This paper is expected to introduce a novel memductor-based chaotic system. The local dynamical entities, such as the basic dynamical behavior, the divergence, the stability of equilibrium set, and the Lyapunov exponent, are all investigated analytically and numerically to reveal the dynamic characteristics of the new memductor-based chaotic system as the system parameters and the initial state of memristor change. Subsequently, an active control method is derived to study the synchronous stability of the novel memductor-based chaotic system through making the (...) synchronization error system asymptotically stable at the origin. Further to these, a memductor-based chaotic circuit is designed, realized, and applied to construct a new memductor-based secure communication circuit by employing the basic electronic components and memristor. Furthermore, the design principle of the memductor-based chaotic circuit is thoroughly analyzed and the concept of “the memductor-based chaotic circuit defect quantification index” is proposed for the first time to verify whether the chaotic output is consistent with the mathematical model. A good qualitative agreement is shown between the simulations and the experimental validation results. (shrink)
This study introduces destination image, nostalgic feeling, and flow experience into tea estate tourism and constructs a theoretical model that includes destination image, nostalgic feeling, flow experience, cultural identity, and tourists’ behavioral intention. Then, an empirical study is conducted with tourists at Yunling Tea Estate in Anxi, China. The results show that all hypotheses are supported except the hypothesis pertaining to the significance of the influence of flow experience on behavioral intention, which is not supported. The model includes eight mediating (...) effects and one moderating effect that is influenced by cultural memory. (shrink)
With the advent of Complex dynamic systems theory in the field of second language question, the need for suitable CDST compatible methods for the investigation of temporal change in L2 affective variables has been felt more than before. One of the innovative methods for this purpose is latent growth curve modeling, which has recently drawn the attention of SLA scholars. However, the application of this method is still a burgeoning demand in SLA. In response to this demand, the present study (...) provides a review of the conceptualization, significance, and technical features of the implementation of LGCM. In doing so, this review suggests a number of practices via which LGCM has been introduced in SLA. Additionally, some practical implications are provided for SLA researchers to enhance their literacy of LGCM. Finally, future research suggestions for the progress of the use of this method in SLA are discussed. (shrink)
This study employs a holistic and indigenous theoretical model called Whare Tapa Rima to examine the project-based learning experiences of Asian students in a private training establishment, the W institution, at the tertiary level in New Zealand. The analysis shows that Asian students face challenges in their PBL journey in physical, cultural, interconnected emotional and intellectual, social, and spiritual dimensions. Implications from the research analysis may be considered about how to provide better support and international services to Asian students involved (...) in PBL programs worldwide by adopting the responsive, theory-informed framework of the Whare Tapa Rima Model. (shrink)
This study explores corporate financing behavior regarding the company and country-level factors and risks associated with policy-related regulations. The study considers all three categories of risk: geopolitical risk, economic policy uncertainty, and political risk. In addition to this, we investigated how the links between diverse types of financing activities and the policy-related risks associated with them change depending on the type of financing strategy utilized. The study examined quarterly data from 2016Q1 to 2020Q3. EViews 12 is used for data analysis. (...) Findings show financial restrictions, as well as inequities within the sector, have an impact on corporate investment while policy-related risks might impact a company’s financing selections. Compared to equity financing, debt financing is more susceptible to policy-related risk. According to the available information, features at the company and nation levels also impact corporate finance choices. Finally, firms that have little financial resources are more susceptible to the adverse effects of policy-related risk than industrial companies are. Managers, as well as governments, should utilize these insights to design economic strategies that are more successful in the future. (shrink)
Climate change has caused serious threats to global economic development and human well-being, and green finance is a new way to achieve ecological, economic, and social sustainable development, and it also has important theoretical significance and policy value. This study firstly aims to study the impact of green finance on regional carbon intensity. Then, it aims to determine the moderating effect of capital stock per capita on the relationship between green finance and carbon intensity based on moderating effect model as (...) well as to investigate the threshold effect of capital stock per capita on the relationship between green finance and carbon intensity based on threshold effect model. The main conclusions are as follows: Every 1% increase in green finance will lead to a 2% decrease in carbon intensity, and the inhibition of green finance on carbon intensity is most obvious in northeast and east China. The capital stock per capita has a significant moderating effect, which could enhance the restraining effect of green financial development on carbon intensity, and this moderating effect is most obvious in northeast China. The capital stock per capita has a threshold effect in the process of green finance development to suppress carbon intensity. The higher the capital stock per capita, the stronger the inhibition effect of green finance development on carbon intensity. Therefore, in the process of capital accumulation, attention should be paid to improve the relevant legal system and policy guarantee, optimization of financial structure, and stimulation of the capital allocation effect of green finance. Simultaneously, in order to strengthen the inhibitory effect of green finance on carbon intensity, differentiated green finance development policies should be formulated based on factor endowment structure and comparative advantages of different regions. (shrink)
Although research in the feedback-seeking behavior literature has primarily focused on feedback-seeking from supervisors, some emerging works have begun to explore the benefits of coworker feedback-seeking behavior. Based on the social exchange theory, we investigated how and when seeking feedback from coworkers will benefit the seekers. Using a sample of 327 teachers from China, we find that seeking feedback from coworkers is positively associated with task performance and workplace well-being. Seeking feedback from coworkers is also positively associated with coworker relationship. (...) Moreover, the coworker relationship mediates the effects of seeking feedback from coworkers and task performance and workplace well-being, and moderates the strength of the relationship between seeking feedback from coworkers on task performance and workplace well-being. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed. (shrink)
This book analyzes the ways in which authoritarian political culture performs functions similar to democratic political culture, using contemporary Chinese politics as a case study. Through an examination of the legitimating and engaging values of Confucianism, the author analyzes how these values influence everyday political engagement, perceptions and practices of “rule of law,” political deliberation, and official discourse of the Chinese Communist Party.
The policy of government procurement of elderly care services has the vulnerability characteristics that all complex systems have. To maintain the policy’s robustness, this paper studies the vulnerability of government procurement of elderly care services from the perspective of complex network. Case analysis and sample statistics are used to obtain the vulnerability influencing factors of the policy. Then, complex network diagram of vulnerability influencing factors is constructed through Pajek software. The compatibility coefficient is used to investigate the network’s overall vulnerability (...) from a macro perspective. From a micro perspective, a vulnerability index of the complex network is applied to measure each node’s vulnerability value, and the vulnerability priority of the nodes is established. Results show that government purchasing power and supervisory bodies’ diversity are at the first priority. The remaining vulnerability influencing factors are at the second and the third priority. (shrink)
A central theme in western philosophy was to find formal methods that can reliably discover empirical relationships and their explanations from data assembled from experience. As a philosophical project, that ambition was abandoned in the 20th century and generally dismissed as impossible. It was replaced in philosophy by neo-Kantian efforts at reconstruction and justification, and in professional statistics by the more limited ambition to estimate a small number of parameters in pre-specified hypotheses. The influx of “big data” from climate science, (...) neuropsychology, biology, astronomy and elsewhere implicitly called for a revival of the grander philosophical ambition. Search algorithms are meeting that call, but they pose a problem: how are their accuracies to be assessed in domains where experimentation is limited or impossible? Increasingly, the answer is through simulation of data from models of the kind of process in the domain. In some cases, these innovations require rethinking how the accuracy and informativeness of inference methods can be assessed. Focusing on causal inference, we give an example from neuroscience, but to show that the model/simulation strategy is not confined to causal inference, we also consider two classification problems from astrophysics: identifying exoplanets and identifying dark matter concentrations. (shrink)
This article assumes that a profession is a number of individuals in the same occupation voluntarily organized to earn a living by openly serving a moral ideal in a morally-permissible way beyond what law, market, morality, and public opinion would otherwise require. Our question is whether the concept of profession may have a far wider range than the term, so that, for example, pointing out that a certain language lacks a word for “profession” in our sense, is not enough to (...) show that those who speak the language also lack the concept. We believe the survey of 71 Chinese reported here begins to answer that question. This article has four parts. The first describes who was interviewed, how, when, and so on. The second describes some important features of the survey’s questions, explaining how the questions track the concept of profession. The third part reports and interprets the results relevant to our question. The forth defends a tentative answer to the question with which we began—arguing the survey supports the claim that China has a profession of engineering. This article should serve as a “proof of concept”, that is, a model for similar studies around the world both of engineering and of other occupations thought to be professions. (shrink)
To clarify the main controlling factors of effective reservoirs in the sandy braided river delta plain, the eighth member of Xiashihezi Formation in the Ct3 area, Ordos Basin, is taken as an example. We describe and analyze approximately 600 cores in detail and correspond the cores on the logging curve. We summarize the logging facies mode suitable for the Ct3 area, and finally investigate the types and spatial distribution characteristics of sedimentary microfacies. The P2h8 member of Ct3 area in Ordos (...) Basin is braided river delta plain subfacies. Sedimentary microfacies are divided into three types: distributary channel, channel bar, and distributary interchannel. The sand body in the h84 of the P2h8 member is the thickest, and the number of channel bar is the largest. All gas reservoirs are developed on the sand body of the channel bar, which is the most favorable microfacies type. Poor gas reservoirs are mostly developed in distributary river channel sand body, whereas gas-bearing reservoirs are undeveloped in distributary interchannel. According to the hydrodynamic conditions and sedimentary mechanism, the channel bar is divided into the bar head, the bar tail, the bar main body, and the bar wing. It is found that 63% of the gas reservoirs in the channel bar are developed in the bar main body, followed by the bar tail. The number of gas reservoirs developed at the bar head and the bar wing is the least. The results found that the most effective reservoirs are developed in the bar main body. Sedimentary microfacies, sand-body thickness, and grain size are the main controlling factors for effective reservoirs. The research results can guide the gas field exploration and later well location deployment in the sedimentary environment similar to the Ct3 area. (shrink)
Drawing on expectancy theory, this study explains how founders’ succession intentions might influence family firms’ environmental environments. Using a nationally representative sample of Chinese private firms, we find that family firms make more environmental investments when founders have succession intentions. We also find that the relationship between founders’ succession intentions and family firms’ environmental investments is negatively moderated by the founders’ subjective social status. Moreover, the results show that, compared with ownership succession intentions, the positive role of founders’ management succession (...) intentions on family firms’ environmental investments is more prominent. This study helps us to better understand the impact of succession intentions on family business decision-making from a psychological perspective. It enriches the research on succession intentions and provides practical implications for family firms’ sustainable development. (shrink)
Using the flexibility of recently developed methods for causal discovery based on Boolean satisfiability solvers, we encode a variety of assumptions that weaken the Faithfulness assumption. The encoding results in a number of SAT-based algorithms whose asymptotic correctness relies on weaker conditions than are standardly assumed. This implementation of a whole set of assumptions in the same platform enables us to systematically explore the effect of weakening the Faithfulness assumption on causal discovery. An important effect, suggested by simulation results, is (...) that adopting weaker assumptions greatly alleviates the problem of conflicting constraints and substantially shortens solving time. As a result, SAT-based causal discovery is potentially more scalable under weaker assumptions. (shrink)