Results for 'Rodney E. Langman'

975 found
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  1. A general account of selection: Biology, immunology, and behavior.David L. Hull, Rodney E. Langman & Sigrid S. Glenn - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):511-528.
    Authors frequently refer to gene-based selection in biological evolution, the reaction of the immune system to antigens, and operant learning as exemplifying selection processes in the same sense of this term. However, as obvious as this claim may seem on the surface, setting out an account of “selection” that is general enough to incorporate all three of these processes without becoming so general as to be vacuous is far from easy. In this target article, we set out such a general (...)
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  2.  65
    At last: Serious consideration.David L. Hull, Rodney E. Langman & Sigrid S. Glenn - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):559-569.
    For a long time, several natural phenomena have been considered unproblematically selection processes in the same sense of “selection.” In our target article we dealt with three of these phenomena: gene-based selection in biological evolution, the reaction of the immune system to antigens, and operant learning. We characterize selection in terms of three processes (variation, replication, and environmental interaction) resulting in the evolution of lineages via differential replication. Our commentators were largely supportive with respect to variation and environmental interaction but (...)
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  3. Commentary on: A general account of selection: Biology, immunology, and behavior. Authors' reply.David L. Hull, Rodney E. Langman, Sigrid S. Glenn & Liane Gabora - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):901-904.
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  4. Multiculturalism and welfare policies in the US states: A state-level comparative analysis.Rodney E. Hero & Robert R. Preuhs - 2006 - In Keith Banting & Will Kymlicka (eds.), Multiculturalism and the Welfare State: Recognition and Redistribution in Contemporary Democracies. Oxford University Press.
  5.  30
    Primitive Classification.E. B., Emile Durkheim, Marcel Mauss & Rodney Needham - 1963 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 83 (2):278.
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  6.  38
    Asymptotic density and computably enumerable sets.Rodney G. Downey, Carl G. Jockusch & Paul E. Schupp - 2013 - Journal of Mathematical Logic 13 (2):1350005.
    We study connections between classical asymptotic density, computability and computable enumerability. In an earlier paper, the second two authors proved that there is a computably enumerable set A of density 1 with no computable subset of density 1. In the current paper, we extend this result in three different ways: The degrees of such sets A are precisely the nonlow c.e. degrees. There is a c.e. set A of density 1 with no computable subset of nonzero density. There is a (...)
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  7.  10
    A general account of selection: Biology, immunology, and behavior-Open Peer Commentary-A single-process learning theory.D. L. Hull, R. E. Langman, S. S. Glenn & M. Blute - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):529-530.
    Many analogies exist between the process of evolution by natural selection and of learning by reinforcement and punishment. A full extension of the evolutionary analogy to learning to include analogues of the fitness, genotype, development, environmental influences, and phenotype concepts makes possible a single theory of the learning process able to encompass all of the elementary procedures known to yield learning.
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  8.  12
    A general account of selection: Biology, immunology, and behavior-Open Peer Commentary-Variations and active versus reactive behavior as factors of the selection processes.D. L. Hull, R. E. Langman, S. S. Glenn & V. S. Rotenberg - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):553-553.
    The interaction of the organism with the environment requires not only reactive, but also active behavior which helps subject to meet the challenge of the uncertainty of the environment. A positive feedback between active behavior and immune system makes the selection process effective.
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  9.  11
    A general account of selection: Biology, immunology, and behavior-Open Peer Commentary-Is operant selectionism coherent?D. L. Hull, R. E. Langman, S. S. Glenn, F. Tonneau & M. B. C. Sokolowski - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):558-558.
    Hull et al.'s analysis of operant behavior in terms of interaction and replication does not seem consistent with a genuine selection model. The putative replicators do not replicate, and the overall process is more reminiscent of directed mutation than of natural selection. General analogies between natural selection and operant reinforcement are too superficial to be of much scientific use.
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  10.  8
    A general account of selection: Biology, immunology, and behavior-Open Peer Commentary-A neural-network interpretation of selection in learning and behavior.D. L. Hull, R. E. Langman, S. S. Glenn & J. E. Burgos - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):531-532.
    In their account of learning and behavior, the authors define an interactor as emitted behavior that operates on the environment, which excludes Pavlovian learning. A unified neural-network account of the operant-Pavlovian dichotomy favors interpreting neurons as interactors and synaptic efficacies as replicators. The latter interpretation implies that single-synapse change is inherently Lamarckian.
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  11.  17
    A general account of selection: Biology, immunology, and behavior-Open Peer Commentary-Activity anorexia: Biological, behavioral, and neural levels of selection.D. L. Hull, R. E. Langman, S. S. Glenn & W. D. Pierce - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):551-551.
    Activity anorexia illustrates selection of behavior at the biological, behavioral, and neural levels. Based on evolutionary history, food depletion increases the reinforcement value of physical activity that, in turn, decreases the reinforcement effectiveness of eating – resulting in activity anorexia. Neural opiates participate in the selection of physical activity during periods of food depletion.
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  12.  12
    A general account of selection: Biology, immunology, and behavior-Open Peer Commentary-Operant learning and selectionism: Risks and benefits of seeking interdisciplinary parallels.D. L. Hull, R. E. Langman, S. S. Glenn & R. W. Malott - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):544-544.
    Seeking parallels among disciplines can have both risks and benefits. Finding parallels may be a vacuous exercise in categorization, generating no new insights. And pointing to analogous functions may cause us to treat them as homologous. Hull et al. have provided a basis for the generation of insights in different selectionist areas, without confusing analogy with homology.
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  13.  14
    Overall self‐rated health: a new quality indicator for primary care.James E. Rohrer, Rodney Young, Virginia Sicola & Margaret Houston - 2007 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (1):150-153.
  14.  21
    Overall self‐rated health as an outcome indicator in primary care.James E. Rohrer, Ahmed Arif, Anne Denison, Rodney Young & Steve Adamson - 2007 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (6):882-888.
  15.  6
    Owning an Older, No-Longer-New, Used Car.Rodney Evans - 2020 - Phenomenology and Practice 15 (2):52-72.
    In his highly insightful and wide-ranging rebuttal article “Doing Phenomenology on the Things,” van Manen makes the important claim that “the mission of modern phenomenology transcends foundational and exegetical philosophical theorizing”. I take this claim seriously and put forward this article as an exercise in practical lifeworld phenomenological reflection. By lifeworld I refer to the environing world in which we are enmeshed and in which we live and breathe and have our being; it penetrates our awareness of things while at (...)
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  16.  27
    Schnorr Randomness.Rodney G. Downey & Evan J. Griffiths - 2004 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 69 (2):533 - 554.
    Schnorr randomness is a notion of algorithmic randomness for real numbers closely related to Martin-Löf randomness. After its initial development in the 1970s the notion received considerably less attention than Martin-Löf randomness, but recently interest has increased in a range of randomness concepts. In this article, we explore the properties of Schnorr random reals, and in particular the c.e. Schnorr random reals. We show that there are c.e. reals that are Schnorr random but not Martin-Löf random, and provide a new (...)
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  17.  24
    The Accounting Profession: Substantive Change and/or Image Management.Rodney K. Rogers, Jesse Dillard & Kristi Yuthas - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 58 (1-3):159-176.
    . The accounting profession’s image and reputation is built upon the members of the profession acting with the “highest sense of integrity” in “the public interest” (AICPA, 2003, www.aicpa.org/about). The Enron debacle initiated the latest crisis facing the profession regarding its image and reputation. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) is the largest professional body representing the accounting profession and the one to which regulators have looked in establishing and upholding professional standards relating to the public practice of (...)
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  18.  29
    Countable thin Π01 classes.Douglas Cenzer, Rodney Downey, Carl Jockusch & Richard A. Shore - 1993 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 59 (2):79-139.
    Cenzer, D., R. Downey, C. Jockusch and R.A. Shore, Countable thin Π01 classes, Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 59 79–139. A Π01 class P {0, 1}ω is thin if every Π01 subclass of P is the intersection of P with some clopen set. Countable thin Π01 classes are constructed having arbitrary recursive Cantor- Bendixson rank. A thin Π01 class P is constructed with a unique nonisolated point A and furthermore A is of degree 0’. It is shown that no (...)
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  19.  53
    Learning to coordinate behaviors.Rodney A. Brooks - unknown
    We describe an algorithm which allows a behavior-based robot to learn on the basis of positive and negative feedback when to activate its behaviors. In accordance with the philosophy of behavior-based robots, the algorithm is completely distributed: each of the behaviors independently tries to find out (i) whether it is relevant (ie. whether it is at all correlated to positive feedback) and (ii) what the conditions are under which it becomes reliable (i.e. the conditions under which i t maximizes the (...)
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  20.  25
    The Idea of an Age of Majority.Rodney C. Roberts - 2017 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (2):217-225.
    This paper gives a brief history of the idea of an age of majority and argues that no age of majority should exceed the fighting age, i.e., the age at which a person becomes eligible to serve in a military unit. Several objections to the proposed constraint on ages of majority are raised and answered.
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  21.  26
    The Idea of an Age of Majority.Rodney C. Roberts - 2017 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (2):217-225.
    This paper gives a brief history of the idea of an age of majority and argues that no age of majority should exceed the fighting age, i.e., the age at which a person becomes eligible to serve in a military unit. Several objections to the proposed constraint on ages of majority are raised and answered.
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  22. Decomposition and infima in the computably enumerable degrees.Rodney G. Downey, Geoffrey L. Laforte & Richard A. Shore - 2003 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 68 (2):551-579.
    Given two incomparable c.e. Turing degrees a and b, we show that there exists a c.e. degree c such that c = (a ⋃ c) ⋂ (b ⋃ c), a ⋃ c | b ⋃ c, and c < a ⋃ b.
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  23.  67
    The role of learning in autonomous robots.Rodney A. Brooks - unknown
    Applications of learning to autonomous agents (simulated or real) have often been restricted to learning a mapping from perceived state of the world to the next action to take. Often this is couched in terms of learning from no previous knowledge. This general case for real autonomous robots is very difficult. In any case, when building a real robot there is usually a lot of a priori knowledge (e.g., from the engineering that went into its design) which doesn’t need to (...)
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  24.  19
    Degrees containing members of thin Π10 classes are dense and co-dense.Rodney G. Downey, Guohua Wu & Yue Yang - 2018 - Journal of Mathematical Logic 18 (1):1850001.
    In [Countable thin [Formula: see text] classes, Ann. Pure Appl. Logic 59 79–139], Cenzer, Downey, Jockusch and Shore proved the density of degrees containing members of countable thin [Formula: see text] classes. In the same paper, Cenzer et al. also proved the existence of degrees containing no members of thin [Formula: see text] classes. We will prove in this paper that the c.e. degrees containing no members of thin [Formula: see text] classes are dense in the c.e. degrees. We will (...)
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  25.  32
    There is no plus-capping degree.Rodney G. Downey & Steffen Lempp - 1994 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 33 (2):109-119.
    Answering a question of Per Lindström, we show that there is no “plus-capping” degree, i.e. that for any incomplete r.e. degreew, there is an incomplete r.e. degreea>w such that there is no r.e. degreev>w witha∩v=w.
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  26.  13
    The New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy: Phenomenology of Emotions, Systematical and Historical Perspectives.Rodney K. B. Parker & Ignacio Quepons - 2018 - Routledge.
    Volume XVI Phenomenology of Emotions, Systematical and Historical Perspectives Aim and Scope: The New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy provides an annual international forum for phenomenological research in the spirit of Husserl's groundbreaking work and the extension of this work by such figures as Scheler, Heidegger, Sartre, Levinas, Merleau-Ponty and Gadamer. Contributors: Esteban Marín Ávila, Thiemo Breyer, Jakub Čapek, Mariano Crespo, Roberta De Monticelli, John J. Drummond, Søren Engelsen, Maria Gyemant, Mirja Hartimo, Elisa Magrì, Ronny Miron, Anthony J. Steinbock, (...)
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  27.  53
    The U.S. War in Iraq, Just War Theory and Neoconservatism.Rodney G. Peffer - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 40:115-151.
    Given certain well-known empirical facts–including the Bush II administration’s motivations and its actions initiating the war – the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003 (and its continuing war of occupation) is not just (i.e., is not morally justified), on any standard interpretation of Just War Theory criteria for jus ad bellum. Since there was no imminent threat of attack by Iraq against the U.S., the U.S. invasion of Iraq was a Preventative or Merely Precautionary War (which is notrecognized by either (...)
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  28.  41
    Book Review Section 1. [REVIEW]Theodore Brameld, Midori Matsuyama, Harvey Neufeldt, Lois M. R. Louden, Margaret Gillett, Don Adams, Theodore Hutchcroft, William T. Lowe, Rodney P. Riegle, Timothy J. Bergen Jr, Charles R. Schindler, Gerald L. Gutek, William E. Eaton, Gertrude Langsam, John F. Murphy, Paul D. Travers, Charles M. Dye, Natalie A. Naylor & Richard Edward Kelly - 1977 - Educational Studies 8 (4):395-437.
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  29.  24
    Book Review Section 3. [REVIEW]John R. Thelin, Thomas R. Mcdaniel, Bruce Beezer, Joseph Watras, Sally Schumacher, Jennings L. Wagoner Jr, James M. Giarelli, Rodney P. Riegle, Richard Labrecque, Robert E. Roemer, John Martin Rich, John R. Palmer, Scott Enright & David Bensman - 1982 - Educational Studies: A Jrnl of the American Educ. Studies Assoc 13 (3&4):442-500.
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  30.  71
    The complexity of orbits of computably enumerable sets.Peter A. Cholak, Rodney Downey & Leo A. Harrington - 2008 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 14 (1):69 - 87.
    The goal of this paper is to announce there is a single orbit of the c.e. sets with inclusion, ε, such that the question of membership in this orbit is ${\Sigma _1^1 }$ -complete. This result and proof have a number of nice corollaries: the Scott rank of ε is $\omega _1^{{\rm{CK}}}$ + 1; not all orbits are elementarily definable; there is no arithmetic description of all orbits of ε; for all finite α ≥ 9, there is a properly $\Delta (...)
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  31.  36
    Rodney E. hero, racial diversity and social capital: Equality and community in America. [REVIEW]Jason D. Grinnell - 2009 - Journal of Value Inquiry 43 (4):547-550.
  32. Perception and the external world.Rodney Julian Hirst - 1965 - New York,: Macmillan.
  33.  14
    Algorithms: a top-down approach.Rodney R. Howell - 2023 - New Jersey: World Scientific.
    This comprehensive compendium provides a rigorous framework to tackle the daunting challenges of designing correct and efficient algorithms. It gives a uniform approach to the design, analysis, optimization, and verification of algorithms. The volume also provides essential tools to understand algorithms and their associated data structures. This useful reference text describes a way of thinking that eases the task of proving algorithm correctness. Working through a proof of correctness reveals an algorithm's subtleties in a way that a typical description does (...)
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  34.  12
    Good and evil in the garden of democracy.Rodney Wallace Kennedy - 2023 - Eugene, Oregon: Cascade Books.
    Democracy faces threats from an emerging right-wing movement in democratic governments around the world. This may be even more prevalent in the United States because there is an evil that uses rhetorical tropes to undermine the anchor institutions of democracy: press, courts, universities, and Congress. This evil has a personification--former President Donald Trump. All the rhetorical critiques of Trump, that he is a demagogue, an authoritarian, a serial liar, a populist on steroids, fail to take into account the evil that (...)
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  35.  12
    For and against Abelard: the invective of Bernard of Clairvaux and Berengar of Poitiers.Rodney M. Thomson & Michael Winterbottom (eds.) - 2020 - Rochester, NY, USA: The Boydell Press.
    The late eleventh and twelfth centuries were Europe's first age of pamphlet warfare, of invective and satire. The perceived failure, or at least hypocrisy, of its new institutions-the new monastic orders and the reformed papacy-gave rise to the phenomenon, and it was shaped by the study of grammar and rhetoric in the new Schools. The central figures in the texts in the present book are Bernard of Clairvaux, the powerful ostensible founder of the Cistercian order, and the popular and influential (...)
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  36.  87
    Knowledge on the horizon: A phenomenological inquiry into the “framing” of Rodney King.Ian Gerrie - 2006 - Human Studies 29 (3):295-315.
    Using the 1991 police beating of Rodney King as case study, this paper draws on Husserlian phenomenology to establish a coherentist account of knowledge as situated with respect to its concrete circumstances of production (e.g., social, cultural, historical, political). I take as my point of departure Gail Weiss's phenomenological investigation into the jury's assessment of evidence in the "Rodney King incident," and in particular, her interest in Husserl's conception of the "horizon" as a structure of consciousness that mediates (...)
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  37. Intelligence without representation.Rodney A. Brooks - 1991 - Artificial Intelligence 47 (1--3):139-159.
    Artificial intelligence research has foundered on the issue of representation. When intelligence is approached in an incremental manner, with strict reliance on interfacing to the real world through perception and action, reliance on representation disappears. In this paper we outline our approach to incrementally building complete intelligent Creatures. The fundamental decomposition of the intelligent system is not into independent information processing units which must interface with each other via representations. Instead, the intelligent system is decomposed into independent and parallel activity (...)
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  38.  11
    Circumstantial Deliveries.Rodney Needham & Fellow of All Souls Professor of Social Anthropology Rodney Needham - 1981 - Univ of California Press.
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  39.  8
    Environmental humanities and the uncanny: ecoculture, literature and religion.Rodney James Giblett - 2019 - New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
    The uncanniness of Freud's uncanny -- Alligators, crocodiles and the monstrous uncanny -- The uncanny urban underside -- The uncanniness of Schelling's uncanny -- The uncanny and the work of Walter Benjamin -- The uncanny cyborg -- The uncanny and the fictional -- The uncanny and the modern adult literary fairy tale -- The uncanny and the gothic vampire romance -- The uncanny and the detective story -- The uncanny and the weird horror story -- The uncanny and the dystopian (...)
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  40.  23
    After modernity: archaeological approaches to the contemporary past.Rodney Harrison - 2010 - Oxford: Oxford University Press. Edited by A. J. Schofield.
    After Modernity summarizes archaeological approaches to the contemporary past, and suggests a new agenda for the archaeology of late modern societies.
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  41. World Heritage Listing and the Globalization of the Endangerment Sensibility.Rodney Harrison - 2015 - In Fernando Vidal & Nélia Dias (eds.), Endangerment, biodiversity and culture. New York, NY: Routledge, is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business.
     
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  42.  52
    The emergence of private authority in global governance.Rodney Bruce Hall & Thomas J. Biersteker (eds.) - 2002 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    The emergence of private authority has become a feature of the post-Cold War world. The contributors to this volume examine the implications of this erosion of the power of the state for global governance. They analyse actors as diverse as financial institutions, multinational corporations, religious terrorists and organised criminals. The themes of the book relate directly to debates concerning globalization and the role of international law, and will be of interest to scholars and students of international relations, politics, sociology and (...)
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  43. Chapter Three The Bowie Business: Capitalising on Subversion? Rodney Sharkey.Rodney Sharkey - 2007 - In John Wall (ed.), Music, Metamorphosis and Capitalism: Self, Poetics and Politics. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 33.
     
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  44.  33
    Belief, language, and experience.Rodney Needham - 1972 - Oxford,: Blackwell.
  45.  4
    Scratching the surface.Rodney Harrison - 2013 - In Alfredo González Ruibal (ed.), Reclaiming archaeology: beyond the tropes of modernity. N.Y.: Routledge. pp. 44.
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  46.  33
    Hauntings, homeopathy, and the Hopkinsville Goblins: using pseudoscience to teach scientific thinking.Rodney Schmaltz & Scott O. Lilienfeld - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  47.  41
    Ethnomethodology, consciousness and self.Rodney Watson - 1998 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 5 (2):202-223.
    In this paper I shall outline the approach to consciousness adopted by ethnomethodology and its `associate'conversation analysis. I shall attempt to do this by taking a minimalist stance, namely a basic formulation of the elements of these approaches, trying to strip away the ornate superstructures which have been erected upon that basis. I shall proceed in two ways. First, I shall seek to define ethnomethodology and conversation analysis by contrasting them to varying degrees with a variety of other approaches: symbolic (...)
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  48.  12
    Economics, ethics, and religion: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim economic thought.Rodney Wilson - 1997 - New York: New York University Press.
    "Written in a racy, persuasive style, the book impresses the reader as a work of significant scholarship...I encourage students of comparative religions- and especially those of Islamic economics- to read it with great care."&$151; Islamic Studies The worlds of economics and theology rarely intersect. The former appears occupied exclusively with the concrete equations of supply and demand, while the latter revolves largely around the less tangible concerns of the soul and spirit. Intended as an interfaith clarification of the relationship between (...)
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  49.  39
    Exploring the Ethics and Economics of Global Labor Standards.Rodney Stevenson - 2003 - Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (2):193-220.
    The challenge that confronts corporate decision-makers in connection with global labor conditions is often in identifying the standardsby which they should govern themselves. In an effort to provide greater direction in the face of possible global cultural conflicts, ethicistsThomas Donaldson and Thomas Dunfee draw on social contract theory to develop a method for identifying basic human rights: Integrated Social Contract Theory (ISCT). In this paper, we apply ISCT to the challenge of global labor standards, attempting to identify labor rights that (...)
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  50.  48
    History and Class-Consciousness: Studies in Marxist Dialectics.Rodney Livingstone - 1974 - Philosophical Review 83 (3):419-424.
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