Results for 'Roberta Colonna Dahlman'

952 found
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  1.  72
    Did People in the Middle Ages Know That the Earth Was Flat?Roberta Colonna Dahlman - 2016 - Acta Analytica 31 (2):139-152.
    The goal of this paper is to explore the presuppositionality of factive verbs, with special emphasis on the verbs know and regret. The hypothesis put forward here is that the factivity related to know and the factivity related to regret are two different phenomena, as the former is a semantic implication that is licensed by the conventional meaning of know, while the latter is a purely pragmatic phenomenon that arises conversationally. More specifically, it is argued that know is factive in (...)
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  2.  65
    Conversational Implicatures Are Still Cancellable.Roberta Colonna Dahlman - 2013 - Acta Analytica 28 (3):321-327.
    Is it true that all conversational implicatures are cancellable? In some recent works (Weiner Analysis 66(2):127–130, 2004, followed by Blome-Tillmann Analysis 68(2):156–160, 2008 and, most recently, by Hazlett 2012), the property of cancellability that, according to Grice (1989), conversational implicatures must possess has been called into question. The aim of this article is to show that the cases on which Weiner builds his argument—the Train Case and the Sex Pistols Case— do not really suffice to endanger Grice’s Cancellability Hypothesis. What (...)
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  3.  7
    The Non-saying of What Should Have Been Said.Roberta Colonna Dahlman - forthcoming - Acta Analytica.
    According to Grice’s analysis, conversational implicatures are carried by the saying of what is said. In this paper, it is argued that, whenever a speaker implicates a content by flouting one or several maxims, her implicature is not only carried by the act of saying what is said and the way of saying it, but also by the act of non-saying what should have been said according to what would have been normal to say in that particular context. Implicatures that (...)
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  4.  59
    Roberta Dreon (Università degli Studi di Venezia) Merleau-Ponty. una concezione non soggettocentrica dell’empatia?Roberta Dreon - 2012 - Chiasmi International 14:439-449.
    Merleau-Ponty. Une conception de l’empathie non centrée sur le sujet?Cet article étudie l’émergence du terme « empathie » dans les textes de Merleau-Ponty. Il souligne que le concept n’est pas avant tout présenté comme une catégorie épistémologique, remettant en question si et comment nous pouvons éventuellement connaître les autres. Au contraire, il est conçu comme une catégorie ontologique, pour dire notre appartenance à une nature commune. De ce point de vue, il propose une façon sensible pour comprendre les autres, basée (...)
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  5.  11
    Roberta Dreon (Università degli Studi di Venezia) Merleau-Ponty. una concezione non soggettocentrica dell’empatia?Roberta Dreon - 2012 - Chiasmi International 14:439-449.
    Merleau-Ponty. Une conception de l’empathie non centrée sur le sujet?Cet article étudie l’émergence du terme « empathie » dans les textes de Merleau-Ponty. Il souligne que le concept n’est pas avant tout présenté comme une catégorie épistémologique, remettant en question si et comment nous pouvons éventuellement connaître les autres. Au contraire, il est conçu comme une catégorie ontologique, pour dire notre appartenance à une nature commune. De ce point de vue, il propose une façon sensible pour comprendre les autres, basée (...)
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  6.  1
    Book Review: Roberta Piazza, Louann Haarman and Anne Carbon (Eds), Values and Choices in Television Discourse: A View From Both Sides of the Screen. [REVIEW]Roberta Facchinetti - 2017 - Discourse and Communication 11 (4):433-436.
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  7. L'homme de Génie, Tr. Par F. Colonna d'Istria Et M. Calderini.Cesare Lombroso & Fr Colonna D'istria - 1896
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  8. Lynn Hershman and the Creation of Multiple Robertas.Roberta Mock - 2012 - In Susan Broadhurst & Josephine Machon (eds.), Identity, Performance and Technology: Practices of Empowerment, Embodiment and Technicity. Palgrave-Macmillan.
     
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  9.  32
    Robert R. Clewis, Kant’s Humorous Writings. An Illustrated Guide London and New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2021 Pp. Xxiv + 256 ISBN 9781350112780 (Hbk), $68.00. [REVIEW]Roberta Pasquarè - 2022 - Kantian Review 27 (2):323-326.
  10. The Ethics of Genetic Engineering.Roberta M. Berry - 2007 - Routledge.
    Human genetic engineering may soon be possible. The gathering debate about this prospect already threatens to become mired in irresolvable disagreement. After surveying the scientific and technological developments that have brought us to this pass, _The Ethics of Genetic Engineering_ focuses on the ethical and policy debate, noting the deep divide that separates proponents and opponents. The book locates the source of this divide in differing framing assumptions: reductionist pluralist on one side, holist communitarian on the other. The book argues (...)
     
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  11.  98
    Exploring RoBERTa's Theory of Mind Through Textual Entailment.Michael Cohen - manuscript
    Within psychology, philosophy, and cognitive science, theory of mind refers to the cognitive ability to reason about the mental states of other people, thus recognizing them as having beliefs, knowledge, intentions and emotions of their own. In this project, we construct a natural language inference (NLD) dataset that tests the ability of a state of the art language model, RoBERTa-large finetuned on the MNLI dataset, to make theory of mind inferences related to knowledge and belief. Experimental results suggest that (...)
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  12.  33
    Sex Cells: Gender and the Language of Bacterial Genetics. [REVIEW]Roberta Bivins - 2000 - Journal of the History of Biology 33 (1):113 - 139.
    Between 1946 and 1960, a new phenomenon emerged in the field of bacteriology. "Bacterial sex," as it was called, revolutionized the study of genetics, largely by making available a whole new class of cheap, fast-growing, and easily manipulated organisms. But what was "bacterial sex?" How could single-celled organisms have "sex" or even be sexually differentiated? The technical language used in the scientific press -- the public and inalienable face of 20th century science -- to describe this apparently neuter organism was (...)
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  13.  10
    Nurse Moral Disengagement.Roberta Fida, Carlo Tramontano, Marinella Paciello, Mari Kangasniemi, Alessandro Sili, Andrea Bobbio & Claudio Barbaranelli - 2016 - Nursing Ethics 23 (5):547-564.
    Background:Ethics is a founding component of the nursing profession; however, nurses sometimes find it difficult to constantly adhere to the required ethical standards. There is limited knowledge about the factors that cause a committed nurse to violate standards; moral disengagement, originally developed by Bandura, is an essential variable to consider.Research objectives:This study aimed at developing and validating a nursing moral disengagement scale and investigated how moral disengagement is associated with counterproductive and citizenship behaviour at work.Research design:The research comprised a qualitative (...)
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  14. An Introduction to the Thought of Karl Popper.Roberta Corvi - 1996 - Routledge.
    This is a comprehensive introduction to the philosophical and political thought of Karl Popper, now available in English. It is divided into three parts; the first part provides a biography of Popper; the second part looks at his works and recurrent themes, and the third part assesses his critics. It was approved of by Popper himself as a sympathetic and comprehensive study, and will be ideal to meet the increasing demand for a summary introduction to his work.
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  15.  11
    Understanding the Interplay Among Regulatory Self-Efficacy, Moral Disengagement, and Academic Cheating Behaviour During Vocational Education: A Three-Wave Study.Roberta Fida, Carlo Tramontano, Marinella Paciello, Valerio Ghezzi & Claudio Barbaranelli - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 153 (3):725-740.
    The literature has suggested that to understand the diffusion of unethical conduct in the workplace, it is important to investigate the underlying processes sustaining engagement in misbehaviour and to study what occurs during vocational education. Drawing on social-cognitive theory, in this study, we longitudinally examined the role of two opposite dimensions of the self-regulatory moral system, regulatory self-efficacy and moral disengagement, in influencing academic cheating behaviour. In addition, in line with the theories highlighting the bidirectional relationship between cognitive processes and (...)
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  16.  24
    A Food Politics of the Possible? Growing Sustainable Food Systems Through Networks of Knowledge.Alison Blay-Palmer, Roberta Sonnino & Julien Custot - 2016 - Agriculture and Human Values 33 (1):27-43.
    There is increased recognition of a common suite of global challenges that hamper food system sustainability at the community scale. Food price volatility, shortages of basic commodities, increased global rates of obesity and non-communicable food-related diseases, and land grabbing are among the impediments to socially just, economically robust, ecologically regenerative and politically inclusive food systems. While international political initiatives taken in response to these challenges and the groundswell of local alternatives emerging in response to challenges are well documented, more attention (...)
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  17.  46
    An Introduction to the Thought of Karl Popper.Roberta Corvi - 1996 - Routledge.
    This is a comprehensive introduction to the philosophical and political thought of Karl Popper, now available in English. It is divided into three parts; the first part provides a biography of Popper; the second part looks at his works and recurrent themes, and the third part assesses his critics. It was approved of by Popper himself as a sympathetic and comprehensive study, and will be ideal to meet the increasing demand for a summary introduction to his work.
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  18.  1
    Charles S. Peirce's Method of Methods.Roberta Kevelson - 1987 - John Benjamins Publishing.
    In all disciplines there are specifiable basic concepts, our universes of discourse, which define special areas of inquiry. Semiotics is that 'science of sciences' which inquires into all processes of inquiry, and which seeks to discover methods of inquiry. Peirce held that semiotics was to be the method of methods. An account of semiotic method should distinguish between the way the term 'sign' is used in semiotics and the various ways this term was meant in nearly all the traditional disciplines. (...)
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  19.  13
    Argument Types and Fallacies in Legal Argumentation.Christian Dahlman & Thomas Bustamante - unknown
    In this chapter, we offer a Bayesian model for evaluating expert testimony in the court room. Statements from a putative expert are difficult for a legal decision maker to assess, as the legal decision maker – who lacks expert knowledge on the subject issue – must distinguish between experts that are highly reliable and experts that are less reliable. A methodology for the assessment of the expert testimony has been suggested previously, in the works of Walton and Goldman, and we (...)
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  20. The Perils of Primitivism: Takashi Yagisawa's Worlds and Individuals, Possible and Otherwise.Roberta Ballarin - 2011 - Analytic Philosophy 52 (4):273-282.
    This paper centers on Takashi Yagisawa’s book Worlds and Individuals, Possible and Otherwise (Oxford: 2010), which provides a novel and systematic analysis of modality and time. I consider the overall structure of Yagisawa’s treatment of modality and time, and discuss in detail the following three topics: (i) Possible worlds as modal indices, (ii) Trans-world identity, (iii) The claim that existence, unlike reality, is relative. My main conclusion is that Yagisawa's view of modality is driven by a strong primitivism, leading to (...)
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  21. Natural Selection as a Population-Level Causal Process.Roberta L. Millstein - 2006 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (4):627-653.
    Recent discussions in the philosophy of biology have brought into question some fundamental assumptions regarding evolutionary processes, natural selection in particular. Some authors argue that natural selection is nothing but a population-level, statistical consequence of lower-level events (Matthen and Ariew [2002]; Walsh et al. [2002]). On this view, natural selection itself does not involve forces. Other authors reject this purely statistical, population-level account for an individual-level, causal account of natural selection (Bouchard and Rosenberg [2004]). I argue that each of these (...)
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  22.  8
    Zum analytischen und synthetischen Moment in Kants Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten.Roberta Pasquarè - manuscript
    Vortragstext für die VI. Tagung für Praktische Philosophie Universität Salzburg 27. & 28. September 2018.
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  23.  70
    Gender and Archaeology: Contesting the Past.Roberta Gilchrist - 1999 - Routledge.
    Is gender determined by biology, society or experience? How have notions of gender and sexuality differed in past societies? Addressing such questions, Gender and Archaeology is the first critical introduction to the field of gender archaeology as it has evolved over the last two decades. It examines the impact of feminist perspectives on archaeology and shows the unique insights that gender archaeology offers on topics like the sexual division of labor, issues of sexuality, and the embodiment of gender identity. A (...)
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  24.  9
    Peirce and the Mark of the Gryphon.Roberta Kevelson - 1999 - St. Martin's Press.
    The late (1931-98) Kevelson (philosophy, College of William and Mary) drew from the unpublished manuscripts of American semiotician Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914) to explore how he conceived of the evolution of thought from instinct and imagination as expressed in myth, to ideas that are exchangeable units of meaning. Her study characterizes his cosmology as open-ended, non-finite, and self-organizing.
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  25.  3
    The Reasons of the Unreasonable: Is Political Liberalism Still an Option?Benedetta Giovanola & Roberta Sala - forthcoming - Sage Publications Ltd: Philosophy and Social Criticism.
    Philosophy & Social Criticism, Ahead of Print. In this study, we claim that political liberalism, despite harsh criticism, is still the best option available for providing a just and stable society. However, we maintain that political liberalism needs to be revised so as to be justifiable from the perspective of not only the “reasonable” in a Rawlsian sense but also the ones whom Rawls labels as “unreasonable.” To support our claim, going beyond Rawls’s original account, we unpack the concept of (...)
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  26. Christian Dahlman's Reflections on the Basic Norm.Stanley Paulson - 2005 - Archiv für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie 91 (1):96-108.
    In his introductory section, Christian Dahlman points to various “absurdities” or “self-contradictions” generated by the basic norm. I adduce arguments showing that these “absurdities” or “self-contradictions” do not arise - not, at any rate, from Dahlman's premises. In his central section, Dahlman sets out three purported problems and claims to resolve them by appeal to one or another of the “three basic norms” that he adumbrates. None of these problems is resolved by Dahlman. Specifically, I adduce (...)
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  27.  25
    An Integrative Approach to Understanding Counterproductive Work Behavior: The Roles of Stressors, Negative Emotions, and Moral Disengagement.Roberta Fida, Marinella Paciello, Carlo Tramontano, Reid Griffith Fontaine, Claudio Barbaranelli & Maria Luisa Farnese - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 130 (1):131-144.
    Several scholars have highlighted the importance of examining moral disengagement in understanding aggression and deviant conduct across different contexts. The present study investigates the role of MD as a specific social-cognitive construct that, in the organizational context, may intervene in the process leading from stressors to counterproductive work behavior. Assuming the theoretical framework of the stressor-emotion model of CWB, we hypothesized that MD mediates, at least partially, the relation between negative emotions in reaction to perceived stressors and CWB by promoting (...)
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  28.  15
    Christian Dahlman and Eveline Feteris .Legal Argumentation Theory: Cross Disciplinary Perspectives. [REVIEW]Janice Schuetz - 2014 - Journal of Argumentation in Context 3 (2):219-223.
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  29.  73
    Taking Stock of Accounting Ethics Scholarship: A Review of the Journal Literature. [REVIEW]Roberta Bampton & Christopher J. Cowton - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 114 (3):549-563.
    The proportion of business ethics literature devoted to accounting and the proportion of academic accounting literature devoted to ethical issues are both small, yet over the past two decades there has been a steady accumulation of research devoted to ethical issues in accounting. Based on a database of more than 500 articles gathered from a wide range of accounting and business ethics academic journals, this paper describes and analyses the characteristics of what has been published in the past 20 years (...)
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  30.  32
    Framing Cognition: Dewey’s Potential Contributions to Some Enactivist Issues.Roberta Dreon - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 1):485-506.
    It is well known that John Dewey was very far from embracing the traditional idea of cognition as something happening inside one’s own mind and consisting in a pictorial representation of the alleged purely external reality out there. His position was largely convergent with enactivist accounts of cognition as something based in life and consisting in human actions within a natural environment. The paper considers Dewey’s conception of cognition by focusing on its potential contributions to the current debate with enactivism. (...)
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  31. Are Random Drift and Natural Selection Conceptually Distinct?Roberta L. Millstein - 2002 - Biology and Philosophy 17 (1):33-53.
    The latter half of the twentieth century has been marked by debates in evolutionary biology over the relative significance of natural selection and random drift: the so-called “neutralist/selectionist” debates. Yet John Beatty has argued that it is difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish the concept of random drift from the concept of natural selection, a claim that has been accepted by many philosophers of biology. If this claim is correct, then the neutralist/selectionist debates seem at best futile, and at worst, (...)
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  32.  3
    L’autolegislazione della ragione come principio regolatore dell’autodisciplina discorsiva.Roberta Pasquarè - manuscript
    Conference paper Convegno della Società Italiana di Studi Kantiani "Leggi e regole. Universi ordinati nella filosofia di Kant" Università di Pavia 19-20 Dicembre 2019 -/- .
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  33.  17
    De‐Biasing Legal Fact‐Finders With Bayesian Thinking.Christian Dahlman - 2020 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (4):1115-1131.
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  34. Christian Dahlman's Reflections on the Basic Norm.Stanley L. Paulson - 2005 - Archiv für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie 91 (1):96-108.
    In his introductory section, Christian Dahlman points to various “absurdities” or “self-contradictions” generated by the basic norm. I adduce arguments showing that these “absurdities” or “self-contradictions” do not arise - not, at any rate, from Dahlman's premises. In his central section, Dahlman sets out three purported problems and claims to resolve them by appeal to one or another of the “three basic norms” that he adumbrates. None of these problems is resolved by Dahlman. Specifically, I adduce (...)
     
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  35.  35
    Task-Dependency and Structure-Dependency in Number Interference Effects in Sentence Comprehension.Julie Franck, Saveria Colonna & Luigi Rizzi - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  36.  32
    Embeddedness in Action: Saffron and the Making of the Local in Southern Tuscany. [REVIEW]Roberta Sonnino - 2007 - Agriculture and Human Values 24 (1):61-74.
    Despite the widespread use of the concept of embeddedness in the literature on agri-food networks, not much has been written on the process through which a food economy becomes embedded. To explore this dynamic and contribute to a more critical perspective on the meanings and implications of embeddedness in the context of food, this paper analyzes the emergence of saffron as a local food network in southern Tuscany. By adopting a constructivist approach, the analysis shows that embeddedness assumes simultaneously a (...)
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  37. The Ethics Bowl Way: Answering Questions, Questioning Answers, and Creating Ethical Communities.Roberta Israeloff & Karen Mizell (eds.) - 2022 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Ethics Bowl espouses a new way to engage in discussions about complex ethical issues.
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  38.  1
    Vegetarian Judaism: A Guide for Everyone.Roberta Kalechofsky - 1997 - Micah Publications.
    A timely examination of the problems with meat from a Jewish perspective. Examines the historical Jewish dietary laws, and argues that vegetarianism today best fulfils the requirements of kashrut. Gives reasons for Jewish vegetarianism based on concern for human health, ethical considerations of animal welfare, environmental concerns, concern for poor people, and for the general welfare of the community.
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  39.  71
    Vernunft und Vertrag. Die konservative Wende des Wilhelm von Humboldt.Roberta Pasquarè - 2012 - Würzburg, Deutschland: Königshausen & Neumann.
    Im politischen Denken des Wilhelm von Humboldt findet eine konservative Wende statt: Von den radikalen Freiheitsansprüchen der Frühschriften bleibt in den Denkschriften des späten Staatsmannes kaum noch etwas erhalten. In diesem Band wird Humboldts konservative Wende textimmanent freigelegt, historisch situiert und systematisch ergründet. Insbesondere wird Humboldts Konservatismus auf seine zunehmende Angst vor der Demokratie zurückgeführt, was nach seinem Verständnis das schädliche Ergebnis der neuzeitlichen Vernunftrechts- und Vertragslehre darstellt. Aus diesem Grund wird Humboldts konservative Wende letzthin durch seine bereits in der (...)
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  40.  77
    Populations as Individuals.Roberta L. Millstein - 2009 - Biological Theory 4 (3):267-273.
    Biologists studying ecology and evolution use the term “population” in many different ways. Yet little philosophical analysis of the concept has been done, either by biologists or philosophers, in contrast to the voluminous literature on the concept of “species.” This is in spite of the fact that “population” is arguably a far more central concept in ecological and evolutionary studies than “species” is. The fact that such a central concept has been employed in so many different ways is potentially problematic (...)
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  41. Introduction: Perception Without Representation.Keith Wilson & Roberta Locatelli - 2017 - Topoi 36 (2):197-212.
  42.  29
    Are Liberated Companies a Concrete Application of Sen’s Capability Approach?Roberta Sferrazzo & Renato Ruffini - 2021 - Journal of Business Ethics 170 (2):329-342.
    The capability approach developed by Amartya Sen focuses on the enhancement of people’s capabilities, i.e. their real freedom to choose a life course they have reason to value. Applying the CA to the organizational context, the focus of human resource management is transformed, shifting away from the needs of the organization to the freedoms of the individual. This shift happens also inside the so-called ‘liberated companies,’ firms with an organizational form that allows employees the complete freedom, along with the responsibility, (...)
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  43. On Kant’s Concept of the Public Use of Reason: A Rehabilitation of Orality.Roberta Pasquarè - 2020 - Estudos Kantianos 8 (1):101-110.
    With this paper I intend to rehabilitate the status of orality as medium of the public use of reason in the normative Kantian sense. As a first step, I reconstruct the reasons why Kant rejects the spoken word and designates the written word as the sole medium of public reasoning. As a second step, I argue for the possibility of employing the spoken word as medium of public reasoning while remaining within the normative framework of Kant’s concept of the public (...)
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  44.  15
    Dahlman and Mackor on Coherence and Probability in Legal Evidence.Erik J. Olsson - forthcoming - Law, Probability and Risk.
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  45.  13
    A Pragmatist View of Emotions: Tracing Its Significance for the Current Debate.Roberta Dreon - 2019 - In Laura Candiotto (ed.), The Value of Emotions for Knowledge. Springer Verlag. pp. 73-99.
    This chapter reconstructs the classical pragmatists’ position on human emotions, by assuming an original inquiring approach. It considers James’s, Dewey’s and Mead’s conceptions as contributions to an open theoretical laboratory in which the suggestions and unresolved difficulties presented by James were first discussed and developed by Dewey and then, immediately afterward, reconsidered and further articulated by Mead. At the same time, the paper develops a constant comparison with current contributions on this subject, coming from the most advanced trends in so-called (...)
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  46.  6
    Formal Ontology in Information Systems. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference (FOIS 2016).Roberta Ferrario & Werner Kuhn (eds.) - 2016 - Amsterdam: IOS Pres.
    This volume collects the papers presented at the 9th edition of the Formal Ontology in Information Systems conference, FOIS 2016, held July 6–9, 2016, in Annecy, France. As in the previous editions, FOIS 2016 included keynote addresses, full paper presentations, an Ontology Competition, an Early Career Symposium in its scientific program and was preceded by the Interdisciplinary Summer School on Ontological Analysis, now at its third edition and held June 27–July 1 in Bolzano-Bozen, Italy.
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  47.  99
    Thinking About Populations and Races in Time.Roberta L. Millstein - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 52:5-11.
    Biologists and philosophers have offered differing concepts of biological race. That is, they have offered different candidates for what a biological correlate of race might be; for example, races might be subspecies, clades, lineages, ecotypes, or genetic clusters. One thing that is striking about each of these proposals is that they all depend on a concept of population. Indeed, some authors have explicitly characterized races in terms of populations. However, including the concept of population into concepts of race raises three (...)
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  48.  84
    The Concepts of Population and Metapopulation in Evolutionary Biology and Ecology.Roberta L. Millstein - 2010 - In M. A. Bell, D. J. Futuyma, W. F. Eanes & J. S. Levinton (eds.), Evolution Since Darwin: The First 150 Years. Sinauer.
    This paper aims to illustrate one of the primary goals of the philosophy of biology⎯namely, the examination of central concepts in biological theory and practice⎯through an analysis of the concepts of population and metapopulation in evolutionary biology and ecology. I will first provide a brief background for my analysis, followed by a characterization of my proposed concepts: the causal interactionist concepts of population and metapopulation. I will then illustrate how the concepts apply to six cases that differ in their population (...)
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  49.  5
    Francesco Colonna: Biografia e Opere. M. T. Casella, G. Pozzi.Donald Weinstein - 1962 - Speculum 37 (2):265-267.
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  50. The ‘Agapic Behaviors’: Reconciling Organizational Citizenship Behavior with the Reward System.Roberta Sferrazzo - 2021 - Humanistic Management Journal 6 (1):19-35.
    Current corporate systems risk generating inequality among workers, insofar as they concentrate only on economic results by favoring, through the incentive and award system, only what can be seen, produced, and measured. As such, these systems are unable to recognize workers’ agapic behaviors – similar to the ones considered in organizational citizenship behavior literature – that cannot be quantified, i.e. workers’ generosity, humanity, kindness, compassion, help for others and mercy. Although these types of behaviors may appear unproductive or irrational, they (...)
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