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  1.  11
    A New Theory of Conscientious Objection in Medicine: Justification and Reasonability.Robert F. Card - 2020 - New York: Routledge.
    This book argues that a conscientiously objecting medical professional should receive an exemption only if the grounds of an objector's refusal are reasonable. It defends a detailed, contextual account of public reasonability suited for healthcare, which builds from the overarching concept of Rawlsian public reason. The author analyzes the main competing positions and maintains that these other views fail precisely due to their systematic inattention to the grounding reasons behind a conscientious objection; he argues that any such view is plausible (...)
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  2. Conscientious objection and emergency contraception.Robert F. Card - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (6):8 – 14.
    This article argues that practitioners have a professional ethical obligation to dispense emergency contraception, even given conscientious objection to this treatment. This recent controversy affects all medical professionals, including physicians as well as pharmacists. This article begins by analyzing the option of referring the patient to another willing provider. Objecting professionals may conscientiously refuse because they consider emergency contraception to be equivalent to abortion or because they believe contraception itself is immoral. This article critically evaluates these reasons and concludes that (...)
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  3.  26
    Public reason in justifications of conscientious objection in health care.Doug McConnell & Robert F. Card - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (5):625-632.
    Current mainstream approaches to conscientious objection either uphold the standards of public health care by preventing objections or protect the consciences of health‐care professionals by accommodating objections. Public justification approaches are a compromise position that accommodate conscientious objections only when objectors can publicly justify the grounds of their objections. Public justification approaches require objectors and assessors to speak a common normative language and to this end it has been suggested that objectors should be required to cast their objection in terms (...)
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  4.  76
    The Inevitability of Assessing Reasons in Debates about Conscientious Objection in Medicine.Robert F. Card - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (1):82-96.
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  5.  62
    Reasonability and Conscientious Objection in Medicine: A Reply to Marsh and an Elaboration of the Reason‐Giving Requirement.Robert F. Card - 2013 - Bioethics 28 (6):320-326.
    In this paper I defend the Reasonability View: the position that medical professionals seeking a conscientious exemption must state reasons in support of their objection and allow those reasons to be subject to evaluation. Recently, this view has been criticized by Jason Marsh as proposing a standard that is either too difficult to meet or too easy to satisfy. First, I defend the Reasonability View from this proposed dilemma. Then, I develop this view by presenting and explaining some of the (...)
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  6. Conscientious Objection, Emergency Contraception, and Public Policy.Robert F. Card - 2011 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (1):53-68.
    Defenders of medical professionals’ rights to conscientious objection (CO) regarding emergency contraception (EC) draw an analogy to CO in the military. Such professionals object to EC since it has the possibility of harming zygotic life, yet if we accept this analogy and utilize jurisprudence to frame the associated public policy, those who refuse to dispense EC would not have their objection honored. Legal precedent holds that one must consistently object to all forms of the relevant activity. In the case at (...)
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  7.  30
    Reasons, reasonability and establishing conscientious objector status in medicine.Robert F. Card - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (4):222-225.
    This paper builds upon previous work in which I argue that we should assess a provider's reasons for his or her objection before granting a conscientious exemption. For instance, if the medical professional's reasoned basis involves an empirical mistake, an accommodation is not warranted. This article poses and begins to address several deep questions about the workings of what I call a reason-giving view: What standard should we use to assess reasons? What policy should we adopt in order to evaluate (...)
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  8.  34
    In defence of medical tribunals and the reasonability standard for conscientious objection in medicine.Robert F. Card - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (2):73-75.
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  9. Inconsistency and the theoretical commitments of Hooker's rule-consequentialism.Robert F. Card - 2007 - Utilitas 19 (2):243-258.
    Rule-consequentialism is frequently regarded as problematic since it faces the following powerful dilemma: either rule-consequentialism collapses into act-consequentialism or rule-consequentialism is inconsistent. Recent defenders of this theory such as Brad Hooker provide a careful response to this objection. By explicating the nature and theoretical commitments of rule-consequentialism, I contend that these maneuvers are not successful by offering a new way of viewing the dilemma which retains its force even in light of these recent discussions. The central idea is that even (...)
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  10.  76
    Individual Responsibility within Organizational Contexts.Robert F. Card - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (4):397-405.
    Actions within organizational contexts should be understood differently as compared with actions performed outside of such contexts. This is the case due to the agentic shift, as discussed by social psychologist Stanley Milgram, and the role that systemic factors play in shaping the available alternatives from which individuals acting within institutions choose. The analysis stemming from Milgram’s experiments suggests not simply that individuals temporarily abdicate their moral agency on occasion, but that there is an erosion of agency within organizations. The (...)
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  11. Consequentialism, teleology, and the new friendship critique.Robert F. Card - 2004 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 85 (2):149-172.
    A powerful objection to impersonal moral theories states that they cannot accommodate the good of friendship. This paper focuses on the problem as it applies to consequentialism and addresses the recent criticism that even the most sophisticated forms of consequentialism are incompatible with genuine friendship. I argue that this objection fails since those who pose this challenge either seriously oversimplify consequentialism's theory of value, misunderstand its theory of practical reason, or put too much weight on the good of friendship itself. (...)
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  12.  81
    Is there no alternative? Conscientious objection by medical students.Robert F. Card - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (10):602-604.
    Recent survey data gathered from British medical students reveal widespread acceptance of conscientious objection in medicine, despite the existence of strict policies in the UK that discourage conscientious refusals by students to aspects of their medical training. This disconnect demonstrates a pressing need to thoughtfully examine policies that allow conscience objections by medical students; as it so happens, the USA is one country that has examples of such policies. After presenting some background on promulgated US conscience protections and reflecting on (...)
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  13.  19
    The Market View on conscientious objection: overvalued.Robert F. Card - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (3):168-172.
    Ancell and Sinnott-Armstrong argue that medical providers possess wide freedoms to determine the scope of their practice, and therefore, prohibiting almost any conscientious objections is a bad idea. They maintain that we could create an acceptable system on the whole which even grants accommodations to discriminatory refusals by healthcare professionals. Their argument is premised upon applying a free market mechanism to conscientious objections in medicine, yet I argue their Market View possesses a number of absurd and troubling implications. Furthermore, I (...)
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  14.  39
    Scouring the scourge: Spontaneous abortion and morality.Robert F. Card - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (7):27 – 29.
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  15.  71
    Consequentialist teleology and the valuation of states of affairs.Robert F. Card - 2004 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 7 (3):253-265.
    Elizabeth Anderson claims that states of affairs are merely extrinsically valuable, since we value them only in virtue of the intrinsically valuable persons in those states of affairs. Since it considers states of affairs to be the sole bearers of intrinsic value, Anderson argues that consequentialism is incoherent because it attempts to globally maximize extrinsic value. I respond to this objection by distinguishing between two forms of consequentialist teleology and arguing that Anderson''s claim is either harmless or her argument for (...)
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  16.  28
    Pure aretaic ethics and character.Robert F. Card - 2004 - Journal of Value Inquiry 38 (4):473-484.
  17.  15
    Critically Thinking About Medical Ethics.Robert F. Card (ed.) - 2004 - Pearson.
    Adopting a critical thinking methodology in which critical thinking tools are introduced and applied to medical ethics reading, this book explains the dialogue which is formed by the readings in each chapter and clarifies how the various thinkers are responding to one another in a common discussion. The books' unified approach offers a critical thinking pedagogy, which philosophically and logically pulls the many readings and philosophies together. The book examines an introduction to moral theory and critical thinking tools, while readings (...)
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  18.  95
    Two puzzles for Marquis's conservative view on abortion.Robert F. Card - 2006 - Bioethics 20 (5):264–277.
    ABSTRACT Don Marquis argues that abortion is morally wrong in most cases since it deprives the fetus of the value of its future. I criticize Marquis’s argument for the modified conservative view by adopting an argumentative strategy in which I work within his basic account: if it is granted that his fundamental idea is sound, what follows about the morality of abortion? I conclude that Marquis is faced with a dilemma: either his position must shift towards the extreme conservative view (...)
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  19. Infanticide and the liberal view on abortion.Robert F. Card - 2000 - Bioethics 14 (4):340–351.
    Mary Anne Warren provides a well‐known defense of the liberal position in the abortion debate, yet her argument is subject to the objection that it implies that infanticide is morally permissible. In a postscript to her original article, Warren argues that her position does not commit her to the moral acceptability of infanticide. I argue that the reasoning Warren presents in her postscript on infanticide undermines her original main argument in support of the liberal view: she cannot use this argument (...)
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  20. Genetic Information, Health Insurance, and Rawlsian Justice.Robert F. Card - 2004 - In Critically Thinking About Medical Ethics. Pearson. pp. 288-94.
     
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  21. "Gender, Justice Within the Family, and the Commitments of Rawlsian Liberalism.".Robert F. Card - 2001 - Public Affairs Quarterly 15:155-172.
  22.  41
    Making Sense of the Diversity-Based Legal Argument for Affirmative Action.Robert F. Card - 2005 - Public Affairs Quarterly 19 (1):11-24.
  23. Using Case Studies to Develop Critical Thinking Skills in Ethics Courses.Robert F. Card - 2002 - Teaching Ethics 3 (1):19-27.
  24. Situationist Social Psychology and J. S. Mill's Conception of Character: Robert F. Card.Robert F. Card - 2010 - Utilitas 22 (4):481-493.
    The situationist challenge to global character traits claims that on the basis of findings in social psychology, we should only accept at most the existence of local or context-sensitive traits. In this article I explore a neglected area of J. S. Mill's work to outline an account of context-sensitive traits. This account of traits, coupled with a sophisticated consequentialist ethical framework, suggests an interesting view on which persons govern the circumstances of their actions in order to best promote overall well-being.
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  25. Conscientious Objection, Institutional Conscience, and Pharmacy Practice.Robert F. Card - 2014 - Journal of Pharmacy Practice 27:174-77.
     
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  26.  21
    Federal provider conscience regulation: unconscionable.Robert F. Card - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (8):471-472.
    This paper argues that the provider conscience regulation recently put into place in the USA is misguided. The rule is too broad in the scope of protection it affords, and its conception of what constitutes assistance in the performance of an objectionable procedure reveals that it is unworkable in practice. Furthermore, the regulation wrongly treats refusal of other reproductive services as on a par with conscientious objection to participation in abortion. Finally, the rule allows providers to refuse even to discuss (...)
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  27.  17
    Gender, justice within the family, and the commitments of liberalism.Robert F. Card - 2011 - In Adrianne Leigh McEvoy (ed.), Sex, Love, and Friendship: Studies of the Society for the Philosophy of Sex and Love, 1993-2003. New York, NY: Rodopi.
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  28. Moral Decision-Making: Consequentialism and Character.Robert F. Card - 1997 - Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison
    Bernard Williams has argued that on a consequentialist moral theory, individuals cannot possess what he calls "integrity." I argue that one central strand of this criticism concerns how persons must think about life-shaping decisions. I interpret "integrity" as a pattern of continuity in an agent's moral decision-making. In order to have integrity an agent must possess a stable character which unifies one's choices. Since a sophisticated consequentialist moral structure can properly value the having of a character on the basis of (...)
     
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  29.  62
    Response to commentators on "conscientious objection and emergency contraception": Sex, drugs and the rocky role of levonorgestrel.Robert F. Card - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (10):W4 – W6.
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  30.  20
    Abortion and the Ways We Value Human Life. [REVIEW]Robert F. Card - 2004 - Southwest Philosophy Review 20 (2):225-228.
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