Results for 'Richard Y. Chappell'

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  1.  92
    Overriding Virtue.Richard Y. Chappell - 2019 - In Hilary Greaves & Theron Pummer (eds.), Effective Altruism: Philosophical Issues. Oxford University Press. pp. 218-226.
    If you focus your charitable giving on global causes where it will do the most good, how should you feel about passing by the local soup kitchen? Would the ideally virtuous agent have their (local) empathy still activated, but simply overridden by the recognition that distant others are in even greater need, leaving the agent feeling torn? Or would their empathetic impulses be wholeheartedly redirected towards the greatest needs? This chapter suggests a way to revise an outdated conception of moral (...)
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  2. Deontic Pluralism and the Right Amount of Good.Richard Y. Chappell - 2020 - In Douglas W. Portmore (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Consequentialism. Oxford University Press. pp. 498-512.
    Consequentialist views have traditionally taken a maximizing form, requiring agents to bring about the very best outcome that they can. But this maximizing function may be questioned. Satisficing views instead allow agents to bring about any outcome that exceeds a satisfactory threshold or qualifies as “good enough.” Scalar consequentialism, by contrast, eschews moral requirements altogether, instead evaluating acts in purely comparative terms, i.e., as better or worse than their alternatives. After surveying the main considerations for and against each of these (...)
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  3. The Ethics of Deliberate Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 to Induce Immunity.Robert Streiffer, David Killoren & Richard Y. Chappell - 2021 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 38 (3):479-496.
    We explore the ethics of deliberately exposing consenting adults to SARS-CoV-2 to induce immunity to the virus (“DEI” for short). We explain what a responsible DEI program might look like. We explore a consequentialist argument for DEI according to which DEI is a viable harm-reduction strategy. Then we consider a non-consequentialist argument for DEI that draws on the moral significance of consent. Additionally, we consider arguments for the view that DEI is unethical on the grounds that, given that large-scale DEI (...)
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  4. Fittingness: The Sole Normative Primitive.Richard Yetter Chappell - 2012 - Philosophical Quarterly 62 (249):684 - 704.
    This paper draws on the 'Fitting Attitudes' analysis of value to argue that we should take the concept of fittingness (rather than value) as our normative primitive. I will argue that the fittingness framework enhances the clarity and expressive power of our normative theorising. Along the way, we will see how the fittingness framework illuminates our understanding of various moral theories, and why it casts doubt on the Global Consequentialist idea that acts and (say) eye colours are normatively on a (...)
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  5. Pandemic Ethics: The Case for Risky Research.Richard Yetter Chappell & Peter Singer - 2020 - Research Ethics 16 (3-4):1-8.
    There is too much that we do not know about COVID-19. The longer we take to find it out, the more lives will be lost. In this paper, we will defend a principle of risk parity: if it is permissible to expose some members of society (e.g. health workers or the economically vulnerable) to a certain level of ex ante risk in order to minimize overall harm from the virus, then it is permissible to expose fully informed volunteers to a (...)
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  6. Why Care About Non-Natural Reasons?Richard Chappell - 2019 - American Philosophical Quarterly 56 (2):125-134.
    Are non-natural properties worth caring about? I consider two objections to metaethical non-naturalism. According to the intelligibility objection, it would be positively unintelligible to care about non-natural properties that float free from the causal fabric of the cosmos. According to the ethical idlers objection, there is no compelling motivation to posit non-natural normative properties because the natural properties suffice to provide us with reasons. In both cases, I argue, the objection stems from misunderstanding the role that non-natural properties play in (...)
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  7. Value Receptacles.Richard Yetter Chappell - 2015 - Noûs 49 (2):322-332.
    Utilitarianism is often rejected on the grounds that it fails to respect the separateness of persons, instead treating people as mere “receptacles of value”. I develop several different versions of this objection, and argue that, despite their prima facie plausibility, they are all mistaken. Although there are crude forms of utilitarianism that run afoul of these objections, I advance a new form of the view—‘token-pluralistic utilitarianism’—that does not.
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  8.  5
    Willis's Oxford Lectures By Kenneth Dewhurst.Richard Y. Meier - 1981 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 25 (1):170-170.
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  9. Mind-Body Meets Metaethics: A Moral Concept Strategy.Helen Yetter-Chappell & Richard Yetter Chappell - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 165 (3):865-878.
    The aim of this paper is to assess the relationship between anti-physicalist arguments in the philosophy of mind and anti-naturalist arguments in metaethics, and to show how the literature on the mind-body problem can inform metaethics. Among the questions we will consider are: (1) whether a moral parallel of the knowledge argument can be constructed to create trouble for naturalists, (2) the relationship between such a "Moral Knowledge Argument" and the familiar Open Question Argument, and (3) how naturalists can respond (...)
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  10. Virtue and Salience.Richard Yetter Chappell & Helen Yetter-Chappell - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (3):449-463.
    This paper explores two ways in which evaluations of an agent's character as virtuous or vicious are properly influenced by what the agent finds salient or attention-grabbing. First, we argue that ignoring salient needs reveals a greater deficit of benevolent motivation in the agent, and hence renders the agent more blameworthy. We use this fact to help explain our ordinary intuition that failing to give to famine relief is in some sense less bad than failing to help a child who (...)
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  11. Willpower Satisficing.Richard Yetter Chappell - 2019 - Noûs 53 (2):251-265.
    Satisficing Consequentialism is often rejected as hopeless. Perhaps its greatest problem is that it risks condoning the gratuitous prevention of goodness above the baseline of what qualifies as "good enough". I propose a radical new willpower-based version of the view that avoids this problem, and that better fits with the motivation of avoiding an excessively demanding conception of morality. I further demonstrate how, by drawing on the resources of an independent theory of blameworthiness, we may obtain a principled specification of (...)
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  12.  7
    Language and Philosophy in India.Richard Y. De Smet - 1960 - Atti Del XII Congresso Internazionale di Filosofia 10:47-54.
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  13. Against ‘Saving Lives’: Equal Concern and Differential Impact.Richard Yetter Chappell - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (3):159-164.
    Bioethicists often present ‘saving lives’ as a goal distinct from, and competing with, that of extending lives by as much as possible. I argue that this usage of the term is misleading, and provides unwarranted rhetorical support for neglecting the magnitudes of the harms and benefits at stake in medical allocation decisions, often to the detriment of the young. Equal concern for all persons requires weighting equal interests equally, but not all individuals have an equal interest in ‘life-saving’ treatment.
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  14. Parfit's Ethics.Richard Yetter Chappell - 2021 - Cambridge University Press.
    Derek Parfit was one of the most important and influential moral philosophers of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. This Element offers a critical introduction to his wide-ranging ethical thought, focusing especially on his two most significant works, Reasons and Persons and On What Matters, and their contribution to the consequentialist moral tradition. Topics covered include: rationality and objectivity, distributive justice, self-defeating moral theories, Parfit's Triple Theory, personal identity, and population ethics.
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  15. Pandemic Ethics and Status Quo Risk.Richard Yetter Chappell - forthcoming - Public Health Ethics.
    Conservative assumptions in medical ethics risk immense harms during a pandemic. Public health institutions and public discourse alike have repeatedly privileged inaction over aggressive medical interventions to address the pandemic, perversely increasing population-wide risks while claiming to be guided by “caution”. This puzzling disconnect between rhetoric and reality is suggestive of an underlying philosophical confusion. In this paper, I argue that we have been misled by status quo bias—exaggerating the moral significance of the risks inherent in medical interventions, while systematically (...)
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  16.  43
    Incentivizing Patient Choices: The Ethics of Inclusive Shared Savings.Richard Yetter Chappell - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (6):597-600.
    Is it ethical to pay patients for selecting cheaper medical treatments? The healthcare system in the United States is notoriously profligate, at least in part because when insurers foot the bill, patients have little incentive to avoid wasteful treatments. One familiar means for dealing with this problem is for insurers to offer reduced co-pays to patients who select cheaper treatments. Would it be ethical to take this one step further, beyond the zero bound, sharing the savings of cheaper treatments by (...)
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  17. Knowing What Matters.Richard Yetter Chappell - 2017 - In Peter Singer (ed.), Does Anything Really Matter? Essays on Parfit on Objectivity. Oxford University Press. pp. 149-167.
    Parfit's On What Matters offers a rousing defence of non-naturalist normative realism against pressing metaphysical and epistemological objections. He addresses skeptical arguments based on (i) the causal origins of our normative beliefs, and (ii) the appearance of pervasive moral disagreement. In both cases, he concedes the first step to the skeptic, but draws a subsequent distinction with which he hopes to stem the skeptic's advance. I argue, however, that these distinctions cannot bear the weight that Parfit places on them. A (...)
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  18. Negative Utility Monsters.Richard Yetter Chappell - 2021 - Utilitas 33 (4):417 - 421.
    Many consider Nozick’s “utility monster”—a being more efficient than ordinary people at converting resources into wellbeing, with no upper limit—to constitute a damning counterexample to utilitarianism. But our intuitions may be reversed by considering a variation in which the utility monster starts from a baseline status of massive suffering. This suggests a rethinking of the force of the original objection.
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  19. Rethinking the Asymmetry.Richard Yetter Chappell - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (2):167-177.
    According to the Asymmetry, we’ve strong moral reason to prevent miserable lives from coming into existence, but no moral reason to bring happy lives into existence. This procreative asymmetry is often thought to be part of commonsense morality, however theoretically puzzling it might prove to be. I argue that this is a mistake. The Asymmetry is merely prima facie intuitive, and loses its appeal on further reflection. Mature commonsense morality recognizes no fundamental procreative asymmetry. It may recognize some superficially similar (...)
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  20. Fittingness Objections to Consequentialism.Richard Yetter Chappell - 2019 - In Christian Seidel (ed.), Consequentialism: New Directions, New Problems? Oxford University Press.
    New work in the foundations of ethics—extending the fitting attitudes analysis of value to yield a broader notion of normative fittingness as a (or perhaps even the) fundamental normative concept—provides us with the resources to clarify and renew the force of traditional character-based objections to consequentialism. According to these revamped fittingness objections, consequentialism is incompatible with plausible claims about which attitudes are truly fitting. If a theory’s implications regarding the fittingness facts are implausible, then this can be taken to cast (...)
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  21.  52
    Against the Empirical Viability of the Deutsch–Wallace–Everett Approach to Quantum Mechanics.Richard Dawid & Karim P. Y. Thébault - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 47:55-61.
    The subjective Everettian approach to quantum mechanics presented by Deutsch and Wallace fails to constitute an empirically viable theory of quantum phenomena. The decision theoretic implementation of the Born rule realized in this approach provides no basis for rejecting Everettian quantum mechanics in the face of empirical data that contradicts the Born rule. The approach of Greaves and Myrvold, which provides a subjective implementation of the Born rule as well but derives it from empirical data rather than decision theoretic arguments, (...)
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  22. The Right Wrong‐Makers.Richard Yetter Chappell - 2021 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 103 (2):426-440.
    Right- and wrong-making features ("moral grounds") are widely believed to play important normative roles, e.g. in morally apt or virtuous motivation. This paper argues that moral grounds have been systematically misidentified. Canonical statements of our moral theories tend to summarize, rather than directly state, the full range of moral grounds posited by the theory. Further work is required to "unpack" a theory's criterion of rightness and identify the features that are of ground-level moral significance. As a result, it is not (...)
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  23.  8
    Abstracta Iranica. Supplément 1 (1978) to Studia IranicaAbstracta Iranica. Supplement 1 (1978) to Studia Iranica.Mark J. Dresden, C. -H. de Fouchécourt, Y. Richard, Z̆ Vesel, C. -H. de Fouchecourt & Z. Vesel - 1981 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 101 (4):465.
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  24.  84
    Norcross, Alastair. Morality by Degrees: Reasons Without Demands. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020. Pp. 176. $50.00 (Cloth). [REVIEW]Richard Yetter Chappell - 2021 - Ethics 131 (3):620-624.
  25.  28
    Some Criticisms of Chappell's Argument for Solipsism.Richard Cording - 1972 - Journal of Critical Analysis 4 (1):21-24.
  26. Many Worlds: Decoherent or Incoherent?Karim P. Y. Thébault & Richard Dawid - 2015 - Synthese 192 (5):1559-1580.
    We claim that, as it stands, the Deutsch–Wallace–Everett approach to quantum theory is conceptually incoherent. This charge is based upon the approach’s reliance upon decoherence arguments that conflict with its own fundamental precepts regarding probabilistic reasoning in two respects. This conceptual conflict obtains even if the decoherence arguments deployed are aimed merely towards the establishment of certain ‘emergent’ or ‘robust’ structures within the wave function: To be relevant to physical science notions such as robustness must be empirically grounded, and, on (...)
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  27. Value Holism.Richard Yetter Chappell - manuscript
    This paper considers the relation between the value of a whole (person, society) and its parts (timeslices, individuals), arguing that the contributory value of a part cannot be determined in isolation. For example, the value of an additional life may depend on what other lives there are. This has important implications for population ethics, and especially Parfit's 'repugnant conclusion'.
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  28. The 2-D Argument Against Metaethical Naturalism.Richard Yetter Chappell - manuscript
    This paper explores how insights from two-dimensional semantics can be brought to bear on debates surrounding (realist) metaethical naturalism. It defends two central claims. (1) A plausible principle of 2-D symmetry for normative terms provides us with reason to reject standard forms of synthetic metaethical naturalism. (2) Moore's Open Question Argument can be powerfully revived within the framework of 2-D semantics. I approach these issues by diagnosing how Attitudinal Semanticists' use of 2-D semantics--to account for moral objectivity--goes wrong. I argue (...)
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  29. On What Matters. By Parfit. Oxford University Press, 2011, Pp. 1140, £30, ISBN: 9780199265923. [REVIEW]Richard Yetter Chappell - 2012 - Philosophy 87 (4):599-603.
  30. The Limits of Kindness. By Caspar Hare. [REVIEW]Richard Yetter Chappell - 2014 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 201403.
  31. Richard Rorty y la superación pragmatista de la epistemologia.Daniel Kalpokas - 2006 - Critica 38 (113):80-86.
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  32. Richard Norman. Ethics, Killing and War.T. Chappell - 1995 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (3):300-300.
  33.  44
    Is Blindsight an Effect of Scattered Light, Spared Cortex, and Near-Threshold Vision?John Campion, Richard Latto & Y. M. Smith - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):423-86.
    Blindsight is the term commonly used to describe visually guided behaviour elicited by a stimulus falling within the scotoma (blind area) caused by a lesion of the striate cortex. Such is normally held to be unconscious and to be mediated by subcortical pathways involving the superior colliculus. Blindsight is of considerable theoretical importance since it suggests that destriate man is more like destriate monkey than had been previously believed and also because it supports the classical notion of two visual systems. (...)
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  34. Filosofía y futuro.Richard Rorty - 1997 - Dilema 1 (2):62-69.
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  35. Brill Online Books and Journals.T. D. J. Chappell, Robert Wardy, Robert Heinaman, Katerina Ierodiakonou, Richard Gaskin, Richard J. Ketchum, Justin Gosling, Bob Sharples & M. R. Wright - 1993 - Phronesis 38 (1).
  36. Richard Kearney y la cuarta reducción fenomenológica.Carlos Arboleda Mora - 2014 - Escritos 22 (49):313-335.
    Uno de los fenomenólogos de la nueva generación que sigue la línea de Husserl, Heidegger, Marion y Lévinas es Richard Kearney. Este filósofo irlandés, católico, propone una cuarta reducción fenomenológica, esto es, volver al eschaton enraizado en la existencia cotidiana: encontrar la voz y el rostro de lo más alto en lo más bajo. Es como la realización de aquella idea heideggeriana de que “Sólo aquello del mundo que es de poca monta llegará alguna vez a ser cosa.” . (...)
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  37.  2
    Richard Clough Anderson, la Mancomunidad de Kentucky y el problema de la esclavitud en la causa patriótica hispanoamericana.Edgardo Pérez - 2016 - Co-herencia 13 (25):167-195.
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  38. La Filosofía y El Espejo de la Naturaleza.Richard Rorty - 1987 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 43 (1):205-206.
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  39.  20
    Topics on Being and Logical Reasoning.Richard S. Y. Chi - 1974 - Philosophy East and West 24 (3):293-300.
  40.  63
    Therapeutic Privilege: Between the Ethics of Lying and the Practice of Truth.C. Richard, Y. Lajeunesse & M. -T. Lussier - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (6):353-357.
    The ‘right to the truth’ involves disclosing all the pertinent facts to a patient so that an informed decision can be made. However, this concept of a ‘right to the truth’ entails certain ambiguities, especially since it is difficult to apply the concept in medical practice based mainly on current evidence-based data that are probabilistic in nature. Furthermore, in some situations, the doctor is confronted with a moral dilemma, caught between the necessity to inform the patient (principle of autonomy) and (...)
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  41.  15
    Book Review Section 1. [REVIEW]Evelena Orteza Y. Miranda, James M. Wallace, Carole L. Willis, David B. Bills, Richard A. Brosio, Timothy Glander, Judy D. Butler & Suzanne Yerian - 1996 - Educational Studies 27 (1):62-101.
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  42.  12
    Dialogue on Radicalism and the Left: Radicalism Today.Angela Y. Davis, Joy Ann James & Richard Curtis - 1998 - Radical Philosophy Review 1 (1):1-16.
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  43. Richard Strauss a ciento cincuenta años de su nacimiento: Salomé, Electra y otros personajes míticos en la Ópera.Beatriz Cotello - 2014 - Circe de Clásicos y Modernos 18 (2):173-187.
    El artículo se refiere a la trayectoria de Richard Strauss, con especial mención de su obra operística sobre personajes mitológicos y míticos. Se destacan sus óperas Salomé y Electra como muestra de la innovación que introduce en el lenguaje musical, que preanuncia la revolución atonal experimentada en la música en los comienzos del s. XX. Se mencionan sus óperas de producción anterior, de corte wagneriano, y las posteriores, en un lenguaje novedoso, si bien más acorde con el sonido tonal (...)
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  44.  19
    Richard Montague. Fraenkel's Addition to the Axioms of Zermelo. Essays on the Foundations of Mathematics, Dedicated to A. A. Fraenkel on His Seventieth Anniversary, Edited by Y. Bar-Hillel, E. I. J. Poznanski, M. O. Rabin, and A. Robinson for The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Magnes Press, Jerusalem1961, and North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam 1962, Pp. 91–114. [REVIEW]A. Hajnal - 1966 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 31 (4):662-662.
  45. Richard Rorty: Cómo ser irónico y morir en el intento.Miguel Angel Quintana Paz - 2007 - Utopía y Praxis Latinoamericana: Revista Internacional de Filosofía Iberoamericana y Teoría Social (38):154.
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  46. James Y. Simpson, Landmarks in the Struggle Between Science and Religion. [REVIEW]Richard Hanson - 1925 - Hibbert Journal 24:597.
     
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  47. Ortega y Gasset, Phenomenology and Quixote.Richard Hull - 1994 - Analecta Husserliana 41:179.
     
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  48.  28
    J. Y. Guillaumin : Boèce: Institution Arithmétique . Pp. Xcv + 253 . Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1995. Frs. 395. ISBN: 2-251-01390-3. [REVIEW]Richard Wallace - 1999 - The Classical Review 49 (2):579-580.
  49.  12
    Richard Goddard, Lordship and Medieval Urbanisation: Coventry, 1043–1355. (Royal Historical Society Studies in History, N.S.) Woodbridge, Eng., and Rochester, N.Y.: Boydell and Brewer, for the Royal Historical Society, 2004. Pp. Xiv, 330; 8 Black-and-White Figures, 11 Tables, and Maps. $99. [REVIEW]Donald J. Kagay - 2006 - Speculum 81 (3):854-855.
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  50.  3
    Metaphysics E. 2-3 and the Accidental.Christos Y. Panayides & Richard N. Bosley - 2003 - Philosophical Inquiry 25 (3/4):135-150.
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