238 found
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  1.  22
    How Can Evolution Learn?Richard A. Watson & Eörs Szathmáry - 2016 - Trends in Ecology and Evolution 31 (2):147--157.
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  2.  44
    The breakdown of cartesian metaphysics.Richard A. Watson - 1963 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 1 (2):177-197.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:The Breakdown of C i M phy " artes an eta sacs RICHARD A. WATSON WITHIN CARTESIANISMthere arose many problems deriving from conflicts between Cartesian principles. Inadequate attempts to solve these problems were crucial reasons for the breakdown of Cartesian metaphysics in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The major difficulties derived from the acceptance of a dualism of substances seated in a system which included epistemological and (...)
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  3. Discourse on Method, Optics, Geometry, and Metereology.René Descartes, J. Olscamp Paul, Pierre Mesnard, Richard A. Watson & Luís Villoro - 1965 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 22 (4):419-420.
     
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  4. A Critique of Anti-Anthropocentric Biocentrism.Richard A. Watson - 1983 - Environmental Ethics 5 (3):245-256.
    Ame Naess, John Rodman, George Sessions, and others, designated herein as ecosophers, propose an egalitarian anti-anthropocentric biocentrism as a basis for a new environmental ethic. I outline their “hands-off-nature” position and show it to be based on setting man apart. The ecosophic position is thus neither egalitarian nor fully biocentric. A fully egalitarian biocentric ethic would place no more restrictions on the behavior of human beings than on the behavior of any other animals. Uncontrolled human behavior might lead to the (...)
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  5.  13
    Representational Ideas: From Plato to Patricia Churchland.R. A. Watson & Richard Allan Watson - 1995 - Springer Verlag.
    He then proceeds with an examination of the picture theory developed by Wittgenstein, Carnap, and Goodman, and concludes with an examination of Patricia Churchland, Ruth Millikan, Robert Cummins, and Mark Rollins. The use of the historical development of representationalism to pose a central problem in contemporary cognitive science is unique.
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  6. A Critique of Anti-Anthropocentric Biocentrism.Richard A. Watson - 1983 - Environmental Ethics 5 (3):245-256.
    Ame Naess, John Rodman, George Sessions, and others, designated herein as ecosophers, propose an egalitarian anti-anthropocentric biocentrism as a basis for a new environmental ethic. I outline their “hands-off-nature” position and show it to be based on setting man apart. The ecosophic position is thus neither egalitarian nor fully biocentric. A fully egalitarian biocentric ethic would place no more restrictions on the behavior of human beings than on the behavior of any other animals. Uncontrolled human behavior might lead to the (...)
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  7.  95
    Shadow history in philosophy.Richard A. Watson - 1993 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 31 (1):95-109.
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  8.  46
    Cogito, ergo sum: the life of René Descartes.Richard A. Watson - 2002 - Boston: David R. Godine.
    Rene Descartes is the philosophical architect of our modern world.
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  9.  17
    Philosophical Dialogues: Arne Naess and the Progress of Philosophy.Peder Anker, Per Ariansen, Alfred J. Ayer, Murray Bookchin, Baird Callicott, John Clark, Bill Devall, Fons Elders, Paul Feyerabend, Warwick Fox, William C. French, Harold Glasser, Ramachandra Guha, Patsy Hallen, Stephan Harding, Andrew Mclaughlin, Ivar Mysterud, Arne Naess, Bryan Norton, Val Plumwood, Peter Reed, Kirkpatrick Sale, Ariel Salleh, Karen Warren, Richard A. Watson, Jon Wetlesen & Michael E. Zimmerman (eds.) - 1999 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    The volume documents, and makes an original contribution to, an astonishing period in twentieth-century philosophy—the progress of Arne Naess's ecophilosophy from its inception to the present. It includes Naess's most crucial polemics with leading thinkers, drawn from sources as diverse as scholarly articles, correspondence, TV interviews and unpublished exchanges. The book testifies to the skeptical and self-correcting aspects of Naess's vision, which has deepened and broadened to include third world and feminist perspectives. Philosophical Dialogues is an essential addition to the (...)
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  10. Hume’s Philosophy of Mind.John Bricke, Richard H. Popkin, Richard A. Watson, James E. Force, David Fate Norton & Nicholas Capaldi - 1980 - Ethics 92 (2):346-349.
  11. Self-Consciousness and the Rights of Nonhuman Animals and Nature.Richard A. Watson - 1979 - Environmental Ethics 1 (2):99-129.
    A reciprocity framework is presented as an analysis of morality, and to explain and justify the attribution of moral rights and duties. To say an entity has rights makes sense only if that entity can fulfill reciprocal duties, i.e., can act as a moral agent. To be a moral agent an entity must (1) be self-conscious, (2) understand general principles, (3) have free will, (4) understand the given principles, (5) be physicallycapable of acting, and (6) intend to act according to (...)
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  12.  5
    The Breakdown of Cartesian Metaphysics.Richard A. Watson - 1987 - Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.
    Combines historical research and philosophical analysis to cast light on why and how Cartesianism failed as a complete metaphysical system. Far more radical in its conclusions than his 1966 study The Downfall of Cartesianism, Watson argues that Descartes's ontology is incoherent and vacuous, his epistemology deceptive, and his theology unorthodox--indeed, that Descartes knows nothing.
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  13.  58
    Optimization in “self‐modeling” complex adaptive systems.Richard A. Watson, C. L. Buckley & Rob Mills - 2011 - Complexity 16 (5):17-26.
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  14.  62
    Sextus and Wittgenstein.Richard A. Watson - 1969 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 7 (3):229-237.
  15.  28
    Agency, Goal-Directed Behavior, and Part-Whole Relationships in Biological Systems.Richard Watson - 2024 - Biological Theory 19 (1):22-36.
    In this essay we aim to present some considerations regarding a minimal but concrete notion of agency and goal-directed behavior that are useful for characterizing biological systems at different scales. These considerations are a particular perspective, bringing together concepts from dynamical systems, combinatorial problem-solving, and connectionist learning with an emphasis on the relationship between parts and wholes. This perspective affords some ways to think about agents that are concrete and quantifiable, and relevant to some important biological issues. Instead of advocating (...)
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  16.  15
    The Surprising Creativity of Digital Evolution: A Collection of Anecdotes From the Evolutionary Computation and Artificial Life Research Communities.Joel Lehman, Jeff Clune, Dusan Misevic, Christoph Adami, Julie Beaulieu, Peter Bentley, Bernard J., Belson Samuel, Bryson Guillaume, M. David, Nick Cheney, Antoine Cully, Stephane Donciuex, Fred Dyer, Ellefsen C., Feldt Kai Olav, Fischer Robert, Forrest Stephan, Frénoy Stephanie, Gagneé Antoine, Goff Christian, Grabowski Leni Le, M. Laura, Babak Hodjat, Laurent Keller, Carole Knibbe, Peter Krcah, Richard Lenski, Lipson E., MacCurdy Hod, Maestre Robert, Miikkulainen Carlos, Mitri Risto, Moriarty Sara, E. David, Jean-Baptiste Mouret, Anh Nguyen, Charles Ofria, Marc Parizeau, David Parsons, Robert Pennock, Punch T., F. William, Thomas Ray, Schoenauer S., Shulte Marc, Sims Eric, Stanley Karl, O. Kenneth, Fran\C. Cois Taddei, Danesh Tarapore, Simon Thibault, Westley Weimer, Richard Watson & Jason Yosinksi - 2018 - CoRR.
    Biological evolution provides a creative fount of complex and subtle adaptations, often surprising the scientists who discover them. However, because evolution is an algorithmic process that transcends the substrate in which it occurs, evolution’s creativity is not limited to nature. Indeed, many researchers in the field of digital evolution have observed their evolving algorithms and organisms subverting their intentions, exposing unrecognized bugs in their code, producing unexpected adaptations, or exhibiting outcomes uncannily convergent with ones in nature. Such stories routinely reveal (...)
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  17.  3
    The Downfall of Cartesianism, 1673-1712: A Study of Epistemological Issues in Late 17th Century Cartesianism.Richard Allan Watson - 1966 - Springer.
    Phenomenalism, idealism, spiritualism, and other contemporary philo sophical movements originating in the reflective experience of the cogito witness to the immense influence of Descartes. However, Carte sianism as a complete metaphysical system in the image of that of the master collapsed early in the 18th century. A small school of brilliant Cartesians, almost all expert in the new mechanistic science, flashed like meteors upon the intellectual world of late 17th century France to win well-deserved recognition for Cartesianism. They were accompanied (...)
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  18.  3
    Transubstantiation among the Cartesians.Richard A. Watson - 1982 - In Thomas M. Lennon (ed.), Problems of Cartesianism. Institute for Research on Public Policy. pp. 127-148.
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  19. What is the history of philosophy and why is it important?Richard A. Watson - 2002 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 40 (4):525-528.
    Richard A. Watson - What is the History of Philosophy and Why is it Important? - Journal of the History of Philosophy 40:4 Journal of the History of Philosophy 40.4 525-528 Notes and Discussions What is the History of Philosophy and Why is it Important? The advent of the fortieth anniversary of the founding of the Journal of the History of Philosophy set me to thinking again about these old disputed questions. It seems obvious that what is unique to the (...)
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  20.  8
    Malebranche's First and Last Critics: Simon Foucher and Dortius de Mairan.Richard A. Watson & Marjorie Grene (eds.) - 1995 - Southern Illinois University.
    In this engrossing double volume, the work and thought of Nicolas Malebranche is examined through the eyes of Simon Foucher and Dortous de Mairan. Part 1 consists of Richard A. Watson’s translation of the first published critique, by Simon Foucher, of Malebranche’s main philosophical work, _Of the Search for the Truth. _In the second part, Marjorie Grene presents a meticulous translation of the long correspondence between Malebranche and Jean-Jacques Dortous de Mairan that ended shortly before Malebranche’s death. Both Watson and (...)
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  21. The downfall of Cartesianism 1673–1712.Richard A. Watson - 1966 - The Hague,: Martinus Nijhoff.
  22. Berkeley in a Cartesian Context.Richard Watson - 1963 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 65 (3=65):381-94.
     
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  23.  40
    Malebranche and Arnauld on Ideas.Richard A. Watson - 1994 - Modern Schoolman 71 (4):259-270.
  24.  21
    Nuclear Weapons and the Future of Humanity: The Fundamental Questions.John P. Holdren, Paul R. Ehrlich, Anne Ehrlich, Gary Stahl, Berel Lang, Richard H. Popkin, Joseph Margolis, Patrick Morgan, John Hare, Russell Hardin, Richard A. Watson, Gregory S. Kavka, Jean Bethke Elshtain, Sidney Axinn, Terry Nardin, Douglas P. Lackey, Jefferson McMahan, Edmund Pellegrino, Stephen Toulmin, Dietrich Fischer, Edward F. McClennen, Louis Rene Beres, Arne Naess, Richard Falk & Milton Fisk - 1986 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    The excellent quality and depth of the various essays make [the book] an invaluable resource....It is likely to become essential reading in its field.—CHOICE.
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  25. Cogito ergo sum: the life of René Descartes / Richard Watson.Richard A. Watson - 2002 - Boston: David R. Godine.
  26.  15
    Descartes.Richard A. Watson - 1988 - International Studies in Philosophy 26 (4):114-115.
  27.  14
    Descartes.Richard A. Watson - 1988 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 26 (4):664-665.
  28. Discussion: Is geology different?: A critical discussion of "the fabric of geology".Richard A. Watson - 1966 - Philosophy of Science 33 (1/2):172.
  29. Nameless Deeds and Black Veils.Richard A. R. Watson - 1986 - Semiotics:68-79.
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  30.  67
    The Journal of the History of Philosophy: What It All Means.Richard A. Watson - 2012 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 50 (1):1-5.
    The Study of the History of Philosophy as an independent discipline to exhibit and explicate philosophical systems as their originators meant them to be understood is less than one hundred years old. On the other hand, philosophers from Plato and Aristotle through the Middle Ages to Bertrand Russell and Richard Rorty have represented the systems of their predecessors in the light of, and as leading to, their own philosophical positions. It is not surprising then that the study of the long (...)
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  31.  4
    Critical realism as an underpinning philosophy for the implementation of digital twins for urban management.Ramy Elsehrawy, Bimal Kumar & Richard Watson - 2024 - Journal of Critical Realism 23 (2):187-223.
    This paper promotes critical realism as a suitable and fruitful philosophical foundation for the development and implementation of urban digital twins. The proliferation of a-theoretical digital twin research and practices, not declaring their philosophical positions, is threatening the scientific soundness of this new paradigm and offers little evidence for reflecting on the knowledge it produces. To address this issue, first, this paper uses focus group discussions to explore digital twin experts’ perceptions of digital twin best practices for urban management and (...)
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  32.  29
    Co-evolutionary dynamics on a deformable landscape.J. McKenzie Alexander, Marc Ebner & Richard Watson - 2000 - In .
  33.  43
    Richard H. Popkin 1923-2005.Harry M. Bracken & Richard A. Watson - 2005 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 43 (3):v-v.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Richard H. Popkin 1923-2005Harry M. Bracken and Richard A. WatsonRichard H. Popkin, founding editor of the journal of the History of Philosophy, died on April 14, 2005. He was 81 years old and had continued his research and writing to the last moment before he entered the hospital on march 21st with extreme respiratory difficulties.Popkin's The History of Scepticism from Erasmus to Descartes (1960) revolutionized the study and understanding (...)
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  34. Critique de la Recherche de la Verité [of N. Malebranche]. Repr. Of the 1675 Ed. With a New Intr. By R.A. Watson.Simon Foucher, Nicolas Malebranche & Richard Allan Watson - 1969
     
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  35.  69
    Reply by Margaret J. Osler and Richard A. Watson.Margaret J. Osler & Richard A. Watson - 2003 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 41 (3):407-407.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Journal of the History of Philosophy 41.3 (2003) 407 [Access article in PDF] Reply By Margaret J. Osler and Richard A. Watson In his comments on our historiographical Notes in the October 2002 issue of JHP, A. P. Martinich misrepresents our position by erroneously claiming that we presume a sharp dichotomy between the analytic history of philosophy and the historical history of philosophy. Neither of us accepts such a (...)
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  36. Artificial Life IX: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Artificial Life.Jordan Pollack, Mark Bedau, Phil Husbands, Takashi Ikegami & Richard A. Watson (eds.) - 2004 - MIT Press.
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  37.  7
    The Sceptical mode in modern philosophy: essays in honor of Richard H. Popkin.Richard H. Popkin, Richard A. Watson & James E. Force (eds.) - 1988 - Hingham, MA, USA: Distributors for the U.S. and Canada, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
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  38.  19
    Augustinian-Cartesian Index: Texts and Commentary (review).Richard A. Watson - 2005 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 43 (3):359-361.
    Richard A. Watson - Augustinian-Cartesian Index: Texts and Commentary - Journal of the History of Philosophy 43:3 Journal of the History of Philosophy 43.3 359-361 Zbigniew Janowski. Augustinian-Cartesian Index: Texts and Commentary. South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press, 2004. Pp. xv + 275. Cloth, $35.00. This is an English translation and substantial expansion of the French edition . Besides augmenting Augustinian citations, Janowski has added indices and commentaries for Saint Thomas Aquinas, John Duns Scotus, Francis Bacon, and Montaigne. The result (...)
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  39.  24
    Cartesian Theodicy: Descartes's Quest for Certitude (review).Richard A. Watson - 2003 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 41 (2):275-276.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Journal of the History of Philosophy 41.2 (2003) 275-276 [Access article in PDF] Zbigniew Janowski. Cartesian Theodicy: Descartes' Quest for Certitude. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2002. Pp. 181. Cloth, $30.00. Janowski begins this original and erudite work by saying that although "the Meditations have never [before] been interpreted as a theodicy... insofar as theodicy is concerned with examining the relationship between the existence of evil on the one hand and God's (...)
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  40.  41
    Descartes: A Biography (review).Richard A. Watson - 2007 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 45 (1):159-161.
    Richard A. Watson - Descartes: A Biography - Journal of the History of Philosophy 45:1 Journal of the History of Philosophy 45.1 159-161 Muse Search Journals This Journal Contents Reviewed by Richard Watson Washington University Desmond M. Clarke. Descartes: A Biography. New York-Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Pp. xi + 507. $40.00. This is an excellent critical and contextual presentation of the development of Descartes's thought in its historical context. No recent biographer has done as well in providing names, dates, (...)
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  41.  13
    Descartes and Cartesianism.Richard Watson - 2009 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 17 (2):418-421.
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  42.  10
    Descartes on the Human Soul: Philosophy and the Demands of Christian Doctrine (review).Richard A. Watson - 2000 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 38 (1):120-121.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Reviewed by:Descartes on the Human Soul: Philosophy and the Demands of Christian DoctrineRichard A. WatsonC. F. Fowler. Descartes on the Human Soul: Philosophy and the Demands of Christian Doctrine. International Archives of the History of Ideas, 160. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. Pp. xiii + 438. Cloth, $168.00.As Defender of the Faith, René Descartes wrote his Meditations to fulfill the request of the Fifth Lateran Council in 1513 "to (...)
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  43.  27
    Psyche and Soma: Physicians and Metaphysicians on the Mind-Body Problem from Antiquity to Enlightenment (review).Richard A. Watson - 2001 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 39 (1):142-143.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Journal of the History of Philosophy 39.1 (2001) 142-143 [Access article in PDF] Wright, John P. and Paul Potter, editors. Psyche and Soma: Physicians and Metaphysicians on the Mind-Body Problem from Antiquity to Enlightenment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Pp. xii + 298. Cloth, $72.00. The mind-body problem has a long history that begins well before Descartes made it extreme by presenting mind as unextended active thinking and (...)
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  44.  11
    Radical Cartesianism: The French Reception of Descartes (review).Richard A. Watson - 2003 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 41 (3):415-416.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Journal of the History of Philosophy 41.3 (2003) 415-416 [Access article in PDF] Tad M. Schmaltz. Radical Cartesianism: The French Reception of Descartes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Pp. xiv + 288. Cloth, $65.00.More than fifty years ago Richard H. Popkin urged historians of philosophy to work on secondary figures in philosophy, in part for their own sake, but also because the true shape of philosophy and the development (...)
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  45.  6
    The Metaphysical Club (review).Richard A. Watson - 2001 - Philosophy and Literature 25 (2):353-356.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Philosophy and Literature 25.2 (2001) 353-356 [Access article in PDF] Book Review The Metaphysical Club The Metaphysical Club, by Louis Menand; xii & 546 pp. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001, $27.00. "They didn't just want to keep the conversation going; they wanted to get to a better place" (p. 440). So much for the most prominent contemporary pragmatist, Richard Rorty, who remains unmentioned except in the acknowledgments. (...)
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  46.  39
    The Princess and the Philosopher: Letters of Elisabeth of the Palatine to Rene Descartes (review).Richard A. Watson - 2000 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 38 (2):277-278.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Reviewed by:The Princess and the Philosopher: Letters of Elisabeth of the Palatine to Rene DescartesRichard A. WatsonAndrea Nye. The Princess and the Philosopher: Letters of Elisabeth of the Palatine to Rene Descartes. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999. Pp. xiii + 187. Cloth, $57.95. Paper, $18.95.Princess Elisabeth was an acute, persistent critic of Descartes's philosophy. Because he liked her and she was a princess, Descartes did not dismiss her (...)
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  47.  28
    New Wilderness Boundaries.Philip M. Smith & Richard A. Watson - 1979 - Environmental Ethics 1 (1):61-64.
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  48.  15
    New Wilderness Boundaries.Philip M. Smith & Richard A. Watson - 1979 - Environmental Ethics 1 (1):61-64.
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  49.  16
    A note on deep ecology.Richard A. Watson - 1984 - Environmental Ethics 6 (4):377-379.
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  50.  14
    A Note on Deep Ecology.Richard A. Watson - 1984 - Environmental Ethics 6 (4):377-379.
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