Results for 'Richard E. Michod'

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  1.  45
    On the Transfer of Fitness From the Cell to the Multicellular Organism.Richard E. Michod - 2005 - Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):967-987.
    The fitness of any evolutionary unit can be understood in terms of its two basic components: fecundity (reproduction) and viability (survival). Trade-offs between these fitness components drive the evolution of life-history traits in extant multicellular organisms. We argue that these trade-offs gain special significance during the transition from unicellular to multicellular life. In particular, the evolution of germ–soma specialization and the emergence of individuality at the cell group (or organism) level are also consequences of trade-offs between the two basic fitness (...)
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  2.  21
    Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality: Multicellularity and Sex.Richard E. Michod - 2011 - In Brett Calcott & Kim Sterelny (eds.), The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited. MIT Press. pp. 169--198.
    This chapter combines formal models of how the fitness of a collective can become decoupled from the fitness with more empirical work on the volvocine algae. It uses the Volvox clade as a model system. It describes the evolution of altruism in the volvocine green algae. This chapter suggests that altruism may evolve from genes involved in life-history trade-offs. It shows the several cooperation, conflict, and conflict mediation cycles in the volvocine green algae. This cycle of cooperation, conflict, and conflict (...)
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  3.  20
    Positive Heuristics in Evolutionary Biology.Richard E. Michod - 1981 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 32 (1):1-36.
  4. Darwinian Dynamics: Evolutionary Transitions in Fitness and Individuality. By Richard E. Michod.P. S. Timiras - 2002 - The European Legacy 7 (4):532-532.
  5.  88
    Fitness and Evolutionary Explanation. [REVIEW]Henry C. Byerly & Richard E. Michod - 1991 - Biology and Philosophy 6 (1):45-53.
    Recent philosophical discussions have failed to clarify the roles of the concept fitness in evolutionary theory. Neither the propensity interpretation of fitness nor the construal of fitness as a primitive theoretical term succeed in explicating the empirical content and explanatory power of the theory of natural selection. By appealing to the structure of simple mathematical models of natural selection, we separate out different contrasts which have tended to confuse discussions of fitness: the distinction between what fitness is defined as versus (...)
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  6.  16
    On Fitness and Adaptedness and Their Role in Evolutionary Explanation.Richard E. Michod - 1986 - Journal of the History of Biology 19 (2):289-302.
  7.  11
    Darwinian Dynamics: Evolutionary Transitions in Fitness and Individuality by Richard E. Michod.Jeffrey Ihara - 1999 - Complexity 5 (1):42-43.
  8. On the Transfer of Fitness From the Cell to the Organism.Richard E. Michod - forthcoming - Biology and Philosophy.(Forthcoming).
  9.  35
    Group Selection and Group Adaptation During a Major Evolutionary Transition: Insights From the Evolution of Multicellularity in the Volvocine Algae.Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):452-469.
    Adaptations can occur at different hierarchical levels, but it can be difficult to identify the level of adaptation in specific cases. A major problem is that selection at a lower level can filter up, creating the illusion of selection at a higher level. We use optimality modeling of the volvocine algae to explore the emergence of genuine group adaptations. We find that it is helpful to develop an explicit model for what group fitness would be in the absence of group-level (...)
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  10.  84
    Philosophical Foundations for the Hierarchy of Life.Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (3):391-403.
    We review Evolution and the Levels of Selection by Samir Okasha. This important book provides a cohesive philosophical framework for understanding levels-of-selections problems in biology. Concerning evolutionary transitions, Okasha proposes that three stages characterize the shift from a lower level of selection to a higher one. We discuss the application of Okasha’s three-stage concept to the evolutionary transition from unicellularity to multicellularity in the volvocine green algae. Okasha’s concepts are a provocative step towards a more general understanding of the major (...)
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  11.  27
    Levels of Selection and the Formal Darwinism Project.Deborah E. Shelton & Richard E. Michod - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):217-224.
    Understanding good design requires addressing the question of what units undergo natural selection, thereby becoming adapted. There is, therefore, a natural connection between the formal Darwinism project (which aims to connect population genetics with the evolution of design and fitness maximization) and levels of selection issues. We argue that the formal Darwinism project offers contradictory and confusing lines of thinking concerning level(s) of selection. The project favors multicellular organisms over both the lower (cell) and higher (social group) levels as the (...)
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  12.  1
    Biology and the Origin of Values.Richard E. Michod - 1993 - In R. Michod, L. Nadel & M. Hechter (eds.), The Origin of Values. Aldine de Gruyer. pp. 261--271.
  13. Evolution of Individuality: A Case Study in the Volvocine Green Algae.Erik R. Hanschen, Dinah R. Davison, Zachariah I. Grochau-Wright & Richard E. Michod - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (3).
    All disciplines must define their basic units and core processes. In evolutionary biology, the core process is natural selection and the basic unit of selection and adaptation is the individual. To operationalize the theory of natural selection we must count individuals, as they are the bearers of fitness. While canonical individuals have often been taken to be multicellular organisms, the hierarchy of life shows that new kinds of individuals have evolved. A variety of criteria have been used to define biological (...)
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  14.  5
    Did Human Culture Emerge in a Cultural Evolutionary Transition in Individuality?Dinah R. Davison, Claes Andersson, Richard E. Michod & Steven L. Kuhn - 2021 - Biological Theory 16 (4):213-236.
    Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality have been responsible for the major transitions in levels of selection and individuality in natural history, such as the origins of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms, and eusocial insects. The integrated hierarchical organization of life thereby emerged as groups of individuals repeatedly evolved into new and more complex kinds of individuals. The Social Protocell Hypothesis proposes that the integrated hierarchical organization of human culture can also be understood as the outcome of an ETI—one that produced (...)
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  15.  5
    Stress Responses Co‐Opted for Specialized Cell Types During the Early Evolution of Multicellularity.Aurora M. Nedelcu & Richard E. Michod - 2020 - Bioessays 42 (5):2000029.
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  16.  24
    The Use of Statistical Heuristics in Everyday Inductive Reasoning.Richard E. Nisbett, David H. Krantz, Christopher Jepson & Ziva Kunda - 1983 - Psychological Review 90 (4):339-363.
  17. Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings of Social Judgment.Richard E. Nisbett & Lee Ross - 1980 - Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall.
  18.  30
    Atheism and Freedom: A Response to Sartre and Baier: RICHARD E. CREEL.Richard E. Creel - 1984 - Religious Studies 20 (2):281-291.
    A few years ago I ran across a statement by Jean-Paul Sartre which seemed to imply that if there is a God, then there can be no human freedom. That thesis struck me as questionable, but at the time I did not pause to examine it. More recently I ran across a similar, more explicit statement by Kurt Baier, and I decided the time to pause had come. My knee-jerk response to Baier – and I confess it was probably nothing (...)
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  19.  34
    Can God Know That He Is God?: RICHARD E. CREEL.Richard E. Creel - 1980 - Religious Studies 16 (2):195-201.
    While reflecting one day on the enormous difficulties that men have in knowing that there is a God, a completely unexpected and unfamiliar question drifted into my purview – perhaps as a kind of ultimate expression of my philosophical frustration. ‘Indeed’, the question asked, ‘can even God know that he is God?’ At first I thought this query merely amusing. ‘Wouldn't it be funny if God cannot know that he is God! But of course he can.’ So my mind wandered (...)
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  20. Improving Inductive Inference.Richard E. Nisbett, David H. Krantz, Christopher Jepson & Geoffrey T. Fong - 1982 - In Daniel Kahneman, Paul Slovic & Amos Tversky (eds.), Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  21. The Gadamer Reader: A Bouquet of the Later Writings.Richard E. Palmer (ed.) - 2007 - Northwestern University Press.
    The German volume Gadamer Lesebuch [A Gadamer Reader], selected and edited by Jean Grondin in consultation with Hans-Georg Gadamer himself, contains a set of essays that present a cross section of writings by one of the twentieth century's greatest philosophers. The volume begins with an autobiographical sketch and culminates in a conversation with Jean Grondin that looks back over a lifetime of productive philosophical work. The essays not already available in English have here been translated by Richard E. Palmer, (...)
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  22.  23
    Happiness and Resurrection: A Reply to Morreall: RICHARD E. CREEL.Richard E. Creel - 1981 - Religious Studies 17 (3):387-393.
  23. Telling More Than We Can Know: Verbal Reports on Mental Processes.Richard E. Nisbett & Timothy D. Wilson~ - 1977 - Psychological Review 84 (3):231-59.
    Reviews evidence which suggests that there may be little or no direct introspective access to higher order cognitive processes. Ss are sometimes unaware of the existence of a stimulus that importantly influenced a response, unaware of the existence of the response, and unaware that the stimulus has affected the response. It is proposed that when people attempt to report on their cognitive processes, that is, on the processes mediating the effects of a stimulus on a response, they do not do (...)
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  24. Principles of Health Care Ethics.Richard E. Ashcroft (ed.) - 2007 - Wiley.
    Edited by four leading members of the new generation of medical and healthcare ethicists working in the UK, respected worldwide for their work in medical ethics, Principles of Health Care Ethics, Second Edition_is a standard resource for students, professionals, and academics wishing to understand current and future issues in healthcare ethics. With a distinguished international panel of contributors working at the leading edge of academia, this volume presents a comprehensive guide to the field, with state of the art introductions to (...)
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  25.  4
    Divine Impassibility: An Essay in Philosophical Theology.Richard E. Creel - 1985 - Cambridge University Press.
    It has been about fifty years since the topic of divine impassibility was the subject of book-length philosophical treatments in English. In recent years process and analytic philosophers have returned this issue to the forefront of professional attention. Divine Impassibility traces the issue of classical sources, relates the positions of nineteenth- and early twentieth-century books, and surveys the writings of contemporary British analytic philosophers such as Peter Geach, Anthony Kenny, Richard Swinburne, John Hick, and H. P. Owen, American analytic (...)
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  26.  72
    Intentionality: A Study Of Mental Acts.Richard E. Aquila - 1976 - Penn St University Press.
    This book is a critical and analytical survey of the major attempts, in modern philosophy, to deal with the phenomenon of intentionality—those of Descartes, Brentano, Meinong, Husserl, Frege, Russell, Bergmann, Chisholm, and Sellars. By coordinating the semantical approaches to the phenomenon, Dr. Aquila undertakes to provide a basis for dialogue among philosophers of different persuasions. "Intentionality" has become, since Franz Brentano revived its original medieval use, the standard term describing the mind's apparently paradoxical capacity to relate itself to objects existing (...)
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  27.  38
    Telling More Than We Can Know: Verbal Reports on Mental Processes.Richard E. Nisbett & Timothy D. Wilson - 1977 - Psychological Review; Psychological Review 84 (3):231.
  28.  34
    Freedom and its Conditions: Discipline, Autonomy, and Resistance.Richard E. Flathman - 2003 - Routledge.
    Can any of us ever really be free? Do we follow the rules our society gives us because we want to, or because we are forced to? Discipline, Freedom, Resistance challenges the received wisdom that discipline and freedom are opposite and mutually exclusive. Though it is typically argued that a well-ordered liberal society must discipline its more unruly citizens to maintain freedom for all, Flathman shows how resistance to rules can mean more than criminals breaking laws. Resistance can also mean (...)
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  29.  5
    Thomas Hobbes: Skepticism, Individuality, and Chastened Politics.Richard E. Flathman - 2002 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    As its subtitle 'Skepticism, Individuality and Chastened Politics' indicates, this book is an exploration of and a largely favorable engagement with salient elements in the thinking of a theorist who is widely regarded as the greatest Anglophone political thinker and among the top rank of philosophical writers generally. In emphazing Hobbes's skepticism, Richard Flathman goes against the grain of much of the literature concerning Hobbes. The theme of individuality is more familiar, particularly from the celebrated writings on Hobbes by (...)
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  30. Theories and Observation in Science.Richard E. Grandy - 1973
  31.  53
    Culture and Systems of Thought: Holistic Versus Analytic Cognition.Richard E. Nisbett, Kaiping Peng, Incheol Choi & Ara Norenzayan - 2001 - Psychological Review 108 (2):291-310.
    The authors find East Asians to be holistic, attending to the entire field and assigning causality to it, making relatively little use of categories and formal logic, and relying on "dialectical" reasoning, whereas Westerners, are more analytic, paying attention primarily to the object and the categories to which it belongs and using rules, including formal logic, to understand its behavior. The 2 types of cognitive processes are embedded in different naive metaphysical systems and tacit epistemologies. The authors speculate that the (...)
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  32.  23
    Forms and Limits of UtilitarianismForms and Limits of Utilitarianism. David Lyons.Richard E. Flathman - 1966 - Ethics 76 (4):309-.
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  33.  9
    Concepts in Social & Political Philosophy.Richard E. Flathman - 1973 - New York: Macmillan.
  34.  38
    Intentionality: An Essay in the Philosophy of Mind.Richard E. Aquila - 1985 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 46 (1):159-170.
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  35.  31
    The Halo Effect: Evidence for Unconscious Alteration of Judgments.Richard E. Nisbett & Timothy D. Wilson - 1977 - Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 35 (4):250-256.
    Staged 2 different videotaped interviews with the same individual—a college instructor who spoke English with a European accent. In one of the interviews the instructor was warm and friendly, in the other, cold and distant. 118 undergraduates were asked to evaluate the instructor. Ss who saw the warm instructor rated his appearance, mannerisms, and accent as appealing, whereas those who saw the cold instructor rated these attributes as irritating. Results indicate that global evaluations of a person can induce altered evaluations (...)
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  36. Hermeneutics.Richard E. Palmer - 1969 - Northwestern University Press.
    This classic, first published in 1969, introduces to English-speaking readers a field which is of increasing importance in contemporary philosophy and theology--hermeneutics, the theory of understanding, or interpretation. Richard E. Palmer, utilizing largely untranslated sources, treats principally of the conception of hermeneutics enunciated by Heidegger and developed into a "philosophical hermeneutics" by Hans-Georg Gadamer. He provides a brief overview of the field by surveying some half-dozen alternate definitions of the term and by examining in detail the contributions of Friedrich (...)
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  37. Public Debt as a Form of Public Finance: Overcoming a Category Mistake and its Vices.Richard E. Wagner - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    Economists commit a category mistake when they treat democratic governments as indebted. Monarchs can be indebted, as can individuals. In contrast, democracies can't truly be indebted. They are financial intermediaries that form a bridge between what are often willing borrowers and forced lenders. The language of public debt is an ideological language that promotes politically expressed desires and is not a scientific language that clarifies the practice of public finance. Economists have gone astray by assuming that a government is just (...)
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  38.  91
    Thinking Philosophically: An Introduction to Critical Reflection and Rational Dialogue.Richard E. Creel - 2001 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Thinking Philosophically_ begins by helping the reader acquire a lively sense of what philosophy is, how it began, why it persists, and how it is related to other fields of study, especially science.
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  39.  19
    Convention: A Philosophical Study.Richard E. Grandy - 1977 - Journal of Philosophy 74 (2):129-139.
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  40.  9
    Infinitude, Whole-Part Priority, and the Ambiguity of Kantian "Space" and "Time".Richard E. Aquila - 2001 - In Ralph Schumacher, Rolf-Peter Horstmann & Volker Gerhardt (eds.), Kant Und Die Berliner Aufklärung: Akten des Ix. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Bd. I: Hauptvorträge. Bd. Ii: Sektionen I-V. Bd. Iii: Sektionen Vi-X: Bd. Iv: Sektionen Xi-Xiv. Bd. V: Sektionen Xv-Xviii. De Gruyter. pp. 99-109.
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  41. The Influence of Culture: Holistic Versus Analytic Perception.Richard E. Nisbett & Yuri Miyamoto - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (10):467-473.
  42. Soccer and Philosophy.E. Richards (ed.) - 2010 - Open Court.
     
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  43. Kant’s Weltanschauung.Richard Kroner & John E. Smith - 1956 - Philosophy 33 (124):80-81.
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  44. Kant’s Weltanschauung.Richard Kroner & John E. Smith - 1956 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 64 (1):126-126.
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  45.  78
    Rules for Reasoning.Richard E. Nisbett (ed.) - 1993 - Hillsdale, NJ, USA: L. Erlbaum Associates.
    This book examines two questions: Do people make use of abstract rules such as logical and statistical rules when making inferences in everyday life? Can such abstract rules be changed by training? Contrary to the spirit of reductionist theories from behaviorism to connectionism, there is ample evidence that people do make use of abstract rules of inference -- including rules of logic, statistics, causal deduction, and cost-benefit analysis. Such rules, moreover, are easily alterable by instruction as it occurs in classrooms (...)
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  46.  4
    Questioning Nineteenth Century Assumptions About Knowledge, Iii: Dualism.Richard E. Lee (ed.) - 2010 - Suny Press.
    A provocative survey of interdisciplinary challenges to the concept of dualism.
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  47.  57
    Philosophical Grounds of Rationality: Intentions, Categories, Ends.Richard E. Grandy & Richard Warner (eds.) - 1978 - Oxford University Press.
    H.P. Grice is known principally for his influential contributions to the philosophy of language, but his work also includes treatises on the philosophy of mind, ethics, and metaphysics--much of which is unpublished to date. This collection of original essays by such philosophers as Nancy Cartwright, Donald Davidson, Gilbert Harman, and P.F. Strawson demonstrates the unified and powerful character of Grice's thoughts on being, mind, meaning, and morals. An introductory essay by the editors provides the first overview of Grice's work.
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  48.  10
    Approaches, Assumptions, and Goals in Modeling Cognitive Behavior.Richard E. Pastore & David G. Payne - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (4):665-666.
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  49.  88
    A Response to Richard Wolin on Gadamer and the Nazis.Richard E. Palmer - 2002 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 10 (4):467 – 482.
    Richard Wolin, in his article 'Nazism and the Complicities of Hans-Georg Gadamer: Untruth and Method' ( New Republic , 15 May 2000, pp. 36-45), wrongly accuses Gadamer of being 'in complicity' with the Nazis. The present article in reply was rejected by the New Republic , but is printed here to show that Wolin in his article is misinformed and unfair. First, Wolin makes elementary factual errors, such as stating that Gadamer was born in Breslau instead of Marburg. He (...)
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  50. Risk-Taking Behavior; Concepts, Methods, and Applications to Smoking and Drug Abuse.Richard E. Carney - 1971 - Springfield, Ill., Thomas.
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