It is shown that in a linearly ordered MV-algebra A , the implication is unique if and only if the identity function is the unique De Morgan automorphism on A . Modulo categorical equivalence, our uniqueness criterion recalls Ohkuma's rigidness condition for totally ordered abelian groups. We also show that, if A is an Archimedean totally ordered MV-algebra, then each non-trivial De Morgan automorphism of the underlying involutive lattice of A yields a new implication on A , which is not (...) isomorphic to the original implication. (shrink)
Desde Patterson, Estados Unidos, Génova, Italia, Buenos Aires, Argentina o Santiago de Chile, desafiando hasta cientos de miles de kilómetros de distancia, más de medio millón de mujeres tejen porfiadamente, cotidianamente, lazos de amor y cuidado con sus hijos e hijas en Perú. El hilo con que hilvanan estas nuevas formas de ser y hacer familias, transformando el mundo y transformándose, es el cable telefónico. Un nuevo cordón umbilical por el que van y vienen los afectos y cuidados, los enoj..
This paper analyses the relations between feminism and its various ideological cores. Three tendancies are discussed here: acceptance of the ideological core, criticism and rejection of this core and, more intricately, acceptance of one core and rejection of the other. The emphasis is placed on Anglo- American second-wave liberal feminism, whose ideological nature is almost unanomously accepted, in all the meanings of the term – positive, negative, and neutral. The author adopts Christine di Stefano’s idea, that a qualified use of (...) the word „ideology” is preferable to the neglect (that never- theless must accept the presence) of the term. (shrink)
This article looks at the complexity of the thought processes that lead Seneca's Oedipus to choose the mors longa of blindness as punishment for his crime. It offers an analysis of the consolation of this existence on the threshold between life and death, notably with reference to the end of the Oedipus, but also of the sorrow of this liminal existence. The latter is described in Seneca's Phoenissae, which suggests an escape, by death stricto sensu, from the threshold represented by (...) blindness, by which Oedipus now feels trapped.By examining these three topics, the article shows how the threshold between life and death which Oedipus chooses at the end of Seneca's Oedipus and experiences in the Phoenissae mirrors the ambivalence and the errors of his life before he blinded himself. Ultimately, it also illustrates Oedipus’ continuing failure to achieve self-knowledge. (shrink)
The terms “model” and “model-building” have been used to characterize the field of formal philosophy, to evaluate philosophy’s and philosophical logic’s progress and to define philosophical logic itself. A model is an idealization, in the sense of being a deliberate simplification of something relatively complex in which several important aspects are left aside, but also in the sense of being a view too perfect or excellent, not found in reality, of this thing. Paraconsistent logic is a branch of philosophical logic. (...) It is however not clear how paraconsistent logic can be seen as model-building. What exactly is modeled? In this paper I adopt the perspective of looking at a particular instance of paraconsistent logic—paranormal modal logic—which might be seen as a model of a specific kind of agent: inductive agents. After ntroducing what I call the highlevel and low-level models of inductive agents, I analyze the extent to which the above-mentioned idealizing features of model-building appear in paranormal modal logic and how they affect its philosophical significance. (shrink)
In a famous 1960 paper, Wigner discussed “The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences.” I suggest that the effectiveness of mathematics in producing successful new theories and surprising discoveries is even more unreasonable than Wigner claimed. In this paper, I present several historical case studies to support the claim that mathematics is often responsible for instigating scientific revolutions. However, that does not mean that mathematics is always the key to the universe, and other cases where mathematization was not (...) successful are discussed in order to problematize a naïve Platonism. (shrink)
O objetivo deste artigo é mostrar, segundo a teoria da justiça de Michael Walzer, o papel fundamental que as esferas da educação e da cidadania, em sua recíproca sustentação, devem representar para a obtenção de uma sociedade democrática justa. Para isto, será feita uma apresentação daquela teoria com uma reconstrução dos seus conceitos básicos. Após, será mostrado porque a cidadania e o Estado precisariam ser fortalecidos muito acima do padrão habitual das democracias existentes para cumprir adequadamente tal papel. Por último, (...) será proposto que a melhor chance de alcançar e sustentar o alto grau de solidariedade social da cidadania e do Estado que são exigidos para realizar concretamente aquela sociedade justa está em uma educação cívica democrática e comunitarista. (shrink)
Pretendemos mostrar um aspecto pelo qual a leitura que Habermas faz de Rousseau, em Mudança estrutural da esfera pública (1962), é levemente revisada em Direito e democracia (1992). Essa pequena mudança, por sua vez, reestrutura toda a concepção habermasiana da política de Rousseau. We intend to show how Habermas' reading of Rousseau in The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere (1962) is slightly revised in Between Facts and Norms (1992). This small change restructures the entire Habermasian conception of Rousseau's politics.
O objetivo desse artigo é realizar o que podemos chamar de uma análise conceitual da noção de indução, tomando como ponto de partida o problema das ambigüidades indutivas. Tentaremos mostrar que existe não apenas uma, mas duas maneiras igualmente autênticas de lidar com o problema das ambigüidades indutivas, e que quando certos aspec-tos lógicos dos dois conceitos de plausibilidade oriundos dessas duas abor-dagens da indução são considerados, muito da controvérsia a respeito das ambigüidades indutivas é dissolvido. Dentre tais aspectos está (...) uma su-posta relação entre essas duas noções indutivas de plausibilidade e os conceitos de paraconsistência e paracompletude. Nossa análise é materializada, por assim dizer, em uma lógica modal paraconsistente e paracompleta capaz de dar conta dos aspectos mais básicos dessas duas abordagens da indução bem como dos dois conceitos de plausibilidade delas oriundos. Na exemplificação do tipo de controvérsia o qual estamos nos referindo, bem como a solução que estamos propondo, nos detalharemos sobre uma das mais ilustres instâncias do problema das inconsistências induti-vas: o paradoxo da loteria.The purpose of this paper is to undertake a conceptual analysis of the notion of induction, taking as starting-point the problem of induc-tive ambiguities. We shall try to show that there is not only one, but two equally authentic ways of dealing with the problem of inductive ambigui-ties, and that when certain logical aspects of the two plausibility concepts that arise from these two approaches to induction are considered, much of the controversy about the inductive ambiguities disappears. Among such aspects is a relation that supposedly exists between these two no-tions of inductive plausibility and the concepts of paraconsistency and paracompleteness. Our analysis is materialized, so to speak, in a paracon-sistent and paracomplete modal logic able to deal with the most basic as-pects of these two approaches to induction. In exemplifying the kind of controversy we are talking about, as well as the solution we are propos-ing, we shall focus on one of the noblest instances of the problem of in-ductive inconsistencies: the lottery paradox. (shrink)
This study examines Wal-Mart representatives' presentation to the community on their site plan and Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Given the ongoing controversy and criticisms from local residents, it is interesting to see Wal-Mart's strategies in attenuating these risks and negative impacts. The discursive practices found here are: formulating prior citizen complaints by a neutral-sounding, legalistic language which works euphemistically or as a gloss. Citizen concerns are fitted into a problem-solution format where the solutions involve engineering technology. The Wal-Mart representatives display (...) their expertise through describing these technological answers. Scientific documents or tests are presented which point to counter-intuitive results. They draw on a discourse of `facts' and `information', but use these to make arguments in support of their proposals. In addition to displaying scientific-technological expertise, they avow openness to dialogue and willingness to work with the town. The Wal-Mart representatives present themselves as both technical experts and trustworthy partners, but they also may be seen as rhetor in using facts, findings, and documents to make an argument for their project. (shrink)
We study the interconnection between Physics and Mathematics in concrete instances, departing from the usual expression for the Coulomb electric field, produced by a point-like charge. It is scrutinized by means of six epistemology-intensive questions and radical answers are proposed, intended to widen one’s understanding of the subject. Our interventions act along two complementary directions. One of them regards ontology, since questions induce one to look closely at the electric charge, from different perspectives, promoting reflections about its nature and reinforcing (...) the corresponding concept. Formal manipulations rely on the identification of concepts with symbols, and the other direction concerns the spatial extension of mathematical structures. Our questions and their somewhat unusual answers help disclosing information which is not present in many textbooks, and show that Mathematics can be used as an efficient epistemological tool in Physics teaching. (shrink)
Comparação entre as duas versões da dedução kantiana dos conceitos puros do entendimento, a da 1ª edição de 1781 e a de 1787. Focam-se aqui principalmente as discrepâncias referentes à dedução objetiva, isto é, aquela encarregada de demonstrar que as categorias são as condições de possibilidade dos objetos de experiência.
This essay has its origin in a project on the globalization of science that rediscovered the wisdom of past research practices through the technology of the future. The main argument of this essay is that a convergence of digital video technologies with practices of social surveillance portends a methodological shift towards a new variety of qualitative methodology. Digital video is changing the way that students of the social world practice their craft, offering not just new ways of presenting but new (...) ways of practicing field research. We introduce concepts of the fluid wall and videoactive context to emphasize that the camera is an actor in the research process, and both behaviour and observation occur in both directions--in front of and behind the camera. While these practices and procedures are novel in some ways, they may also be viewed as old methods in the context of new instruments for recording as well as a new social understanding of these instruments. Since new technologies interact with the social context, the digital video methods we discuss in this essay are likely to become increasingly important for generations to come. We provide an overview of the use of digital video in research practice and present an account of the use of digital video methodology in Chile. (shrink)
This trenchant study analyzes the rise and decline in the quality and format of science in America since World War II. Science-Mart attributes this decline to a powerful neoliberal ideology in the 1980s which saw the fruits of scientific investigation as commodities that could be monetized, rather than as a public good.
This article analyses the concept of “the loss of time” in the essays of Mircea Eliade. This concept is shown to be an instrument of knowledge and a form of freedom that saves the human being from falling into historicity, and opens a point of access towards authenticity. The article critically discusses the temporal alternatives of the modern human being: capitalized time, free time, and personal time. The loss of time is subsequently shown to be both a technique for obtaining (...) salvation, and a domination technique de- scribed in scientific works. Finally, the invitation of losing time is seen as a re-activation of an a priori structure that makes possible the “humanitarian engagement” of Eliade in order to re-actualize the sacred at the conscious level of the modern human being, as well as an attempt at revalorization of parusia for the religious Christian. (shrink)
O artigo examina a “guerra das imagens” na contemporaneidade, a partir da reflexão estética de Jean Baudrillard. Mostra que para Baudrillard a imagem hegemônica na sociedade da simulação total, é o simulacro: imagens planas; sem enigma, sem mistério; sem face oculta; nos termos do autor. Partindo desse diagnóstico, o texto conjectura se nessa sociedade hiper-real, é possível, ainda, produzir uma imagem de resistência, uma imagem que “force o pensamento”, no sentido de Gilles Deleuze. Por fim, afirma-se que é no campo (...) da educação e da produção artística que se pode desenvolver a percepção sensível, de modo a permitir a seleção das imagens, no reconhecimento de suas diferenças. Para tanto, analisa-se fotografias de Nan Goldin, Ana Mariani, e do próprio Jean Baudrillard; além de videoinstalações, entre outras obras. (shrink)
Individualism is seen as a central component of moder- nity. (Individualism is, in Charles Taylor’s view for ex- ample, the most beautiful achievement of modernity.) From an apologetic perspective, individualism corresponds to an objective, real need of self-achievement; it repre- sents an essential step towards emancipation. This paper does not aim at contending with this description of the concept of individualism, because to do so would mean suggesting an alternative ideology, but instead it aims at understanding the real grounds of (...) the development of individualism in order to correct the “propagandistic” image of modern individualism. The main arguments which are used to correct this image are that individualism is the expression of a certain crisis of the spirit, not of a prosperity of the spirit, and the resources of its vindication are in fact “intellectual fabrications,” myths rather than objective discoveries. (shrink)
This article reflects on a significant dimension of the modern history of race in Europe and the world: the processes of mobility of humans as things that accompanied the scientific pursuit of the immutable racial condition of humans. It asks what it might mean to approach racial conceptions as historically embedded in, and shaped by, racial regimes of mobility, that is, the regimes encompassing the practices and apparatuses for the displacement of human bodies as “scientific things” of racial significance for (...) museum and laboratory networks. The article articulates race in Europe as entailed in a history of national, colonial, and postcolonial regimes of mobility. First, it is suggested that the history of race in science can be understood as the history of regimes of mobility of humans as things. It is then discussed how this history of mobility regimes connects with the making of collectives within and beyond Europe—national, imperial, indigenous, and postcolonial. Finally, the article investigates the contemporary expressions of racial regimes of mobility. (shrink)
This essay explores the relationships between labour and community formation in order to think through how, where, and when diasporic solidarities are imagined or refused. I draw on ethnographic research among Jamaican women contracted for seasonal work in US hotels to situate diasporic calls and responses in relation to specific contexts and a changing global political economy. I show how global geopolitical shifts not only shape the processes of identity formation and social reproduction, but also condition the perpetuation of notions (...) of nationalized racial hierarchies and ideologies of progress. I also show that hotel workers’ notions of ‘America’ and their commitment to the ‘American Dream’ shapes their subjectivities as migrant workers/consumers and, in their assessment, differentiates them from African-Americans, particularly those most immediately affected by Hurricane Katrina. In doing so, I demonstrate that one of the ideological hegemonies of diaspora is the idea that an individual's capacity to affect their own social mobility and that of their social network always outstrips the ‘locals’ in diasporic elsewheres. (shrink)
When an English translation of Being and Event appeared in 2005, Alain Badiou took the opportunity to reminisce about the initial French publication some twenty years before: “at that moment I was quite aware of having written a ‘great’ book of philosophy.” He located that greatness in four “affirmations” and one “radical thesis.”.
No _Tractatus de eventu futurorum_ que ora traduzimos, Ricardo Lavenham expõe e avalia algumas das concepções mais influentes no século XIV sobre as relações entre a presciência divina e a contingência dos eventos futuros. Valendo-se da tese ockhamiana segundo a qual existem proposições contingentes flexionadas no passado que dizem respeito ao futuro, ele argumenta e conclui que Deus conhece os futuros contingentes.
This article takes a conceptual approach to an issue of pedagogical relevance—the presence of teaching and learning moments within educational environments. We suggest sources of philosophical confusions that design patterns for the classification and creation of typologies of classroom events. We identify three foundational assumptions with the way in which classroom events are analyzed: Describing a classroom event ; Devising a procedure for co-classifying events ; Repurposing decontextualized events to fit a preferred analytic model. Hitherto these assumptions have obscured the (...) phenomenal integrity of the learning environment; since the topic sought is based on critical incidents according to analysts’ interests, but not on the actual identifying details of the setting as made available by the participants. While teaching and learning moments are generic issues, in methodological terms these matters have to be explored in their details. In our article, we align ourselves with particular research approaches, namely ethnomethodology and conversation analysis, that facilitate close analysis of ‘perspicuous settings’, such as classroom interactions, through which phenomena such as teaching and learning moments are made visible as collaborative accomplishments. (shrink)
Julian of Norwich as a post-scholastic theologian. This article positions the ‘first female English writer from the Middle Ages’, Julian of Norwich, within the context of ‘post-scholasticism’, the very last period in late Medieval Philosophy, of which one feature was the final separation of theology and philosophy in the late Medieval index. Julian should in terms of this placing be engaged as a theologian proper, distinguished from the six other prominent female thinkers from the Medieval Latin West, who were all (...) philosopher-theologians. However, Julian’s epistemology and metaphysics were intertwined with her theology, as presented in her Book of Showings, to such an extent that it is impossible to isolate it from her theological output. She is within the socio-historical context of the third wave of the Black Plague in Norwich in 1369 henceforth profiled as a ‘post-scholastic theologian’ and presented on the basis of prominent theological features in Showings, including its immanent-mystical character, its vernacular originality and profound pastoral appeal, its maternal-Christological imagery, its Trinitarian orientation and its deeply eschatological, open-ended engagement with a world devastated by the Plague.Contribution: As a millennium-long discourse, Medieval philosophy functions in a Venn diagrammatical relationship with Medieval history, Church history, patristics and philosophy of religion. Whenever ‘mainstream’ or ‘canonised’ Medieval philosophy is impacted from specialist research, it may well have implications that these closely related disciplines could take note of. Such is the case in this reappraisal of Julian of Norwich’ theological and pastoral legacy from its original context of the Black Plague in the 14th century – and indeed within the context of the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020. (shrink)
Schoolgirls writing short stories have surrendered themselves to some rules of a game, which, according to Ricoeur and Gadamer, delimits a field where everything ’is played’, and thereby, ’shatters the seriousness’ of ’the self-presence of a subject’. This article proposes that this field has a serious side of its own that reveals something true about the everyday reality of being a girl. The proposed worlds in the girls’ short stories are places from which research on women’s lives should begin is (...) a central argument, along with the contention that for the researcher to be able to take the seriousness of this playful writing into account, she also has to assume the position of a playful figure. The article suggests that the empirical data of schoolgirl writing invited the researcher to think Ricoeur and feminist epistemology together. Further, a suggestion is that the roles of reading given by the texts have consequences for a ’new’ process-oriented writing pedagogy and the teacher of writing as well. (shrink)
Abstract The role accorded to the public by scientists and philosophers of science has undergone an essential historical change in the last three centuries. Public participation in (witnessing of) scientific experiments was considered an important requirement for 17th century experimenters (e.g. for Boyle or Pascal). The cognitive role played by lay persons was later substantially downgraded; witnessing went out of fashion, while science became more and more esoteric and a matter for experts only. Part of this process was that all (...) scientific disciplines became intensively compartmentalized and in consequence a rather puzzling or even paradoxical situation appeared: that the scientists themselves were and are being reduced epistemically to the status of lay persons, outside of their proper field of expertise (as was pointed out by J. Hardwig). The paper deals with some cognitive aspects of this historical process. (shrink)
Our purpose in this paper is to contribute to the project of meta-theodicy, understood here as the elucidation of the concept of theodicy through the analysis of its adequacy. In our case, the analysis shall be made inside a framework including a taxonomical view of the theodical adequacy conditions which allows for a rigorously acceptable description of them as well as for a natural appraisal of the role, importance and intra-logical relations holding between them. The result of the analysis shall (...) be used to introduce definitions minimally precise of the notions of theodicy, satisfactory theodicy, plausible theodicy, ideal theodicy, and the like. (shrink)