In this article, we analyze the relationship between the main dimensions of organizational structure and ecological responsiveness in a sample of 109 firms in the European air passenger transport industry. Broadly confirming our hypotheses, the results show that high formalization of routine tasks favors ecological responsiveness. Structures characterized by high decentralization and low complexity also favor ecological responsiveness. Furthermore, decentralization has a significant, positive relationship with ecological responsiveness among firms with low vertical complexity. Overall, the results indicate that organizational structure (...) plays a major role in ecological responsiveness. (shrink)
Raquel Cascales and Luis Echarte focus on the development of practical wisdom and what they call ‘seeing with the heart’ for science students by means of reading science ﬁction literature. They argue that literature can bring the student into contact with the reality of moral life as moral dilemmas are made concrete by the characters and circumstances in a novel. They provide an analysis of how Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World can be read in the classroom and show how (...) the novel invites students to think about the role of science in society, the evolutionary paradigm, advances in genetic and psychological manipulation, as well as questions concerning human emotions,suﬀering, and friendship. (shrink)
El presente estudio presenta en esquema comparativo dos modelos antropológicos antagónicos del ser personal, provenientes de los dos autores más influyentes de los comienzos de la filosofía contemporánea: Søren Kierkegaard y Friedrich Nietzsche. En el paradigma de pensador danés encontramos en la estructura del ser personal la necesidad de relacionarse con Dios, pasando por distintos estadios de la vida desde un primer estadio inferior “estético” a otro estadio superior “ético-religioso”. En la visión del filósofo alemán, por su parte, situamos la (...) esencia del ser humano en la vivencia instintiva de la inmediatez propia de la exaltación de la vida sin límite y de la búsqueda del placer autonomizado, vivencias que al final se vuelven contra la vida misma. (shrink)
Argumentation mining aims to automatically detect, classify and structure argumentation in text. Therefore, argumentation mining is an important part of a complete argumentation analyisis, i.e. understanding the content of serial arguments, their linguistic structure, the relationship between the preceding and following arguments, recognizing the underlying conceptual beliefs, and understanding within the comprehensive coherence of the specific topic. We present different methods to aid argumentation mining, starting with plain argumentation detection and moving forward to a more structural analysis of the detected (...) argumentation. Different state-of-the-art techniques on machine learning and context free grammars are applied to solve the challenges of argumentation mining. We also highlight fundamental questions found during our research and analyse different issues for future research on argumentation mining. (shrink)
The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has quickly swept the globe leaving a devastating trail of lost human lives and leading to a public health and economic crisis. With this in mind, prosociality has been heralded as a potential important factor to overcome the negative effects of the pandemic. As such, in this study, we examined the effectiveness of a brief reflexive writing exercise about recent experiences of gratitude on individuals’ intentions to engage in prosocial behaviors using a sample of (...) 253 participants living in Portugal and 280 participants living in Brazil. Participants were randomly assigned to either a condition in which they were asked to write about recent experiences of gratitude or a control group in which they were asked to write about daily tasks. We predicted that the gratitude intervention would increase state gratitude and, consequently, increase positive affect and empathic concern, and decrease negative affect, leading to increased intentions to engage in prosocial behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. A moderated serial–parallel mediation analysis, in which we controlled for gender, age, and level of religiosity, indicated that our manipulation led to increases in state gratitude, which in turn increased positive emotions and empathic concern, leading to increased prosocial intentions in both countries. A content analysis of participants’ responses in the gratitude group revealed that relationships with others and health and well-being were the central themes of their gratitude experiences during the COVID-19 global pandemic. (shrink)
Brazil has one of the highest levels of economic disparity in the world. The educational system plays a large role in this reality, acting as a mechanism of social exclusion. Neoliberalism has resulted in the commodification of education, empowering private schools while undermining the public system. This has created a vicious cycle, whereby educational inequality reflects and reinforces social inequality. Such a system violates the rights of children not lucky enough to be born into wealth – the right to equal (...) education; to equal opportunity; and equal treatment. From within this context, we propose a model, dubbed The Eagle’s Flight, for psychological intervention in public schools. This will form an extension of our research group’s Psychosocial Assessment and Intervention – Prevention, Community and Liberation, which has been an on-going project for the past fourteen years. The intervention model advocates monitoring child development from a critical, social and historical perspective, focusing on how school and community affect everyday life. The analysis will be carried out via the daily immersion of psychologists in the public school setting, who pay attention to key aspects which include various expressions of violence, financial difficulties related to unemployment, informal employment or drug dealing, poor access to health services, and the developmental impact of factors such as poverty. Based on Paulo Freire's Emancipatory Education Proposal and Ignacio Martín-Baró’s Liberation Psychology, intervention in school and community must be an interdisciplinary procedure, employing professionals from a range of disciplines involved in the study of child development. The various subjects’ perspectives seek to provide support for everyday problems and solutions, whilst breaking down the hegemonic model of psychological practice that considers the child and family as responsible for their problems. A concrete example of this critical psychosocial intervention model is presented. (shrink)
A partir de los apologistas cristianos del siglo II, los ejercicios espirituales de la filosofía antigua van a ser empleados al servicio de la imitación de Cristo y mezclados con ejercicios de mortificación corporal totalmente ajenos al espíritu de la filosofía platónica, estoica o neoplatónica. El cuerpo de los ascetas cristianos no puede ser negado ni ignorado –pues sería como negar la corporalidad de Jesús–, pero tampoco puede ser querido ni valorado –en nombre de la imitación de Cristo. Junto al (...) elogio del sufrimiento, la relación paradójica con el propio cuerpo está en la base del modo de vida cristiano y condiciona la dirección y la profundidad de los ejercicios que el cristianismo toma prestados de la filosofía antigua. (shrink)
Este trabalho toma como disparador duas situações de sala de aula em que se questiona se a imaginação como gênero do conhecimento constitui uma ameaça ou uma possibilidade potencial do desenvolvimento humano. Para tanto, estudamos o prefácio e os dois primeiros capítulos do Tratado Teológico Político, o Tratado da Reforma da Inteligência, e a Ética de Espinosa. Nesse sentido buscamos compreender as possíveis repercussões do estudo do conceito espinosano de imaginação no âmbito educacional contemporâneo.
Tetsugaku Companion to Japanese Philosophy – Ueda Shizuteru (Forthcoming: Sringer) Table of Contents (to be revised) Introduction Raquel Bouso, Adam Loughnane, Ralf Müller Part 1 Ueda Shizuteru’s Philosophy Chapter 1: Introducing Ueda Chapter 2: The Contours of Ueda Shizuteru’s Philosophy of Zen Bret Davis Part 2 Mysticism, Eckhart and Zen Chapter 3: Ueda as Reader of Eckhart Bernard Stevens Chapter 4: An Ontology of Non-Discriminatory Love: The Resurrection of the Triune Self in Ueda Shizuteru’s Appropriation and Critique of Meister (...) Eckhart Gregory Moss Chapter 5: “The Self that is not a self”: Ueda and Guoan’s Ten Ox pictures Gereon Kopf Chapter 6: On Mysticism and Non-Mysticism Carlotta Moiso Part 3 Ueda and Contemporary Philosophy Chapter 7: Ueda on Being-in-the-Twofold-World or World Amidst The Open Expanse: Reading Nishida Through Heidegger and Reading Heidegger Through Nishida John Krummel Chapter 8: Nishida and Ueda on Philosophical Reflection Ishihara Yuko Chapter 9: Twofold Being-in-the-World in Ueda’s Philosophy: On His Interpretation of Heidegger and Nishida Ōta Hironobu Chapter 10: In-between: Religious quest and philosophy of life in Ueda and Buber Raquel Bouso Chapter 11: Ueda’s Metaethics Jason Dockstader Part 4 Hermeneutics and Language Chapter 12: Ueda and Heidegger: Playing in Hollowness, Abiding in Actuality and the Risk of Poetic Language Adam Loughnane Chapter 13:The articulation of silence in language. About Ueda Shizuteru’s language thinking Ralf Müller Chapter 14: Nothingness and the poetic experience: Ueda and Valente Pablo Acosta and Raquel Bouso Chapter 15: Being With and In Language Ueda’s Phenomenological Approach to Language through Urwort Kuwayama Yukiko Part 5 Ueda in debate Chapter 16: Introduction to Ueda’s works James W. Heisig Chapter 17: Reviewing Ueda’s PhD Dissertation- Review Heinrich Dumoulin - Review Jan Sudbrack Chapter 18: Ueda Shizuteru and Ito Masao discussing the heart - The depth of the heart Ueda Shizuteru - Replying to Ueda: The brain and the secret of the heart Ito Masao Chapter 19: Interview: To Shoulder The Tradition of the Kyoto School Ueda Shizuteru interviewed by Takahashi Yoshito Appendix Bibliography The Ten Oxherding Pictures. (shrink)
I address the question of whether differences in color terminology cause differences in color experience in speakers of different languages. If linguistic representations directly affect color experience, then this is a case of what I call the linguistic penetrability of perception, which is a particular case of cognitive penetrability. I start with some general considerations about cognitive penetration and its alleged occurrence in the memory color effect. I then apply similar considerations to the interpretation of empirical studies of color perception (...) in speakers of different languages. I argue that findings such as differences in categorical perception in speakers of different languages do not show that language affects color experience. They therefore do not support the claim that color experience is linguistically penetrable. But even if we grant that color experience is different in speakers of different languages, I argue that this might still not be a case of linguistic penetration. Finally, I consider some epistemological consequences of the assumption that speakers of different languages have different color experiences. (shrink)
The goal of this paper is to present some advantages of the representational and computational theories of mind when compared to other views, especially behaviorism. The idea is that representational and computational theories allow us to conceive propositional attitudes in a way that preserves two essential features we take them to have in common sense psychological explanations: semantic evaluability and causal efficacy. Behaviorism reconceives mental states in a way that doesn’t preserve these essential features. In so doing, it makes a (...) mystery of the success of common sense psychology. I illustrate some of the difficulties that behaviorism faces by considering and criticizing Wittgenstein’s approach to linguistic understanding. The upshot is that representational and computational theories of mind do a better job at vindicating common sense psychology, and so are to be preferred when compared to behaviorism. (shrink)
Food choices are influenced by many factors, such as emotional. When people eat, driven by emotional factors, they often lose control, which may lead to eating disorders. Therefore, this work aimed at studying the influence that emotional determinants had on people’s food choices. It was undertaken a descriptive cross-sectional study by means of a questionnaire on a non-probabilistic sample of 1314 participants. The data was collected among a sample of the Portuguese population and measured if people´s food choices were influenced (...) by emotional determinants. The results revealed that the participants’ food choices were, in general, slightly influenced by emotional determinants. There were found significant differences in all of the variables under study. The participants, who already experienced an episode of binge-eating, were the ones that obtained the highest mean score, meaning that in this case those participants’ food choices were influenced by emotional determinants. These results support the premise that emotional determinants are influenced by the characteristics of each individual and also the existence of a positive association between emotional eating and the presence of eating disorders, especially, binge-eating. (shrink)
This article explores the dialogical engagement between text and interpreter, which is shaped by the particular socio-cultural location of African American readers/hearers. It identifies some of the key issues that help to shape an African American socio-cultural context and explores their implications for biblical interpretation.
Este artigo é um mapeamento inicial dos impactos do fotojornalismo do grupo que ficou conhecido como "O Clube do Bang Bang", na África do Sul, no período de transição entre o final da política de apartheid e as primeiras eleições democráticas no país, em 1994. Qual o papel assumido pelo registro fotográfico, com o senso de realidade que impõe àquilo que apresenta, na construção da memória política sul-africana? Palavras-chave: África do Sul, apartheid, fotojornalismo, memória.
Este artigo pretende desenvolver uma análise sobre o que é pensar, o que é o pensamento e porque é que é tão importante sabermos pensar, aprendermos a pensar. Neste sentido, analisaremos a perspetiva de Dewey e de Lipman. Esta investigação sustenta a tese de que o pensar é uma questão central na filosofia e de que urge implementar estirpes filosóficas na nossa sociedade. É essencial fomentar o pensar, aprendermos a pensar, a pensar bem, desde a mais tenra idade. Tal pode (...) ser possível através da Filosofia para Crianças, que tem por base ajudar as crianças e os jovens a pensar. Por conseguinte, iremos aprofundar a perspetiva de Matthew Lipman, mentor do programa de Filosofia para Crianças.: This article intends develop an analysis of what it is to think, what is thinking and why it is so important to know how to think, learn to think. In this sense, we analyze the perspective of Dewey and Lipman. This research supports the thesis that thinking is a central issue in philosophy and the urgent need to implement philosophical strains in our society. It is essential to foster the think, learn to think, to think about it, from an early age. This can be possible through the Philosophy for Children, which is based on helping children and young people how to think. Therefore, we will deepen the perspective of Matthew Lipman, mentor of the Philosophy for Children program. Keywords: Thinking, philosophy, children, dialogue, research community. (shrink)
This book presents the first collection of essays on the philosophy of Ueda Shizuteru in a Western language. Ueda, the last living member of the Kyoto school, has fostered the East-West dialogue in all his works and has helped to open up the Western image of philosophy by engaging the Zen tradition. The book reflects this particular trait of Ueda’s philosophy, but it also covers all thematic fields of his writings. Contributions from both young and established scholars and experts from (...) Japan, Europe and the U.S. make this a unique introduction to and reception of Ueda’s philosophy. Readers will discover discussions of mysticism in the East and West, and consideration of modern philosophy topics including self-awareness, nature and poetic language. The book also presents a focussed look at language and nothingness, considering silence and nihilism. Chapters allow the reader to understand the timeliness of a thinking that mediates and transcends the dichotomy of East and West. This volume will appeal not only to scholars of Nishida, Japanese philosophy, mysticism and religious experience in Japan, but also to scholars of Western philosophy, especially those interested in Meister Eckhart, Martin Heidegger and Martin Buber. It makes an ideal introduction to Zen philosophy and presents important contributions to scholarship on language and experience. (shrink)
To get a comprehensive understanding of the core concept of “the end of art”, this book analyses the intellectual trajectory of Arthur Danto, highlighting his successive achievements in philosophy of action, philosophy of history and philosophy of art. If, as Danto says, everything is extensively associated with everything else, it is impossible to avoid putting the philosophy of art in relation with his whole philosophical system. -/- .
BackgroundThe impact of a cancer diagnosis may be traumatic, depending on the psychological resources used by patients. Appropriate coping strategies are related to better adaptation to the disease, with coping flexibility, corresponding to the ability to replace ineffective coping strategies, demonstrated to be highly related with self-efficacy to handle trauma. The Perceived Ability to Cope with Trauma scale is a self-rated questionnaire that assesses the perceived ability to cope with potentially traumatic events, providing a measure of coping flexibility. The current (...) study aimed at examining the psychometric properties of the PACT Scale in Portuguese patients with breast cancer.MethodsThe study included 172 patients recently diagnosed with early breast cancer. Participants completed a Portuguese version of the PACT scale, and instruments of self-efficacy for coping with cancer, of quality of life, and of psychological distress that were used as convergent and divergent measures, thus assessing construct validity. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test the factor structure of the Portuguese version of PACT scale and reliabilities were examined.ResultsResults from the CFA confirmed the two-factor structure, consistent with the original Forward and Trauma focus subscales. The two subscales demonstrated high internal consistencies. Convergent and divergent validities were confirmed: the PACT scale was related to high self-efficacy to cope with cancer, to high perceived quality of life, and to low psychological distress.DiscussionOverall, the current results support and replicate the psychometric properties of the PACT scale. The scale was found to be a valid and reliable self-reported measure to assess Portuguese breast cancer patients regarding beliefs about their capabilities in managing the potentially traumatic sequelae of cancer. The PACT is a simple and brief measure of coping flexibility to trauma, with potential relevance for application in clinical and research settings. (shrink)
My goal here is to assess whether Wittgenstein’s metaphilosophical conception of a descriptive philosophy is in accordance with his philosophical practice. I argue that Wittgenstein doesn’t really limit himself to description when he criticizes Moore’s use of the verb “to know”. In On Certainty, Wittgenstein argues that Moore’s claims of knowledge are at odds with the everyday use of the verb “to know”, because, among other things, they don’t allow the possibility of justification. That is, Wittgenstein considers that proper, everyday (...) claims of knowledge require the possibility of justification. What I try to show is that this idea cannot be derived from the mere observation and description of knowledge claims in ordinary language. I conclude that Wittgenstein’s treatment of the verb “to know” constitutes an inconsistency between his metaphilosophical posture and his philosophical practice. (shrink)
El Romanticismo miró la Ilustración como una época que, al apostar por la racionalidad de manera casi exclusiva, rompió la unidad entre distintos ámbitos del saber. La conciencia de esa falta de unidad impulsa la reflexión de muchos intelectuales sobre cómo volver a alcanzarla, tarea que al principio los románticos hacen recaer en el arte. En concreto, el grupo de los Nazarenos, muy ligado al Athenäum, apostó por recuperar esta unidad, que pronto adquirió tintes políticos, mediante la “religión del arte”. (...) También otros autores idealistas, como Schelling, consideraron que el arte debía ocupar el lugar primordial en el sistema filosófico. Frente a ellos destaca la figura de Hegel, que rechazará cada vez con más fuerza la mistificación romántica del arte. Aunque, como se verá, en un inicio Hegel también habla de la “religión del arte”, en su obra de madurez distingue entre arte, religión y filosofía, dejando claro el lugar primordial que ocupa la racionalidad filosófica en su sistema. Revisando estas cuestiones desde la perspectiva más contemporánea, Inciarte considera que, a pesar de la rotundidad del pensamiento hegeliano, estas tensiones no pueden quedar resueltas desde un enfoque meramente reflexivo, sino que sólo encuentran una salida cuando se tratan en el nivel práctico de la vida. (shrink)