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  1. Against relativism: cultural diversity and the search for ethical universals in medicine.Ruth Macklin - 1999 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This book provides an analysis of the debate surrounding cultural diversity, and attempts to reconcile the seemingly opposing views of "ethical imperialism," the belief that each individual is entitled to fundamental human rights, and cultural relativism, the belief that ethics must be relative to particular cultures and societies. The author examines the role of cultural tradition, often used as a defense against critical ethical judgments. Key issues in health and medicine are explored in the context of cultural diversity: the physician-patient (...)
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  2. Bioethics, vulnerability, and protection.Ruth Macklin - 2003 - Bioethics 17 (5-6):472--486.
    What makes individuals, groups, or even entire countries vulnerable? And why is vulnerability a concern in bioethics? A simple answer to both questions is that vulnerable individuals and groups are subject to exploitation, and exploitation is morally wrong. This analysis is limited to two areas. First is the context of multinational research, in which vulnerable people can be exploited even if they are not harmed, and harmed even if they are not exploited. Second is the situation of women, who are (...)
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  3.  13
    'Due' and 'Undue' Inducements: On Pasing Money to Research Subjects.Ruth Macklin - 1981 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 3 (5):1.
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  4.  30
    Human Resource Management: Ethics and Employment.Ashly Pinnington, Rob Macklin & Tom Campbell (eds.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    The book examines ethics and employment issues in contemporary Human Resource Management (HRM). Written by an international team of academics from universities in the UK, the US, Australia and New Zealand, it examines the problems and opportunities facing employers and employees. The book subdivides into three sections: Part I assesses the context of HRM; Part II analyses contemporary debates, continuity and change in HRM, and Part III proposes likely developments for the future seeking to identify a more proactive HRM approach (...)
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  5.  26
    Informed Consent and Standard of Care: What Must Be Disclosed.Ruth Macklin & Lois Shepherd - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (12):9-13.
    The Office for Human Research Protections was correct in determining that the consent forms for the National Institutes of Health -sponsored SUPPORT study were seriously flawed. Several articles defended the consent forms and criticized the OHRP's actions. Disagreement focuses on three central issues: how risks and benefits should be described in informed consent documents; the meaning and application of the concept of “standard of care” in the context of research; and the proper role of OHRP. Examination of the consent forms (...)
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  6.  7
    Misrepresenting “Usual Care” in Research: An Ethical and Scientific Error.Ruth Macklin & Charles Natanson - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (1):31-39.
    ABSTRACTComparative effectiveness studies, referred to here as “usual-care” trials, seek to compare current medical practices for the same medical condition. Such studies are presumed to be safe and involve only minimal risks. However, that presumption may be flawed if the trial design contains “unusual” care, resulting in potential risks to subjects and inaccurately informed consent. Three case studies described here did not rely on clinical evidence to ascertain contemporaneous practice. As a result, the investigators drew inaccurate conclusions, misinformed research participants, (...)
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  7. Against Relativism: Cultural Diversity and the Search for Ethical Universals in Medicine.Ruth Macklin & John W. Cook - 2001 - Philosophical Quarterly 51 (202):121-124.
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  8.  31
    After helsinki: Unresolved issues in international research.Ruth Macklin - 2001 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 11 (1):17-36.
    : Following a long process of revision, a new version of the Declaration of Helsinki was approved by the World Medical Association in 2000. Two provisions of the Declaration address ongoing international controversies regarding research sponsored by industrialized countries and conducted in developing countries. Despite the issuance of the final version of the Declaration, opponents remain locked in debate. Moreover, the Declaration remained silent on other prominent controversies concerning international research. An analysis of these current controversies reveals reasons why they (...)
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  9. Moral progress.Ruth Macklin - 1977 - Ethics 87 (4):370-382.
  10.  59
    The new conservatives in bioethics: Who are they and what do they seek?Ruth Macklin - 2006 - Hastings Center Report 36 (1):34-43.
    A new political movement has arisen in bioethics, self‐consciously distingushed from the rest of the ield and characterized by a new way of writing and arguing. Unfortunately, that new method is mean‐spirited, mystical, and emotional. It claims insight into ultimate truth yet disavows reason.
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  11.  8
    Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Misrepresenting ‘Usual Care’ in Research: An Ethical and Scientific Error”.Ruth Macklin & Charles Natanson - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (1):W12-W14.
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  12.  13
    Common morality and medical ethics: not so different after all.Ruth Macklin - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (12):780-781.
    Rhodes seeks to defend her ‘conclusion that everyday ethics and medical ethics [are] incompatible’.1 She challenges ‘views that medical ethics is nothing more than common morality applied to clinical matters’.1 Beauchamp and Childress explicate the term ‘common morality’ at length.2 Nowhere do they claim that medical ethics is ‘nothing more than common morality applied to clinical matters’. Here is what they do say: “The origin of the norms of the common morality is no different in principle from the origin of (...)
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  13.  43
    The Paradoxical Case of Payment as Benefit to Research Subjects.Ruth Macklin - 1989 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 11 (6):1.
  14.  11
    A new definition for global bioethics: COVID-19, a case study.Ruth Macklin - 2022 - Global Bioethics 33 (1):4-13.
    A truly global bioethics involves cooperation and collaboration among countries. Most of the articles published in bioethics journals address a problem that exists in one or more countries, but the articles typically do not discuss solutions that require collaboration or cooperation. COVAX is one example of proposed international cooperation related to the current COVID-19. pandemic. Yet it is evident that nations have been proceeding on their own with little, if any collaboration. Despite international research ethics guidance from the World Health (...)
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  15.  6
    Can one do good medical ethics without principles?Ruth Macklin - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (1):75-78.
    The criteria for determining what it is to do good medical ethics are the quality of ethical analysis and ethical justifications for decisions and actions. Justifications for decisions and actions rely on ethical principles, be they the ‘famous four’ or subsidiary ethical principles relevant to specific contexts. Examples from clinical ethics, research ethics and public health ethics reveal that even when not stated explicitly, principles are involved in ethical justifications. Principles may come into conflict, however, and the resolution of an (...)
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  16.  29
    The Virtues Project: An Approach to Developing Good Leaders.Toby Newstead, Sarah Dawkins, Rob Macklin & Angela Martin - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 167 (4):605-622.
    Virtue words, such as justice, fairness, care, and integrity, frequently feature in organizational codes of conduct and theories of ethical leadership. And yet our modern organizations remain blemished by examples lacking virtue. The philosophy of virtue ethics and numerous extant theories of leadership cite virtues as essential to good leadership. But we seem to lack understanding of how to develop or embed these virtues and notions of good leadership in practice. In 2012, virtue ethicist Julia Annas pointed to a training (...)
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  17. Ethical relativism in a multicultural society.Ruth Macklin - 1998 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8 (1):1-22.
    : The multicultural composition of the United States can pose problems for physicians and patients who come from diverse backgrounds. Although respect for cultural diversity mandates tolerance of the beliefs and practices of others, in some situations excessive tolerance can produce harm to patients. Careful analysis is needed to determine which values are culturally relative and which rest on an underlying universal ethical principle. A conception of justice as equality challenges the notion that it is always necessary to respect all (...)
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  18.  84
    A global ethics approach to vulnerability.Ruth Macklin - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (2):64-81.
    In exploring the concept of vulnerability, we do not begin with a blank slate. In research involving human subjects, ethics guidelines typically provide a rough definition of the concept. For example, the commentary on Guideline 13 in the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, issued by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), says that "vulnerable persons are those who are relatively (or absolutely) incapable of protecting their own interests. More formally, they may have insufficient (...)
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  19.  77
    On paying money to research subjects: 'due' and 'undue' inducements.R. Macklin - 1981 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 3 (5):1-6.
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  20.  16
    Erosion of informed consent in U.S. research.Lois Shepherd & Ruth Macklin - 2018 - Bioethics 33 (1):4-12.
    This paper evaluates four recent randomized clinical trials in which the informed consent of participants was either not sought at all, or else was conducted with critical information missing from the consent documents. As these studies have been taking place, various proposals to conduct randomized clinical trials without consent have been appearing in the medical literature. Some of the explanations offered for why it is appropriate to bypass consent or disclosure requirements appear to represent a fundamental misunderstanding of applicable government (...)
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  21.  26
    Applying the four principles.R. Macklin - 2003 - Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (5):275-280.
    Gillon is correct that the four principles provide a sound and useful way of analysing moral dilemmas. As he observes, the approach using these principles does not provide a unique solution to dilemmas. This can be illustrated by alternatives to Gillon’s own analysis of the four case scenarios. In the first scenario, a different set of factual assumptions could yield a different conclusion about what is required by the principle of beneficence. In the second scenario, although Gillon’s conclusion is correct, (...)
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  22.  2
    Another Defense of Common Morality.Ruth Macklin - 2022 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 31 (2):177-184.
    Robert Baker and Rosamond Rhodes each argue against the universality “common morality,” the approach to ethics that comprises four fundamental principles and their application in various settings. Baker contends that common morality cannot account for cultural diversity in the world and claims that a human rights approach is superior in the context of global health. Rhodes maintains that bioethics is not reducible to common morality because medical professionals have special privileges and responsibilities that people lack in everyday life. Baker fails (...)
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  23.  14
    Splitting Embryos on the Slippery Slope: Ethics and Public Policy.Ruth Macklin - 1994 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 4 (3):209-225.
    Neither the George Washington University embryo splitting experiment nor the technique of embryo splitting itself has ethical flaws. The experiment harmed or wronged no one, and the investigators followed intramural review procedures for the experiment, although some might fault them for failing to seek extramural consultation or for not waiting until national guidelines for research on preembryos were developed. Ethical objections to such cloning on the basis of possible loss of individuality, possible lessening of individual worth, and concern about potential (...)
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  24. Mental health and mental illness: Some problems of definition and concept formation.Ruth Macklin - 1972 - Philosophy of Science 39 (3):341-365.
    In recent years there has been considerable discussion and controversy concerning the concepts of mental health and mental illness. The controversy has centered around the problem of providing criteria for an adequate conception of mental health and illness, as well as difficulties in specifying a clear and workable system for the classification, understanding, and treatment of psychological and emotional disorders. In this paper I shall examine a cluster of these complex and important issues, focusing on attempts to define ‘mental health’ (...)
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  25.  9
    AIDS Research: The Ethics of Clinical Trials.Ruth Macklin & Gerald Friedland - 1986 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 14 (5-6):273-280.
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  26.  17
    The Inner Workings of an Ethics Committee: Latest Battle over Jehovah's Witnesses.Ruth Macklin - 1988 - Hastings Center Report 18 (1):15-20.
    Jehovah's Witnesses who refuse blood transfusions on religious grounds have long created ethical dilemmas for those in the medical profession trying to serve them. A bioethicist working in a clinical setting explores how one hospital ethics committee grappled with the additional problem of pregnant Jehovah's Witnesses, including the complex interdependence of maternal and fetal rights.
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  27.  8
    AIDS Research: The Ethics of Clinical Trials.Ruth Macklin & Gerald Friedland - 1986 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 14 (5-6):273-280.
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  28.  18
    The Self and its Brain.Ruth Macklin - 1979 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 40 (2):290-292.
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  29. Introduction: ethical human resource management.Ashly Pinnington, Rob Macklin & Tom Campbell - 2007 - In Ashly Pinnington, Rob Macklin & Tom Campbell (eds.), Human Resource Management: Ethics and Employment. Oxford University Press.
     
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  30.  29
    Ethical challenges in HIV microbicide research: What protections do women need?Ruth Macklin - 2011 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (2):124-143.
    Finding an effective method that can lower women’s risk of HIV infection is an ethical imperative. A vaginal microbicide is a preventive method that can be controlled by women. Well-designed scientific research has already yielded modest success, yet more research is needed in order to develop an even better product. But just as research must be scientifically sound, it must also be ethically sound. Ethical challenges in HIV microbicide research include issues of safety and level of efficacy, whether pregnant women (...)
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  31.  17
    Bioethics and Public Policy in the Next Millennium: Presidential Address.Ruth Macklin - 2001 - Bioethics 15 (5-6):373-381.
  32. Is There Anything Wrong with Surrogate Motherhood? An Ethical Analysis.Ruth Macklin - 1988 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 16 (1-2):57-64.
  33.  29
    Process Ethics and Business: Applying Process Thought to Enact Critiques of Mind/Body Dualism in Organizations.Rob Macklin, Karin Mathison & Mark Dibben - 2014 - Process Studies 43 (2):61-86.
    The study of organizational ethics continues to be the focus of significant academic attention, however it is a discourse that remains largely informed by a form of morality that is perhaps best described as ordered and cognitive. Traditional approaches to questions of organizational ethics emphasize a fundamentally static view of organizations and the people within them, reinforcing notions of mind/body dualism and reifying ethics as an outcome of human agency, choice, and deliberate intention (see MacKay and Chia). We challenge this (...)
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  34.  17
    A defense of fundamental principles and human rights: A reply to Robert Baker.Ruth Macklin - 1998 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8 (4):403-422.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:A Defense of Fundamental Principles and Human Rights: A Reply to Robert Baker *Ruth Macklin (bio)AbstractThis article seeks to rebut Robert Baker’s contention that attempts to ground international bioethics in fundamental principles cannot withstand the challenges posed by multiculturalism and postmodernism. First, several corrections are provided of Baker’s account of the conclusions reached by the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. Second, a rebuttal is offered to Baker’s claim (...)
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  35.  34
    Artificial Means of Reproduction and Our Understanding of the Family.Ruth Macklin - 1991 - Hastings Center Report 21 (1):5-11.
    The new reproductive technologies force us to rethink the concepts ‘mother,’ ‘father,’ ‘family.’ As we draw analogies to traditional patterns, we must distinguish between ethical and conceptual questions.
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  36. How Independent Are IRBs?Ruth Macklin - 2008 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 30 (3).
    What does it mean to say that ethics committees that provide prospective review of research involving human beings should be “independent”? In the United States, IRBs—which are typically located within and review research protocols at the institution for which most of their members work—cannot really be considered independent. Yet separating the IRB from the research institution may in turn mean less independence from a trial’s sponsors, as this kind of IRB is commercially motivated and paid directly by the sponsor. One (...)
     
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  37.  44
    Is There Anything Wrong with Surrogate Motherhood? An Ethical Analysis.Ruth Macklin - 1988 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 16 (1-2):57-64.
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  38.  7
    Moral Concerns and Appeals to Rights and Duties.Ruth Macklin - 1976 - Hastings Center Report 6 (5):31-38.
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  39.  17
    Essentialism, Absolutism, and Moral Relativism.Ruth Macklin - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 2 (2):39-40.
    It is always gratifying when another scholar endorses one's own publicly stated position on a controversial matter. It was therefore with distinct appreciation that I read John Banja's article crit...
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  40.  9
    Changing the Presumption: Providing ART to Vaccine Research Participants.Ruth Macklin - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (1):W1-W5.
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  41.  83
    The Death of Bioethics (as We Once Knew It).Ruth Macklin - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (5):211-217.
    ABSTRACT Fast forward 50 years into the future. A look back at what occurred in the field of bioethics since 2010 reveals that a conference in 2050 commemorated the death of bioethics. In a steady progression over the years, the field became increasingly fragmented and bureaucratized. Disagreement and dissension were rife, and this once flourishing, multidisciplinary field began to splinter in multiple ways. Prominent journals folded, one by one, and were replaced with specialized publications dealing with genethics, reproethics, nanoethics, and (...)
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  42.  18
    Fair Benefits in Developing Countries: Maximin as a Good Start.Ruth Macklin - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):36-37.
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  43. Intertwining Biomedical Research and Public Health in HIV Microbicide Research.R. Macklin - 2010 - Public Health Ethics 3 (3):199-209.
    Finding an effective microbicide that could substantially lower women’s risk of acquiring HIV infection is an ethical imperative. Women and girls continue to be disproportionally affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Ethics guidelines for conducting preventive HIV microbicide trials call for steps that intertwine biomedical research and public health. Ethical considerations include adequate studies of the safety of microbicides, the use of placebo controls in future trials once a microbicide is shown to be effective, whether leftover microbicide from a trial (...)
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  44.  36
    Special Supplement: The XYY Controversy: Researching Violence and Genetics.Diane Bauer, Ronald Bayer, Jonathan Beckwith, Gordon Bermant, Digamber S. Borgaonkar, Daniel Callahan, Arthur Caplan, John Conrad, Charles M. Culver, Gerald Dworkin, Harold Edgar, Willard Gaylin, Park Gerald, Clarence Harris, Johnathan King, Ruth Macklin, Allan Mazur, Robert Michels, Carola Mone, Rosalind Petchesky, Tabitha M. Powledge, Reed E. Pyeritz, Arthur Robinson, Thomas Scanlon, Saleem A. Shah, Thomas A. Shannon, Margaret Steinfels, Judith P. Swazey, Paul Wachtel & Stanley Walzer - 1980 - Hastings Center Report 10 (4):1.
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  45.  5
    Cluster Randomized Trials: Another Look.Ruth Macklin - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 44 (1):37-43.
    The type of research known as cluster randomized trials raises ethical questions not readily answered within the standard understanding of research ethics. What distinguishes a CRT is that it randomizes at the level of social groups rather than at the level of individual research participants: in a CRT, the regimen under study might be assigned to a village, hospital, or school. The organizational schemes of CRTs raise an assortment of fundamental ethical problems. In certain CRTs, the question of whether it (...)
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  46. The Morally Decent HR Manager.Rob Macklin - 2007 - In Ashly Pinnington, Rob Macklin & Tom Campbell (eds.), Human Resource Management: Ethics and Employment. Oxford University Press.
     
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  47.  5
    Mortal choices: ethical dilemmas in modern medicine.Ruth Macklin - 1987 - Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Discusses ethical issues in medicine, including informed consent, the right to die, incompetency, parental decisions, resource allocation, and experiments with human subjects.
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  48.  30
    Ethics and the Human Resource Manager.David Ardagh & Rob Macklin - 1998 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 17 (4):61-78.
  49. Cloning and Public Policy.Ruth Macklin - 2002 - In Justine Burley & John Harris (eds.), A companion to genethics. Blackwell. pp. 206-215.
    It seemed like only minutes after a team of Scottish scientists announced, in late February 1997, that they had successfully cloned a sheep, that governmental officials and private citizens throughout the world called for a ban on cloning human beings. The rush to legislate or issue executive orders was so swift, it is reasonable to wonder why the news that a mammal had been cloned ignited such a stampede to prohibit, even criminalize, attempts to clone humans. These events raise a (...)
     
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  50.  42
    Four forward-looking guidance points.Ruth Macklin - 2001 - Developing World Bioethics 1 (2):121–134.
    Four key guidance points in the UNAIDS guidance document, Ethical Considerations in HIV Preventive Vaccine Research, are compared wit.
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