In the literature, different axiomatizations of Public Announcement Logic (PAL) have been proposed. Most of these axiomatizations share a “core set” of the so-called “reduction axioms”. In this paper, by designing non-standard Kripke semantics for the language of PAL, we show that the proof system based on this core set of axioms does not completely axiomatize PAL without additional axioms and rules. In fact, many of the intuitive axioms and rules we took for granted could not be derived from the (...) core set. Moreover, we also propose and advocate an alternative yet meaningful axiomatization of PAL without the reduction axioms. The completeness is proved directly by a detour method using the canonical model where announcements are treated as merely labels for modalities as in normal modal logics. This new axiomatization and its completeness proof may sharpen our understanding of PAL and can be adapted to other dynamic epistemic logics. (shrink)
Este artículo tiene por objeto subyacente abordar un nuevo diálogo entre derecho y ciencia basado en la aplicación de las teorías del caos y de la complejidad al ámbito jurídico. Para ello se sirve, a modo introductorio, de los diversos artículos en los que el estadounidense John B. Ruhl se ha ocupado de esta materia. Así, además de una descripción breve de las teorías, se discute acerca de la aplicabilidad directa o analógica de las mismas y se presentan los elementos (...) que, a juicio del Ruhl, permiten considerar al derecho como un sistema adaptativo complejo, además de su propuesta normativa. (shrink)
El presente artículo aborda el lugar central que tiene la noción de «voluntad de poder» (Wille zur Macht) en el conjunto del pensamiento nietzscheano; primero en el mundo inorgánico, en su relación con el caos, aspecto descuidado por el mismo Nietzsche, y relacionándole luego con su «perspectivismo necesario». Finalmente, tras caracterizar su implícita confrontación con el caos, se plantea a la voluntad de poder misma como fuerza interpretativa.
ABSTRACT (ENG) One of the concerns of Greek philosophy centred on the question of how a manifold and ordered universe arose out of the primitive state of things. From the mythical accounts dating around the seventh century B.C. to the cosmologies of the Classical period in Ancient Greece, many theories have been proposed in order to answer to this question. How these theories differ in positing a “something” that pre-existed the ordered cosmos has been widely discussed. However, scholars have rarely (...) made explicit how they differ in style of thought. In the span of four centuries the first deductive arguments of the Eleatic philosophers culminated in the emergence of logical proof and a form of explanation of natural phenomena, which consisted of searching for the simplest and fewest premises and deducting implications. In this paper it will be discussed how, at distinct stages of its development, the deductive thinking informed the solutions proposed to solve the chaos-order problem, that of how an ordered universe has been possible. -/- ABSTRACT (ITA) Una delle più importanti questioni della filosofia greca è stata quella di comprendere come sia stato possibile un universo ordinato a partire da uno stato primordiale. Dalle teogonie del VII secolo a.C. fino alle cosmologie dei filosofi dell’età classica, sono state proposte diverse teorie per dare risposta a questa domanda. Come esse differiscano nel postulare l’esistenza di un “qualcosa” di primordiale che preesisteva all’ordine del cosmo è stato molto discusso. Pochi studiosi, però, le hanno esaminate sullo sfondo della lenta evoluzione del pensiero deduttivo, culminata nella dimostrazione in geometria e in una forma di spiegazione dei fenomeni che consisteva nel cercare semplici premesse e inferire conclusioni. In questo articolo si mostrerà come il lento affermarsi della spiegazione razionale prima, dell’argomento deduttivo e della dimostrazione in geometria poi, abbiano dato forma alle diverse risposte al problema caos-ordine, e in particolare alla domanda su come sia sorto un universo ordinato. (shrink)
Análise de aspectos do messianismo judaico no pensamento de Benjamin a partir da temática do caos e da redenção. Abordagem do conceito de história, crítica ao progresso, perda da experiência na modernidade e aspectos da linguagem em Benjamin desde a perspectiva das afinidades eletivas entre messianismo e utopia libertária.
Usually, people think that Gettier counter-examples challenged the traditional tripartite definition of knowledge and fundamentally changed the characteristic of the contemporary epistemology. This paper argues that regard for Gettier counter-examples is exaggerated, because (i) the JTB definition is neither an important nor a comprehensive one that covers all knowledge. Moreover, the significance of Gettier counter-examples is limited. (ii) The source of Gettier counter-examples lies in one arbitrary judgment, two mix-ups, three false assumptions, and a misunderstanding about the JTB definition.
This paper investigates the correlation between the quality of corporate social responsibility disclosure and financial performance. It also investigates the moderating role of chief executive officer power in the relationship between the quality of CSR disclosure and firm value in Chinese listed companies. The evidential research used the up-to-date sample of unbalanced findings for the period of 2014–2020, from the registered Chinese firms in the Shenzhen and Shanghai Stock Exchanges as samples for the study. As a starting point technique, the (...) STATA 15 has been used to test pooled ordinary least squares regression on a sample of Chinese listed companies. We use 1-year lagged regression and two SLS regressions to monitor the potential endogeneity problem. The imbalanced data set was received from the China Stock Market and Accounting Research web page, which is the most significant source of information for Chinese publicly listed firms. Data on CSR information items and media reporting are compiled manually. The findings of the study revealed that there are positive FP consequences for the companies engaged in the quality of CSR disclosure. We also report that higher CEO power negatively enhances the quality of CSR disclosure effect on the FP of FV. The research investigates the impact of CSR disclosure and FP by presenting evidence of the moderating role of CEO power. Therefore, it is suggested that a higher law for CSR engagement and disclosure be implemented in China, and robust measures for the implementation of CEO power, although there are financial advantages to be gained. A key relevance to the empirical quality of CSR disclosure research can be recognized as the moderating role of CEO power in the quality of CSR disclosure, FP, and FV in the context of Chinese study. The findings are robust with the use of an instrumental variable method. (shrink)
The brain is often taken to be a paradigmatic example of a signaling system with semantic and representational properties, in which neurons are senders and receivers of information carried in action potentials. A closer look at this picture shows that it is not as appealing as it might initially seem in explaining the function of the brain. Working from several sender-receiver models within the teleosemantic framework, I will first argue that two requirements must be met for a system to support (...) genuine semantic information: 1. The receiver must be competent —that is, it must be able to extract rewards from its environment on the basis of the signals that it receives. 2. The receiver must have some flexibility of response relative to the signal received. In the second part of the paper, this initial framework will be applied to neural processes, pointing to the surprising conclusion that signaling at the single-neuron level is only weakly semantic at best. Contrary to received views, neurons will have little or no access to semantic information (though their patterns of activity may carry plenty of quantitative, correlational information) about the world outside the organism. Genuine representation of the world requires an organism - level receiver of semantic information, to which any particular set of neurons makes only a small contribution. (shrink)
Given they are the most important components of Daoist thought, it is not surprising that the relation between dao 道 and One ( yi 一) takes many forms. It is often presumed that dao is the higher-level concept and that One supplements dao. However, through studying ancient texts, such as the Huangdi sijing 黃帝四經 and the Heguanzi 鶡冠子, another form is discovered, namely that dao is the lower-level concept of One. Two schools may well have co-existed in early Daoism, one (...) that "values the One" and one that "values the dao." Whereas One refers to sameness or commonality, dao points to distinctness. The One can fully take the place of dao in terms of status and function, while also retaining functions that dao lacks. A fuller understanding of this complex relationship between dao and One is helpful for a more accurate grasp of early Daoism. (shrink)
Tian Yu Cao has written a serious and scholarly book covering a great deal of physics. He ranges from classical relativity theory, both special and general, to relativistic quantum …eld theory, including non-Abelian gauge theory, renormalization theory, and symmetry-breaking, presenting a detailed and very rich picture of the mainstream developments in quantum physics; a remarkable feat. It has, moreover, a philosophical message: according to Cao, the development of these theories is inconsistent with a Kuhnian view of theory change, and supports (...) better a quali…ed realism. (shrink)
Zhong, as it appears in the second story in the Baoxun Testament, is both a physical object that can be lent, as well as an admirable idea to be passed down the generations. Where Zhong appears in the Changmai Chapter of the Yizhoushu, it appears to be a document on punitive laws that is as an object that can be transferred from person to person; it is a receivable object but also as a representation of the idea of Great Rectitude, (...) which is of key importance in the realm of politics. The CM Chapter, like the BX, also makes appeal to the stories of ancient sage kings to argue the rationality of the views it transmits and refers to ‘ancient lost teachings’ and sayings attributed to King Wen of Zhou. Taken together, these points of similarity form the basis for comparison between the BX and the YZS: CM. Furthermore, when we compare the BX with the Duxun Chapter of the YZS, we find confirmation of the legal import of the term Zhong as it appears in the first story of the BX. The common ground shared between the BX, as one of Qinghua University’s collection of Bamboo Manuscripts, and the YZS makes the latter a suitable key for interpreting terms seen in the former text. (shrink)
El presente artículo busca la profundización de la caosmosis deleuziana a través de su puesta en comparación con la propuesta de Prigogine en torno a los sistemas disipativos. Así, exploraremos la aporía entre determinismo y azar que acontece en Prigogine a la hora de afirmar el carácter vivificador de la materia a lo largo de su obra. En este sentido, observaremos el modo en que Deleuze la resuelve desde una ontología de la diferencia que incluye el concepto bergsoniano de virtualidad (...) el cual implica una concepción del tiempo también vivificado. El horizonte, no será otro que buscar el engarce entre la noción de caosmos y la de (neo)barroco de la que Deleuze se ocupó en su última obra dedicada a Leibniz. (shrink)
Artistic images, of a universal nature and validated by global culture, are carriers of an emotional potential that can be used for therapeutic purposes in cultural centers as well as in clinical spaces. Esthetic studies reveal the mobilizing power in their contemplation and the capacity to bring out personal stories with healing potential. The general objective of this paper is to design and validate the PROJECTA instrument, consisting of the therapeutic use of artistic images to approach trauma or difficult conditions (...) in therapy, by means of the association between art images and emotions, feelings or states of mind related with a traumatic experience. A mixed approach of investigation with a concurrent triangulation design has been used for the integration of qualitative and quantitative results, where qualitative research outweighs quantitative, but both have been QUAL → quan sequentially developed. The study was carried out in two phases. The first was a systematic review of the literature. The second, divided into five steps, consisted of the validation of artworks and the associated emotions with the participation of students, experts in art therapy, psychologists and educators through focus groups, interviews and an online questionnaire. The analysis techniques were qualitative and quantitative. A set of 220 artistic images linked to emotional states were proposed by experts in education, psychology and art therapy, and validated through an online questionnaire. The respondents included 228 students and professionals and for 64.55% of these images a consensus of over 80% was obtained. These images and their associated emotions were again reviewed by a confirmatory focus group. Finally, 92 artistic works were linked to primary, secondary and tertiary emotions such as love, joy, victory, surprise, balance, sense of humor, anger, sadness, fear, and emptiness. In addition, there are mobilizing images that have not been related to any emotion because of the polysemy of their meanings. It concludes that PROJECTA is a visual art therapy tool that provides professionals with a resource that helps facilitate the identification, expression or demonstration of emotions or feelings related with trauma, and in challenging situations of vulnerability, psychological discomfort or post-traumatic stress. (shrink)
The abstruse phrase “Qi 氣is self-generating; constancy categorically does not engender Qi. Qi is self-generating and self-arising” in Hengxian 《恒先》 should be put in the context of the “self-generating” 自生 idea of Daoism. The cosmology depicted in the first part of Hengxian serves the political philosophy in the second part. “Qi is self-generating” serves the political philosophy of “non-action.” “Self-generating” is an important opinion in the philosophy of Daoism. However, the idea in ancient Daoist literature hasn’t been clearly analyzed. Hengxian (...) shows that the idea of “self-generating” may have a long history and is related to the idea of “nature” 自然 in Laozi 《老子》 and Zhuangzi 《莊子》. “Self-generating” was inherited and developed by Yan Zun 嚴遵, Wang Chong 王充, Zheng Xuan 鄭玄, and Liezi 《列子》, and influenced Guo Xiang 郭象. The old “self-generating” theory based on Dao was developed into a new theory. Hengxian offers a precious resource for the ideological study of “self-generating.”. (shrink)
In the article "A Few Problems Regarding the Theory of Man" , Comrade Huang Tongsen argued that Marx's theory of alienation 1) "comprehends the essence of man" from "the starting point of individual person" or "isolated, abstract individual"; 2) "turns upside down the true relationship between alienated labor and private ownership" and "sums up the problem of economic system as the alienation of man's essence"; and 3) ascribes the driving force behind alienation and sublation to "the requirement of the negation (...) of negation." Thus the theory, in a historical perspective, "is idealism in the final analysis," and has "a touch of sophism." On top of that, it "violates historical facts" and "can in no way appraise correctly the historical position of class society." Based on the above, Comrade Huang concluded in the article that we should not take Marx's theory of alienation as "an important component part of Marxism." As I see it, all such viewpoints do not hold water theoretically. (shrink)