Results for 'Probability'

988 found
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  1.  20
    Jon Williamson.Probability Logic - 2002 - In Dov M. Gabbay (ed.), Handbook of the logic of argument and inference: the turn towards the practical. New York: Elsevier. pp. 397.
  2. Philippe Mongin.Nonaddittve Probability - 1994 - In Dag Prawitz & Dag Westerståhl (eds.), Logic and Philosophy of Science in Uppsala: Papers From the 9th International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. Dordrecht, Netherland: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 49.
     
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  3.  4
    ma: tMlW)(D.What Remains Of Probability - 2010 - In Thomas Uebel, Stephan Hartmann, Wenceslao Gonzalez, Marcel Weber, Dennis Dieks & Friedrich Stadler (eds.), The Present Situation in the Philosophy of Science. Springer. pp. 373.
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  4. Isaac Levi.on Indeterminate Probabilities - 1978 - In A. Hooker, J. J. Leach & E. F. McClennen (eds.), Foundations and Applications of Decision Theory: Vol.II: Epistemic and Social Applications. D. Reidel. pp. 233.
     
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  5. Paolo legrenzi.Naive Probability - 2003 - In Maria Carla Galavotti (ed.), Observation and Experiment in the Natural and Social Sciences. Springer Verlag. pp. 232--43.
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  6. Hermann Vetter.Logical Probability - 1970 - In Paul Weingartner & Gerhard Zecha (eds.), Induction, physics, and ethics. Dordrecht,: Reidel. pp. 75.
     
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  7.  48
    Conditional probability, taxicabs, and martingales.Brian Skyrms - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):351-352.
  8.  55
    Constructive probability.Glenn Shafer - 1981 - Synthese 48 (1):1-60.
  9.  80
    A Primer of Probability Logic.Ernest Wilcox Adams - 1996 - Center for the Study of Language and Inf.
    This book is meant to be a primer, that is, an introduction, to probability logic, a subject that appears to be in its infancy. Probability logic is a subject envisioned by Hans Reichenbach and largely created by Adams. It treats conditionals as bearers of conditional probabilities and discusses an appropriate sense of validity for arguments such conditionals, as well as ordinary statements as premisses. This is a clear well-written text on the subject of probability logic, suitable for (...)
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  10. Probability, Statistics and Truth.Richard von Mises & Hilda Geiringer - 1959 - Philosophy of Science 26 (4):387-388.
     
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  11. Theoretical reason, modifiers and probability.Nicholas Shackel - manuscript
    Theoretical reason, modifiers and probability.
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  12.  43
    Pragmatic Probability.Newton C. A. Da Costa - 1986 - Erkenntnis 25 (2):141 - 162.
  13.  37
    Probability and the Art of Judgement.Ernest W. Adams & Richard Jeffrey - 1993 - Journal of Philosophy 90 (3):154.
  14. Probability and the Weighing of Evidence.I. J. Good - 1950 - Philosophy 26 (97):163-164.
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  15. Probability. A Philosophical Introduction.[author unknown] - 2006 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 68 (2):409-411.
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  16.  62
    Probability amalgamation and the independence issue: A reply to Laddaga.Keith Lehrer & Carl Wagner - 1983 - Synthese 55 (3):339 - 346.
  17.  25
    Probability and Evidence.Paul Horwich - 1973 - Philosophical Review 82 (4):547.
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  18. Epistemology and probability.John L. Pollock - 1983 - Noûs 17 (1):65-67.
    Probability is sometimes regarded as a universal panacea for epistemology. It has been supposed that the rationality of belief is almost entirely a matter of probabilities. Unfortunately, those philosophers who have thought about this most extensively have tended to be probability theorists first, and epistemologists only secondarily. In my estimation, this has tended to make them insensitive to the complexities exhibited by epistemic justification. In this paper I propose to turn the tables. I begin by laying out some (...)
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  19.  54
    Epistemology and probability.John L. Pollock - 1983 - Synthese 55 (2):231-252.
    Probability is sometimes regarded as a universal panacea for epistemology. It has been supposed that the rationality of belief is almost entirely a matter of probabilities. Unfortunately, those philosophers who have thought about this most extensively have tended to be probability theorists first, and epistemologists only secondarily. In my estimation, this has tended to make them insensitive to the complexities exhibited by epistemic justification. In this paper I propose to turn the tables. I begin by laying out some (...)
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  20. Probability in the Everett picture.David Albert - 2010 - In Simon Saunders, Jonathan Barrett, Adrian Kent & David Wallace (eds.), Many Worlds?: Everett, Quantum Theory, & Reality. Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press UK.
  21. Combining Probability with Qualitative Degree-of-Certainty Metrics in Assessment.Casey Helgeson, Richard Bradley & Brian Hill - 2018 - Climatic Change 149:517-525.
    Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) employ an evolving framework of calibrated language for assessing and communicating degrees of certainty in findings. A persistent challenge for this framework has been ambiguity in the relationship between multiple degree-of-certainty metrics. We aim to clarify the relationship between the likelihood and confidence metrics used in the Fifth Assessment Report (2013), with benefits for mathematical consistency among multiple findings and for usability in downstream modeling and decision analysis. We discuss how our (...)
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  22. Epistemic probability.Richard Fumerton - 2004 - Philosophical Issues 14 (1):149–164.
  23.  58
    Conservatism in a simple probability inference task.Lawrence D. Phillips & Ward Edwards - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (3):346.
  24. Probability kinematics.Isaac Levi - 1967 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 18 (3):197-209.
  25. Framing human inference by coherence based probability logic.Niki Pfeifer & Gernot D. Kleiter - 2009 - Journal of Applied Logic 7 (2):206--217.
    We take coherence based probability logic as the basic reference theory to model human deductive reasoning. The conditional and probabilistic argument forms are explored. We give a brief overview of recent developments of combining logic and probability in psychology. A study on conditional inferences illustrates our approach. First steps towards a process model of conditional inferences conclude the paper.
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  26. Probability and Coherence Justification.Michael Huemer - 1997 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 35 (4):463-472.
    In The Structure of Empirical Knowledge , Laurence BonJour argues that coherence among a set of empirical beliefs can provide justification for those beliefs, in the sense of rendering them likely to be true. He also repudiates all forms of foundationalism for empirical beliefs, including what he calls "weak foundationalism" (the weakest form of foundationalism he can find). In the following, I will argue that coherence cannot provide any justification for our beliefs in the manner BonJour suggests unless some form (...)
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  27.  29
    Philosophy of Probability and Statistical Modelling.Mauricio Suárez - 2020 - Cambridge University Press.
    This Element has two main aims. The first one is an historically informed review of the philosophy of probability. It describes recent historiography, lays out the distinction between subjective and objective notions, and concludes by applying the historical lessons to the main interpretations of probability. The second aim focuses entirely on objective probability, and advances a number of novel theses regarding its role in scientific practice. A distinction is drawn between traditional attempts to interpret chance, and a (...)
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  28.  17
    Why Mathematical Probability Failed to Emerge from Ancient Gambling.Stephen Kidd - 2020 - Apeiron 53 (1):1-25.
    The emergence of mathematical probability has something to do with dice games: all the early discussions (Cardano, Galileo, Pascal) suggest as much. Although this has long been recognized, the problem is that gambling at dice has been a popular pastime since antiquity. Why, then, did gamblers wait until the sixteenth century ce to calculate the math of dicing? Many theories have been offerred, but there may be a simple solution: early-modern gamblers played different sorts of dice games than in (...)
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  29.  20
    Probability in Wittgenstein's Tractatus.Clare Hay - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 45 (2):130-145.
    Philosophical Investigations, Volume 45, Issue 2, Page 130-145, April 2022.
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  30.  50
    Conditionals, Causality and Conditional Probability.Robert van Rooij & Katrin Schulz - 2018 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 28 (1):55-71.
    The appropriateness, or acceptability, of a conditional does not just ‘go with’ the corresponding conditional probability. A condition of dependence is required as well. In this paper a particular notion of dependence is proposed. It is shown that under both a forward causal and a backward evidential reading of the conditional, this appropriateness condition reduces to conditional probability under some natural circumstances. Because this is in particular the case for the so-called diagnostic reading of the conditional, this analysis (...)
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  31. Inference in conditional probability logic.Niki Pfeifer & Gernot Kleiter - 2006 - Kybernetika 42 (2):391--404.
    An important field of probability logic is the investigation of inference rules that propagate point probabilities or, more generally, interval probabilities from premises to conclusions. Conditional probability logic (CPL) interprets the common sense expressions of the form “if . . . , then . . . ” by conditional probabilities and not by the probability of the material implication. An inference rule is probabilistically informative if the coherent probability interval of its conclusion is not necessarily equal (...)
     
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  32.  59
    Uncertainty and probability for branching selves.Peter J. Lewis - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (1):1-14.
    Everettian accounts of quantum mechanics entail that people branch; every possible result of a measurement actually occurs, and I have one successor for each result. Is there room for probability in such an account? The prima facie answer is no; there are no ontic chances here, and no ignorance about what will happen. But since any adequate quantum mechanical theory must make probabilistic predictions, much recent philosophical labor has gone into trying to construct an account of probability for (...)
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  33.  49
    Probability: Axioms.W. E. Johnson - 1932 - Mind 41 (163):281-296.
  34.  42
    Probability Theory, Intuitionism, Semantics and the Dutch Book Argument.Charles G. Morgan & Hugues Leblanc - 1983 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 24 (3):289-304.
  35. Updating: A psychologically basic situation of probability revision.Jean Baratgin & Guy Politzer - 2010 - Thinking and Reasoning 16 (4):253-287.
    The Bayesian model has been used in psychology as the standard reference for the study of probability revision. In the first part of this paper we show that this traditional choice restricts the scope of the experimental investigation of revision to a stable universe. This is the case of a situation that, technically, is known as focusing. We argue that it is essential for a better understanding of human probability revision to consider another situation called updating (Katsuno & (...)
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  36.  53
    Subjective Probability, Natural Predicates and Hempel's Ravens.Haim Gaifman - 1979 - Erkenntnis 14 (2):105 - 147.
  37.  73
    Information vs. entropy vs. probability.Orly Shenker - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 10 (1):1-25.
    Information, entropy, probability: these three terms are closely interconnected in the prevalent understanding of statistical mechanics, both when this field is taught to students at an introductory level and in advanced research into the field’s foundations. This paper examines the interconnection between these three notions in light of recent research in the foundations of statistical mechanics. It disentangles these concepts and highlights their differences, at the same time explaining why they came to be so closely linked in the literature. (...)
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  38.  37
    A case of radical probability estimation.M. Hammerton - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 101 (2):252.
  39. The Propensity Interpretation of Probability: A Re-evaluation.Joseph Berkovitz - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (S3):629-711.
    Single-case and long-run propensity theories are among the main objective interpretations of probability. There have been various objections to these theories, e.g. that it is difficult to explain why propensities should satisfy the probability axioms and, worse, that propensities are at odds with these axioms, that the explication of propensities is circular and accordingly not informative, and that single-case propensities are metaphysical and accordingly non-scientific. We consider various propensity theories of probability and their prospects in light of (...)
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  40.  91
    Subjunctive Conditional Probability.Wolfgang Schwarz - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 47 (1):47-66.
    There seem to be two ways of supposing a proposition: supposing “indicatively” that Shakespeare didn’t write Hamlet, it is likely that someone else did; supposing “subjunctively” that Shakespeare hadn’t written Hamlet, it is likely that nobody would have written the play. Let P be the probability of B on the subjunctive supposition that A. Is P equal to the probability of the corresponding counterfactual, A □→B? I review recent triviality arguments against this hypothesis and argue that they do (...)
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  41. Truth, Probability and Paradox. Studies in Philosophical Logic.J. L. Mackie - 1974 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 36 (3):600-602.
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  42.  42
    Locus of the stimulus probability effect.Jeffrey O. Miller & Robert G. Pachella - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 101 (2):227.
  43. Towards a mental probability logic.Niki Pfeifer & G. D. Kleiter - 2005 - Psychologica Belgica 45 (1):71--99.
    We propose probability logic as an appropriate standard of reference for evaluating human inferences. Probability logical accounts of nonmonotonic reasoning with system p, and conditional syllogisms (modus ponens, etc.) are explored. Furthermore, we present categorical syllogisms with intermediate quantifiers, like the “most . . . ” quantifier. While most of the paper is theoretical and intended to stimulate psychological studies, we summarize our empirical studies on human nonmonotonic reasoning.
     
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  44.  75
    Is probability a dispositional property?Lawrence Sklar - 1970 - Journal of Philosophy 67 (11):355-366.
  45.  99
    Equipossibility theories of probability.Ian Hacking - 1971 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 22 (4):339-355.
  46.  11
    Probability as the Basis of Induction.Marie Collins Swabey, Joel Katzav & Krist Vaesen - 2023 - In Joel Katzav, Dorothy Rogers & Krist Vaesen (eds.), Knowledge, Mind and Reality: An Introduction by Early Twentieth-Century American Women Philosophers. Cham: Springer. pp. 131-136.
    In this chapter, Marie Collins Swabey discusses the problem of induction and offers her response to it.
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  47.  51
    Triangulating non-archimedean probability.Hazel Brickhill & Leon Horsten - 2018 - Review of Symbolic Logic 11 (3):519-546.
    We relate Popper functions to regular and perfectly additive such non-Archimedean probability functions by means of a representation theorem: every such non-Archimedean probability function is infinitesimally close to some Popper function, and vice versa. We also show that regular and perfectly additive non-Archimedean probability functions can be given a lexicographic representation. Thus Popper functions, a specific kind of non-Archimedean probability functions, and lexicographic probability functions triangulate to the same place: they are in a good sense (...)
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  48. Probability and Evidence.[author unknown] - 1972 - Philosophy 49 (187):108-110.
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  49.  28
    Languages and Designs for Probability Judgment.Glenn Shafer & Amos Tversky - 1985 - Cognitive Science 9 (3):309-339.
    Theories of subjective probability are viewed as formal languages for analyzing evidence and expressing degrees of belief. This article focuses on two probability langauges, the Bayesian language and the language of belief functions (Shafer, 1976). We describe and compare the semantics (i.e., the meaning of the scale) and the syntax (i.e., the formal calculus) of these languages. We also investigate some of the designs for probability judgment afforded by the two languages.
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  50. Ignorance, probability and rational choice.Isaac Levi - 1982 - Synthese 53 (3):387-417.
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