Results for 'Possibilism'

208 found
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  1. Actualism, Possibilism, and Beyond.Jacob Ross - 2012 - Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics.
    How is what an agent ought to do related to what an agent ought to prefer that she does? More precisely, suppose we know what an agent’s preference ordering ought to be over the prospects of performing the various courses of action open to her. Can we infer from this information how she ought to act, and if so, how can we infer it? One view (which, for convenience, I will call ‘actualism’) is that an agent ought to  just (...)
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  2. Actualism, Possibilism, and the Nature of Consequentialism.Yishai Cohen & Travis Timmerman - 2020 - In Douglas W. Portmore (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Consequentialism. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
    The actualism/possibilism debate in ethics is about whether counterfactuals of freedom concerning what an agent would freely do if they were in certain circumstances even partly determines that agent’s obligations. This debate arose from an argument against the coherence of utilitarianism in the deontic logic literature. In this chapter, we first trace the historical origins of this debate and then examine actualism, possibilism, and securitism through the lens of consequentialism. After examining their respective benefits and drawbacks, we argue (...)
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  3. Logicism, Possibilism, and the Logic of Kantian Actualism.Andrew Stephenson - 2017 - Critique.
    In this extended critical discussion of 'Kant's Modal Metaphysics' by Nicholas Stang (OUP 2016), I focus on one central issue from the first chapter of the book: Stang’s account of Kant’s doctrine that existence is not a real predicate. In §2 I outline some background. In §§3-4 I present and then elaborate on Stang’s interpretation of Kant’s view that existence is not a real predicate. For Stang, the question of whether existence is a real predicate amounts to the question: ‘could (...)
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  4.  39
    Prospective Possibilism.Michael Zimmerman - 2017 - The Journal of Ethics 21 (2):117-150.
    There has been considerable debate regarding the relative merits of two theses about moral obligation known as actualism and possibilism. Both theses seek to give expression to the general idea that one ought to do the best one can. According to actualism, one’s obligations turn on what would happen if one chose some course of action, whereas, according to possibilism, they turn on what could happen if one chose some course of action. There are two strands to the (...)
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  5.  43
    The Possibilist Transactional Interpretation and Relativity.Ruth E. Kastner - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (8):1094-1113.
    A recent ontological variant of Cramer’s Transactional Interpretation, called “Possibilist Transactional Interpretation” or PTI, is extended to the relativistic domain. The present interpretation clarifies the concept of ‘absorption,’ which plays a crucial role in TI (and in PTI). In particular, in the relativistic domain, coupling amplitudes between fields are interpreted as amplitudes for the generation of confirmation waves (CW) by a potential absorber in response to offer waves (OW), whereas in the nonrelativistic context CW are taken as generated with certainty. (...)
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  6. In Defense of the Possibilism–Actualism Distinction.Christopher Menzel - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (7):1971-1997.
    In Modal Logic as Metaphysics, Timothy Williamson claims that the possibilism-actualism (P-A) distinction is badly muddled. In its place, he introduces a necessitism-contingentism (N-C) distinction that he claims is free of the confusions that purportedly plague the P-A distinction. In this paper I argue first that the P-A distinction, properly understood, is historically well-grounded and entirely coherent. I then look at the two arguments Williamson levels at the P-A distinction and find them wanting and show, moreover, that, when the (...)
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  7.  43
    Possibilist Explanation: Explaining How-Possibly Through Laws.Gustavo A. Castañon - 2021 - Erkenntnis:835-852.
    ‘Possibilist Explanation’ is a promising account of scientific explanation which avoids the familiar problems of “how-possibly explanations”. It explains an event by showing how-actually it was epistemically possible, instead of why it was epistemically necessary. Its explanandum is the epistemic possibility of an actual event previously considered epistemically impossible. To define PE, two new concepts are introduced: ‘permissive condition’ and ‘possibilist law’. A permissive condition for an event is something that does not entail the event itself, but a necessary condition (...)
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  8.  7
    The Possibilist Transactional Interpretation and Relativity.Ruth E. Kastner - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (8):1094-1113.
    A recent ontological modification of Cramer’s Transactional Interpretation, called “Possibilist Transactional Interpretation” or PTI, is extended to the relativistic domain. The present interpretation clarifies the concept of ‘absorption,’ which plays a crucial role in TI. In particular, in the relativistic domain, coupling amplitudes between fields are interpreted as amplitudes for the generation of confirmation waves by a potential absorber in response to offer waves, whereas in the nonrelativistic context CW are taken as generated with certainty. It is pointed out that (...)
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  9. What's Wrong with Possibilism.C. Woodard - 2009 - Analysis 69 (2):219-226.
    Argues (1) that the debate between actualists and possibilists in deontic logic distorts what is really at issue, and (2) that reframing the debate as being about reasons strongly suggests that those with possibilist sympathies should adopt more moderate claims (which may nevertheless be distinct from actualism).
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  10. Moral Obligations: Actualist, Possibilist, or Hybridist?Travis Timmerman & Yishai Cohen - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (4):672-686.
    Do facts about what an agent would freely do in certain circumstances at least partly determine any of her moral obligations? Actualists answer ‘yes’, while possibilists answer ‘no’. We defend two novel hybrid accounts that are alternatives to actualism and possibilism: Dual Obligations Hybridism and Single Obligation Hybridism. By positing two moral ‘oughts’, each account retains the benefits of actualism and possibilism, yet is immune from the prima facie problems that face actualism and possibilism. We conclude by (...)
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  11. Possibilism and Object Theory.Christopher Menzel - 1993 - Philosophical Studies 69 (2-3):195 - 208.
    A central stream running through the history of philosophy has been the attempt to gather a wide range of ostensibly disparate intuitive phenomena under a small, integrated set of concepts. Edward Zalta’s work is a sustained celebration of this tradition. This paper — part of a symposium on Zalta's work — is a friendly, but critical examination of Zalta's commitment to possibilism and the roles they play in his theory.
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  12.  80
    Models of Possibilism and Trivialism.Luis Estrada-González - 2012 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 21 (2):175-205.
    In this paper I probe the idea that neither possibilism nor trivialism could be ruled out on a purely logical basis. I use the apparatus of relational structures used in the semantics for modal logics to engineer some models of possibilism and trivialism and I discuss a philosophical stance about logic, truth values and the meaning of connectives underlying such analysis.
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  13.  50
    Prosaic Possibilism.M. Vorobej - 2000 - Philosophical Studies 97 (2):131-136.
  14. Actualism and Possibilism in Ethics.Travis Timmerman & Yishai Cohen - 2019 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  15.  69
    A Possibilistic Hierarchical Model for Behaviour Under Uncertainty.Gert de Cooman & Peter Walley - 2002 - Theory and Decision 52 (4):327-374.
    Hierarchical models are commonly used for modelling uncertainty. They arise whenever there is a `correct' or `ideal' uncertainty model but the modeller is uncertain about what it is. Hierarchical models which involve probability distributions are widely used in Bayesian inference. Alternative models which involve possibility distributions have been proposed by several authors, but these models do not have a clear operational meaning. This paper describes a new hierarchical model which is mathematically equivalent to some of the earlier, possibilistic models and (...)
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  16.  2
    Possibilist Explanation: Explaining How-Possibly Through Laws.Gustavo A. Castañon - 2019 - Annalen der Philosophie 86 (4):835-852.
    ‘Possibilist Explanation’ is a promising account of scientific explanation which avoids the familiar problems of “how-possibly explanations”. It explains an event by showing how-actually it was epistemically possible, instead of why it was epistemically necessary. Its explanandum is the epistemic possibility of an actual event previously considered epistemically impossible. To define PE, two new concepts are introduced: ‘permissive condition’ and ‘possibilist law’. A permissive condition for an event is something that does not entail the event itself, but a necessary condition (...)
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  17.  2
    Generalized Possibilistic Logic: Foundations and Applications to Qualitative Reasoning About Uncertainty.Didier Dubois, Henri Prade & Steven Schockaert - 2017 - Artificial Intelligence 252:139-174.
  18. Classical Possibilism and Fictional Objects.Erich Rast - 2010 - In Franck Lihoreau (ed.), Fiction in Philosophy.
    An account of non-existing objects called 'classical possibilism', according to which objects that don't actually exist do exist in various other ways, is implemented in a two-dimensional modal logic with non-traditional predication theory. This account is very similar to Priest's, but preserves bivalence and does not endorse dialethism. The power of classical possibilism is illustrated by giving some examples that makes use of a description theory of reference. However, the same effect could also be achieved in a more (...)
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  19.  2
    A Possibilistic Portfolio Model with Fuzzy Liquidity Constraint.Yunyun Sui, Jiangshan Hu & Fang Ma - 2020 - Complexity 2020:1-10.
    Investors are concerned about the reliability and safety of their capital, especially its liquidity, when investing. This paper sets up a possibilistic portfolio selection model with liquidity constraint. In this model, the asset return and liquidity are fuzzy variables which follow the normal possibility distributions. Liquidity is measured as the turnover rate of the asset. On the basis of possibility theory, we transform the model into a quadratic programming problem to obtain its solution. We illustrate that, in the process of (...)
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  20.  1
    Introducing Possibilistic Logic in ILP for Dealing with Exceptions.Mathieu Serrurier & Henri Prade - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence 171 (16-17):939-950.
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  21. Possibilistic Reasoning—a Mini-Survey and Uniform Semantics.Churn-Jung Liau & Bertrand I.-Peng Lin - 1996 - Artificial Intelligence 88 (1-2):163-193.
  22. Possibilistic Thinking: A New Conceptual Tool for Thinking About Extreme Events.Lee Clarke - 2008 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 75 (3):669-690.
    A great deal of scholarship defines rational thought in terms of probability theory. An important problem with such an approach is that disasters, particularly large disasters, do not provide us with a meaningful distribution of events that would approximate a normal curve. Here, I propose that using possibilistic thinking can helpfully complement probabilistic thinking regarding risk and disaster. Possibilistic thinking highlights consequences of actions or events, while not ignoring their likelihood of occurrence. I point out the myriad ways that individuals (...)
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  23.  34
    Local Possibilistic Logic.Luca Boldrin & Claudio Sossai - 1997 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 7 (3):309-333.
    ABSTRACT Possibilistic states of information are fuzzy sets of possible worlds. They constitute a complete lattice, which can be endowed with a monoidal operation to produce a quantal. An algebraic semantics is presented which links possibilistic formulae with information states, and gives a natural interpretation of logical connectives as operations on fuzzy sets. Due to the quantal structure of information states, we obtain a system which shares several features with intuitionistic linear logic. Soundness and completeness are proved, parametrically on the (...)
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  24. Defending a Possibilist Insight in Consequentialist Thought.Jean-Paul Vessel - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 142 (2):183 - 195.
    There is a heated dispute among consequentialists concerning the following deontic principle.
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  25.  39
    An Overview of Possibilistic Handling of Default Reasoning, with Experimental Studies.Salem Benferhat, Jean F. Bonnefon & Rui da Silva Neves - 2005 - Synthese 146 (1-2):53-70.
    This paper first provides a brief survey of a possibilistic handling of default rules. A set of default rules of the form, "generally, from α deduce β", is viewed as the family of possibility distributions satisfying constraints expressing that the situation where α and β is true has a greater plausibility than the one where α and ⇁β is true. When considering only the subset of linear possibility distributions, the well-known System P of postulates proposed by Kraus, Lehmann and Magidor, (...)
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  26. A Possibilist Metaphysical Reconsideration Of The Identity Of Indiscernibles And Free Will.Amihud Gilead - 2005 - Metaphysica 6 (2):25-51.
     
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  27.  10
    Possibilistic Reasoning with Partially Ordered Beliefs.Fayçal Touazi, Claudette Cayrol & Didier Dubois - 2015 - Journal of Applied Logic 13 (4):770-798.
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  28. Possibilistic Instance-Based Learning.Eyke Hüllermeier - 2003 - Artificial Intelligence 148 (1-2):335-383.
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  29. Possibilism.Roby Guha Muzumdar - 1966 - Calcutta, Nalini Nath Majumder Memorial Trust.
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  30.  28
    An Overview of Possibilistic Handling of Default Reasoning, with Experimental Studies.Salem Benferhat, Jean F. Bonnefon & Rui Silva Nevedas - 2005 - Synthese 146 (1-2):53 - 70.
    . This paper first provides a brief survey of a possibilistic handling of default rules. A set of default rules of the form, “generally, from α deduce β”, is viewed as the family of possibility distributions satisfying constraints expressing that the situation where α and β is true has a greater plausibility than the one where a and - β is true. When considering only the subset of linear possibility distributions, the well-known System P of postulates proposed by Kraus, Lehmann (...)
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  31.  43
    On the Relation Between Possibilistic Logic and Modal Logics of Belief and Knowledge.Mohua Banerjee, Didier Dubois, Lluis Godo & Henri Prade - 2017 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 27 (3-4):206-224.
    Possibilistic logic and modal logic are knowledge representation frameworks sharing some common features, such as the duality between possibility and necessity, and the decomposability of necessity for conjunctions, as well as some obvious differences since possibility theory is graded. At the semantic level, possibilistic logic relies on possibility distributions and modal logic on accessibility relations. In the last 30 years, there have been a series of attempts for bridging the two frameworks in one way or another. In this paper, we (...)
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  32.  4
    Epistemic Entrenchment and Possibilistic Logic.Didier Dubois & Henri Prade - 1991 - Artificial Intelligence 50 (2):223-239.
  33.  17
    The Pluralist and Possibilist Aspect of the Scientific Enterprise.Arne Naess - 1972 - Universitetsforlaget.
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  34. Aktualism, Possibilism och Handlingsriktighet.Daniel Rönnedal - 2014 - Filosofisk Tidskrift 35 (1):35–41.
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  35. Logical Characterisation of Possibilistic and Probabilistic Descriptions of Events in Description Logics.Farshad Badie - forthcoming - Bulletin of the Section of Logic.
    Description Logics (DLs) are a family of formal knowledge representation formalisms and the most well-known formalisms in semantics-based systems. The central focus of this research is on logical-terminological characterisation/analysis of possibilistic and probabilistic descriptions of events in DLs. Based on a logical characterisation of the concept of `being', this paper conceptualises events within DLs world descriptions. Accordingly, it deals with the concepts of `possibility of events' and `probability of events'. The main goal of this research is to investigate how possible (...)
     
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  36.  18
    The Pluralist and the Possibilist Aspects of the Scientific Enterprise. [REVIEW]P. M. R. - 1974 - Review of Metaphysics 27 (4):804-805.
    This is a study in what Naess calls the "new historiography of science," i.e., the view that science is and has been discontinuous, non-accumulative, and somewhat arbitrary. Readers familiar with the controversy between Thomas Kuhn and Karl Popper will undoubtedly note that Naess attempts to achieve a synthesis of their opposed positions. Against Popper, Naess argues there is no standard of rejection and refutation for theories in science that will bear the weight of both the history and present practice of (...)
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  37.  99
    Actualism or Possibilism?James E. Tomberlin - 1996 - Philosophical Studies 84 (2-3):263 - 281.
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  38. The Pluralist and Possibilist Aspect of the Scientific Enterprise.A. Naess - 1973 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 24 (3):313-316.
     
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  39. Actualism and Possibilism.Travis Timmerman & Yishai Cohen - 2016 - The Philosophers' Magazine 72:107-108.
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  40. Sweatshops and Free Action: The Stakes of the Actualism/Possibilism Debate for Business Ethics.Travis Timmerman & Abe Zakhem - 2021 - Journal of Business Ethics 171 (4):683-694.
    Whether an action is morally right depends upon the alternative acts available to the agent. Actualists hold that what an agent would actually do determines her moral obligations. Possibilists hold that what an agent could possibly do determines her moral obligations. Both views face compelling criticisms. Despite the fact that actualist and possibilist assumptions are at the heart of seminal arguments in business ethics, there has been no explicit discussion of actualism and possibilism in the business ethics literature. This (...)
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  41.  23
    Multiple Agent Possibilistic Logic.Asma Belhadi, Didier Dubois, Faiza Khellaf-Haned & Henri Prade - 2013 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 23 (4):299-320.
    The paper presents a ‘multiple agent’ logic where formulas are pairs of the form, made of a proposition and a subset of agents. The formula is intended to mean ‘ all agents in believe that is true’. The formal similarity of such formulas with those of possibilistic logic, where propositions are associated with certainty levels, is emphasised. However, the subsets of agents are organised in a Boolean lattice, while certainty levels belong to a totally ordered scale. The semantics of a (...)
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  42. On Characterizing the Presentism/Eternalism and Actualism/Possibilism Debates.Ross P. Cameron - 2016 - Analytic Philosophy 57 (2):110-140.
  43.  13
    Maxi-Adjustment and Possibilistic Deduction for Adaptive Information Agents.Raymond Lau, Arthur H. M. ter Hofstede & Peter D. Bruza - 2001 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 11 (1-2):169-201.
    The expressive power of logic is believed to be able to model most of the fundamental aspects of information retrieval. However, it is also understood that classical logic is ineffective for handling partiality and uncertainty in IR. Applying non-classical logics such as the AGM belief revision logic and the possibilistic logic to adaptive information retrieval is appealing since they provide a powerful and rigorous framework to model partiality and uncertainty inherent in any IR processes. The maxi-adjustment method, which is an (...)
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  44.  8
    Actualistic Foundation of Possibilism.Sergio Galvan - 2020 - Metaphysica 21 (2):255-272.
    In this article I defend a form of classical possibilism with an actualist foundation. As a matter of fact, I believe that this position is more in keeping with the classical metaphysical tradition. According to this form of possibilism, I construe possible objects as possible non-existing objects of an existing producing power. Consequently, they are nothing vis-à -vis the modality of their own actual being, although they do exist with regard to the modality of the producing power’s being. (...)
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  45.  66
    Quinean Worlds: Possibilist Ontology in an Extenionalist Framework.Pedro Santos - 2014 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 89 (1):205-230.
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  46.  97
    Are Climate Models Credible Worlds? Prospects and Limitations of Possibilistic Climate Prediction.Gregor Betz - 2015 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 5 (2):191-215.
    Climate models don’t give us probabilistic forecasts. To interpret their results, alternatively, as serious possibilities seems problematic inasmuch as climate models rely on contrary-to-fact assumptions: why should we consider their implications as possible if their assumptions are known to be false? The paper explores a way to address this possibilistic challenge. It introduces the concepts of a perfect and of an imperfect credible world, and discusses whether climate models can be interpreted as imperfect credible worlds. That would allow one to (...)
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  47. Hardy’s Non-Locality Paradox and Possibilistic Conditions for Non-Locality.Shane Mansfield & Tobias Fritz - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (5):709-719.
    Hardy’s non-locality paradox is a proof without inequalities showing that certain non-local correlations violate local realism. It is ‘possibilistic’ in the sense that one only distinguishes between possible outcomes (positive probability) and impossible outcomes (zero probability). Here we show that Hardy’s paradox is quite universal: in any (2,2,l) or (2,k,2) Bell scenario, the occurrence of Hardy’s paradox is a necessary and sufficient condition for possibilistic non-locality. In particular, it subsumes all ladder paradoxes. This universality of Hardy’s paradox is not true (...)
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  48. Williamson on Fine on Prior on the Reduction of Possibilist Discourse.Kit Fine - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (4-5):548-570.
    I attempt to meet some criticisms that Williamson makes of my attempt to carry out Prior's project of reducing possibility discourse to actualist discourse.
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  49. What’s the Worst Case? The Methodology of Possibilistic Prediction.Gregor Betz - 2010 - Analyse & Kritik 32 (1):87-106.
    Frank Knight (1921) famously distinguished the epistemic modes of certainty, risk, and uncertainty in order to characterize situations where deterministic, probabilistic or possibilistic foreknowledge is available. Because our probabilistic knowledge is limited, i.e. because many systems, e.g. the global climate, cannot be described and predicted probabilistically in a reliable way, Knight's third category, possibilistic foreknowledge, is not simply swept by the probabilistic mode. This raises the question how to justify possibilistic predictionsincluding the identication of the worst case. The development of (...)
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  50.  52
    An Argument for Objective Possibilism.Peter A. Graham - 2019 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 6.
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