Results for 'Planck momentum'

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  1. Noncommutative Momentum and Torsional Regularization.Nikodem Popławski - 2020 - Foundations of Physics 50 (9):900-923.
    We show that in the presence of the torsion tensor \, the quantum commutation relation for the four-momentum, traced over spinor indices, is given by \. In the Einstein–Cartan theory of gravity, in which torsion is coupled to spin of fermions, this relation in a coordinate frame reduces to a commutation relation of noncommutative momentum space, \, where U is a constant on the order of the squared inverse of the Planck mass. We propose that this relation (...)
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  2.  1
    Electromagnetic Angular Momentum of an Orbiting Charge.W. J. Trompetter - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (5):1-22.
    The electric field of an orbiting charge or electron observed in the rotating frame takes on a circular trajectory with a maximum radius of \. The resultant extended electromagnetic structure is used to derive the spin–orbit energy of the orbiting electron. A surprising result of the derived expression is that the orbital velocity has a specific value ) in close agreement ) with the experimentally determined value for the fine structure constant ). Furthermore, the derived spin–orbit expression does not include (...)
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  3.  28
    Can Quantum Gravity Be Exposed in the Laboratory?Jacob D. Bekenstein - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (5):452-462.
    I propose an experiment that may be performed, with present low temperature and cryogenic technology, to reveal Wheeler’s quantum foam. It involves coupling an optical photon’s momentum to the center of mass motion of a macroscopic transparent block with parameters such that the latter is displaced in space by approximately a Planck length. I argue that such displacement is sensitive to quantum foam and will react back on the photon’s probability of transiting the block. This might allow determination (...)
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  4.  23
    Splitting the Source Term for the Einstein Equation to Classical and Quantum Parts.T. S. Biró & P. Ván - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (11):1465-1482.
    We consider the special and general relativistic extensions of the action principle behind the Schrödinger equation distinguishing classical and quantum contributions. Postulating a particular quantum correction to the source term in the classical Einstein equation we identify the conformal content of the above action and obtain classical gravitation for massive particles, but with a cosmological term representing off-mass-shell contribution to the energy–momentum tensor. In this scenario the—on the Planck scale surprisingly small—cosmological constant stems from quantum bound states having (...)
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  5.  66
    Helm and Boltzmann: Energetics at the Lübeck Naturforscherversammlung.Robert Deltete - 1999 - Synthese 119 (1-2):45-68.
    The energetics controversy is understood variously as energy vs. atoms, thermodynamics vs. statistical mechanics, phenomenalism vs. realism, equations vs. pictures, and especially Ostwald vs. Boltzmann. It is generally thought that at Lübeck in 1895 Boltzmann and Planck demolished energetics, but while its momentum was slowed, energetics in one or more of the above senses still retained supporters as late as the great physics conference at the St. Louis World’s Fair in 1904. Indeed, after Ostwald himself abandoned it in (...)
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  6.  65
    Quantum Model of Classical Mechanics: Maximum Entropy Packets. [REVIEW]P. Hájíček - 2009 - Foundations of Physics 39 (9):1072-1096.
    In a previous paper, a statistical method of constructing quantum models of classical properties has been described. The present paper concludes the description by turning to classical mechanics. The quantum states that maximize entropy for given averages and variances of coordinates and momenta are called ME packets. They generalize the Gaussian wave packets. A non-trivial extension of the partition-function method of probability calculus to quantum mechanics is given. Non-commutativity of quantum variables limits its usefulness. Still, the general form of the (...)
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  7. A Classical Explanation of Quantization.Gerhard Grössing, Johannes Mesa Pascasio & Herbert Schwabl - 2011 - Foundations of Physics 41 (9):1437-1453.
    In the context of our recently developed emergent quantum mechanics, and, in particular, based on an assumed sub-quantum thermodynamics, the necessity of energy quantization as originally postulated by Max Planck is explained by means of purely classical physics. Moreover, under the same premises, also the energy spectrum of the quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator is derived. Essentially, Planck’s constant h is shown to be indicative of a particle’s “zitterbewegung” and thus of a fundamental angular momentum. The latter is (...)
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  8.  15
    Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell Quantum Cellular Automata: Analitical Solutions and Phenomenological Predictions of the Quantum Cellular Automata Theory of Free Fields.Alessandro Bisio, Giacomo Mauro D’Ariano, Paolo Perinotti & Alessandro Tosini - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (10):1203-1221.
    Recent advances on quantum foundations achieved the derivation of free quantum field theory from general principles, without referring to mechanical notions and relativistic invariance. From the aforementioned principles a quantum cellular automata theory follows, whose relativistic limit of small wave-vector provides the free dynamics of quantum field theory. The QCA theory can be regarded as an extended quantum field theory that describes in a unified way all scales ranging from an hypothetical discrete Planck scale up to the usual Fermi (...)
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  9.  93
    Information and Gravitation.W. J. Cocke & B. Roy Frieden - 1997 - Foundations of Physics 27 (10):1397-1412.
    An information-theoretic approach is shown to derive both the classical weak-field equations and the quantum phenomenon of metric fluctuation within the Planck length. A key result is that the weak-field metric $\bar h_{\mu \nu } $ is proportional to a probability amplitude φuv, on quantum fluctuations in four-position. Also derived is the correct form for the Planck quantum length, and the prediction that the cosmological constant is zero. The overall approach utilizes the concept of the Fisher information I (...)
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  10.  25
    A Hilbert Space for the Classical Electromagnetic Field.Bernard Jancewicz - 1993 - Foundations of Physics 23 (11):1405-1421.
    The synthetic Maxwell equation, uniting all Maxwell equations within the framework of a Clifford algebra, can be treated as a first-order wave equation. A Hilbert space of its solutions describing classical free electromagnetic fields is introduced. This Hilbert space can be called “classical,” which means that the Planck constant is absent. The scalar square of an element of this space is the total energy of the field. The time independence of the scalar product is demonstrated. The time and space (...)
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  11.  71
    Standpoint Cosmology.G. F. Chew - 1995 - Foundations of Physics 25 (9):1283-1333.
    An unorthodox cosmology is based on a notion of “standpoint,” distinguishing past from future, realized through Hilbert-space representation of the complex conformai group for 3+1spacetime and associated coherent states. Physical symmetry attaches to eight-parameter complex Poincaré displacements, interpretable as growth of standpoint age, boost of matter energy-momentum in standpoint rest frame and displacement of matter location in a compact U⊗O/O spacetime attached to standpoint. An “initial” condition is characterized by a huge dimensionless parameter α that breaks dilation invariance. Four (...)
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  12.  58
    The Magnetic Fields and Rotation Generators of Free Space Electromagnetism.M. W. Evans - 1994 - Foundations of Physics 24 (11):1519-1542.
    The relation is developed between rotation generators of the Lorentz group and the magnetic fields of free-space electromagnetism. Using these classical relations, it is shown that in the quantum field theory there exists a longitudinal photomagneton, a quantized magnetic flux density operator which is directly proportional to the photon spin angular momentum. Commutation relations are given in the quantum field between the longitudinal photomagneton and the usual transverse magnetic components of quantized electromagnetism. The longitudinal component is phase free, but (...)
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  13.  15
    Introducing the Pentaquark.John Cramer - unknown
    Particle physicists, over the last 50 years, have discovered several hundred strongly interacting “elementary” particles. The list of such particles begins with the proton and the p meson and goes up from there. We now understand that all of these particles are actually composites, formed from various combinations of quarks. Such particles are normally classified in two types. Mesons (the name implies medium weight) are particles with masses that go up from 140 MeV/c 2 and have an intrinsic angular (...) or “spin” that is an integer in units of ħ (Planck’s constant over p). Baryons (the name implies heavy weight) are particles with masses that go up from 938 MeV/c 2 and have half-integer spin. This column is about the discovery of the pentaquark, a brand new form of matter that represents a new particle species, neither meson nor baryon, but a combination of both. (shrink)
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  14.  13
    On Entropy Production in the Madelung Fluid and the Role of Bohm’s Potential in Classical Diffusion.Eyal Heifetz, Roumen Tsekov, Eliahu Cohen & Zohar Nussinov - 2016 - Foundations of Physics 46 (7):815-824.
    The Madelung equations map the non-relativistic time-dependent Schrödinger equation into hydrodynamic equations of a virtual fluid. While the von Neumann entropy remains constant, we demonstrate that an increase of the Shannon entropy, associated with this Madelung fluid, is proportional to the expectation value of its velocity divergence. Hence, the Shannon entropy may grow due to an expansion of the Madelung fluid. These effects result from the interference between solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Growth of the Shannon entropy due to expansion (...)
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  15.  1
    Further Insights into Thermal Relativity Theory and Black Hole Thermodynamics.Carlos Castro Perelman - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (5):1-14.
    We continue to explore the consequences of Thermal Relativity Theory to the physics of black holes. The thermal analog of Lorentz transformations in the tangent space of the thermodynamic manifold are studied in connection to the Hawking evaporation of Schwarzschild black holes and one finds that there is no bound to the thermal analog of proper accelerations despite the maximal bound on the thermal analog of velocity given by the Planck temperature. The proper entropic infinitesimal interval corresponding to the (...)
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  16.  20
    The Measurement Problem Resolved and Local Realism Preserved Via a Collapse-Free Photon Detection Model.Barry C. Gilbert & Sue Sulcs - 1996 - Foundations of Physics 26 (11):1401-1439.
    A new realislic local model of light propagation and detection is described. The authors propose a novel stochastic model of low-intensity photon detection in which background noise is added to a part of the photon prior to absorption. In this model, in agreement with Planck, there is no quantization of the propagating field. The model has some similarities to theories advanced by E. Santos and T. Marshall in the last decade, but also has substantial deviations from these. A mechanism, (...)
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  17.  12
    Uncertainty Principle on 3-Dimensional Manifolds of Constant Curvature.Thomas Schürmann - 2018 - Foundations of Physics 48 (6):716-725.
    We consider the Heisenberg uncertainty principle of position and momentum in 3-dimensional spaces of constant curvature K. The uncertainty of position is defined coordinate independent by the geodesic radius of spherical domains in which the particle is localized after a von Neumann–Lüders projection. By applying mathematical standard results from spectral analysis on manifolds, we obtain the largest lower bound of the momentum deviation in terms of the geodesic radius and K. For hyperbolic spaces, we also obtain a global (...)
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  18.  7
    Quaternion Algebra on 4D Superfluid Quantum Space-Time: Gravitomagnetism.Valeriy I. Sbitnev - 2019 - Foundations of Physics 49 (2):107-143.
    Gravitomagnetic equations result from applying quaternionic differential operators to the energy–momentum tensor. These equations are similar to the Maxwell’s EM equations. Both sets of the equations are isomorphic after changing orientation of either the gravitomagnetic orbital force or the magnetic induction. The gravitomagnetic equations turn out to be parent equations generating the following set of equations: the vorticity equation giving solutions of vortices with nonzero vortex cores and with infinite lifetime; the Hamilton–Jacobi equation loaded by the quantum potential. This (...)
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  19. Vorträge Und Erinnerungen. [Von] Max Planck. [Reprografischer Nachdruck der 5. Aufl., Stuttgart 1949.].Max Planck - 1973 - Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
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  20. Scientific Autobiography, and Other Papers with a Memorial Address on Max Planck by Max von Laue. Translated From German by Frank Gaynor.Max Planck - 1950 - Williams & Norgate.
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  21.  2
    Scientific Autobiography, and Other Papers with a Memorial Address on Max Planck.Max Planck & Max Theodor Felix von Laue - 1949 - Philosophical Library.
  22.  82
    Scientific Autobiography, and Other Papers.Max Planck - 1949 - Williams & Norgate.
    In this fascinating autobiography from the foremost genius of twentieth-century physics, Max Planck tells the story of his life, his aims, and his thinking. Published posthumously, the papers in this volume were written for the general reader and make accessible his scientific theories as well as his philosophical ideals, including his thoughts on ethics and morals. Max Planck was a German physicist and philosopher known for his quantum theory, for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in (...)
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  23.  47
    Planck-Scale Physics: Facts and Beliefs. [REVIEW]Diego Meschini - 2007 - Foundations of Science 12 (4):277-294.
    The relevance of the Planck scale to a theory of quantum gravity has become a worryingly little examined assumption that goes unchallenged in the majority of research in this area. However, in all scientific honesty, the significance of Planck’s natural units in a future physical theory of spacetime is only a plausible, yet by no means certain, assumption. The purpose of this article is to clearly separate fact from belief in this connection.
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  24.  16
    Planck's Principle.David L. Hull, Peter D. Tessner & Arthur M. Diamond - 1978 - Science 202 (4369):717-723.
  25. Max Planck and the Beginnings of the Quantum Theory.Martin J. Klein - 1961 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 1 (5):459--479.
  26.  44
    Planck's Half-Quanta: A History of the Concept of Zero-Point Energy. [REVIEW]Jagdish Mehra & Helmut Rechenberg - 1999 - Foundations of Physics 29 (1):91-132.
    Max Planck introduced the concept of zero-point energy in spring 1911. In the early struggles to establish the concept of the energy-quantum, it provided a helpful heuristic principle, to guide as well as supplement the efforts of some leading physicists in understanding the laws that applied in the atomic domain. The history and growth of this concept, and its application in the general development of quantum theory during the past many decades are studied under three principal headings: (1) The (...)
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  27.  49
    Behavioral Momentum and the Law of Effect.John A. Nevin & Randolph C. Grace - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (1):73-90.
    In the metaphor of behavioral momentum, the rate of a free operant in the presence of a discriminative stimulus is analogous to the velocity of a moving body, and resistance to change measures an aspect of behavior that is analogous to its inertial mass. An extension of the metaphor suggests that preference measures an analog to the gravitational mass of that body. The independent functions relating resistance to change and preference to the conditions of reinforcement may be construed as (...)
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  28.  21
    Where is Science Going?Max Planck, James Murphy & Albert Einstein - 1932 - W.W. Norton.
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  29.  48
    Fokker–Planck Theory of Nonequilibrium Systems Governed by Hierarchical Dynamics.Sumiyoshi Abe - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (2):175-182.
    Dynamics of complex systems is often hierarchically organized on different time scales. To understand the physics of such hierarchy, here Brownian motion of a particle moving through a fluctuating medium with slowly varying temperature is studied as an analytically tractable example, and a kinetic theory is formulated for describing the states of the particle. What is peculiar here is that the (inverse) temperature is treated as a dynamical variable. Dynamical hierarchy is introduced in conformity with the adiabatic scheme. Then, a (...)
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  30. Vorträge Und Erinnerungen.Max Planck - 1969 - Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
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  31.  96
    Mass‐Energy‐Momentum: Only There Because of Spacetime.Dennis Lehmkuhl - 2011 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 62 (3):453-488.
    I describe how relativistic field theory generalizes the paradigm property of material systems, the possession of mass, to the requirement that they have a mass–energy–momentum density tensor T µ associated with them. I argue that T µ does not represent an intrinsic property of matter. For it will become evident that the definition of T µ depends on the metric field g µ in a variety of ways. Accordingly, since g µ represents the geometry of spacetime itself, the properties (...)
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  32. Where Is Science Going?Max Planck, James Murphy & Niels Bohr - 1936 - Philosophy 11 (43):366-367.
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  33. Can Planck's Constant Be Measured with Classical Mechanics?Hasok Chang - 1997 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 11 (3):223 – 243.
    An interesting case of the complex interaction between theory and experiment can be found in many experiments in quantum physics employing classical reasoning. It is expected that this practice would lead to quantitative inaccuracy, unless the measurements' results were averaged. Whether or not this inaccuracy is significant depends critically on the details of the particular experimental situation. The example of Millikan's photoelectric experiment, in which he obtained a precise value of Planck's constant, provides a good case for illustrating the (...)
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  34. The Odd Couple: Boltzmann, Planck and the Application of Statistics to Physics (1900-1913).Massimiliano Badino - 2009 - Annalen Der Physik 18 (2-3):81-101.
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  35.  9
    A Momentum Effect in Temporal Arithmetic.Mario Bonato, Umberto D'Ovidio, Wim Fias & Marco Zorzi - 2021 - Cognition 206:104488.
    The mental representation of brief temporal durations, when assessed in standard laboratory conditions, is highly accurate. Here we show that adding or subtracting temporal durations systematically results in strong and opposite biases, namely over-estimation for addition and under-estimation for subtraction. The difference with respect to a baseline temporal reproduction task changed across durations in an operation-specific way and survived correcting for the effect due to operation sign alone, indexing a reliable signature of arithmetic processing on time representation. A second experiment (...)
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  36.  12
    Momentum Spread: Amplitude and Current Contributions. [REVIEW]Leon Cohen - 1990 - Foundations of Physics 20 (12):1455-1473.
    We show that the spread of momentum can be broken up into two terms, one that depends only on the change in amplitude and the other which depends only on the deviations of current from the average momentum. We present a method for measuring the relative contributions of each and interpret each contribution in terms of local quantities. A generalization for arbitrary operators is given. For the case of the Hamiltonian, the local value of energy is shown to (...)
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  37. Kausalgesetz und Willensfreiheit.Max Planck - 1924 - Annalen der Philosophie Und Philosophischen Kritik 4 (1):1-2.
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  38.  97
    Behavioral Momentum: Empirical, Theoretical, and Metaphorical Issues.John A. Nevin & Randolph C. Grace - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (1):117-125.
    In reply to the comments on our target article, we address a variety of issues concerning the generality of our major findings, their relation to other theoretical formulations, and the metaphor of behavioral momentum that inspired much of our work. Most of these issues can be resolved by empirical studies, and we hope that the ideas advanced here will promote the analysis of resistance to change and preference in new areas of research and application.
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  39.  40
    Mood as Representation of Momentum.Eran Eldar, Robb B. Rutledge, Raymond J. Dolan & Yael Niv - 2016 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (1):15-24.
  40. Linear Momentum Conservation in Coherent Population Trapping: A Case Study for a Quantum Filtering Process. [REVIEW]Alain Aspect & Robin Kaiser - 1990 - Foundations of Physics 20 (12):1413-1428.
    We discuss the question of linear momentum conservation when an atom coupled to a laser field enters into a state which is not an eigenstate of the linear momentum. Such a situation happens in the recently demonstrated laser cooling of atoms by velocity selective coherent population trapping. We show that this process can be understood as a filtering of the atomic state by the laser field taken as a classical measuring apparatus. In a different approach, the laser field (...)
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  41.  18
    Planck's Hypothesis, Sommerfeld's Fine Structure, Dirac's Relations, Causality, and Metrological Standards.Mirosław Zabierowski - 2010 - Apeiron: Studies in Infinite Nature 17 (2):92.
  42.  34
    Behavioral Momentum and Multiple Stimulus Control Topographies.William J. McIlvane & William V. Dube - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (1):109-109.
    We have analyzed many discrimination learning difficulties as reflecting multiple stimulus control topographies (SCTs). Nevin & Grace's analysis offers new variables to consider in the design of stimulus-control shaping procedures and cross-setting generalization of newly established behavior. A multiple-SCT perspective also suggests that fixed-trial discrimination procedures may offer advantages for reconciling momentum theory and partial reinforcement extinction effects.
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  43.  41
    Angular-Momentum Theory and Projective Geometry.B. R. Judd - 1983 - Foundations of Physics 13 (1):51-59.
    The Desarguesian nature of angular-momentum theory is illustrated by drawing correspondences between relations satisfied by then-j symbols and various collinearity properties of the appropriate diagrams. No examples of Pappus' theorem have been found. A relation is suggested between the operations of angular-momentum theory and Hilbert's constructions for the addition and multiplication of points on a line.
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  44.  13
    Max Planck and the 'Constants of Nature'.Nadia Robotti & Massimiliano Badino - 2001 - Annals of Science 58 (2):137-162.
    When at the end of the 1900s Planck introduced the constant h into the black-body radiation law together with constant k, he provided no explanation of either its meaning or why it had that particular value. He simply introduced it. In reality the history of the constant was far from straightforward. Planck was confident enough to introduce it like this because he had been working on the question for over a year. In this paper we reconstruct the process (...)
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  45. Max–Planck–Institut Für Biologische Kybernetik.Josef Pfeuffer - unknown
    In this project, a spiral fast imaging sequence was implemented on a Bruker Avance MR system. Acquisition and processing schemes were developed to measure the experimental k-space trajectories. Since errors in k-space are reflected as errors in the corresponding image, we used different strategies to measure and calculate corrections for deviation of the experimental k-space trajectory from the theoretical one. Even if the k-space trajectories deviate from the theoretical ones, an experimentally measured trajectory can be incorporated in the spiral reconstruction (...)
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  46.  30
    Technological Momentum and the Ethics of Metropolitan Growth.Robert Kirkman - 2004 - Ethics, Place and Environment 7 (3):125 – 139.
    One goal of environmental ethics is to recommend changes to patterns of human life so as to bring inhabited landscapes into line with a vision of the good. However, the complex intertwining of nature and culture in inhabited landscapes makes this project much more difficult, complicating ethical judgment and limiting the efficacy of ethical action. Technological momentum, a model introduced by historian Thomas P. Hughes to describe the development of complex technological systems, can shed some light on these difficulties. (...)
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  47.  87
    Planck, Ostwald, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics.Robert J. Deltete - 2012 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 2 (1):121-146.
  48. Max Planck and the'Constants of Nature'.Nadia Robotti Massimiliano Badino & N. Robotti - 2001 - Annals of Science 58 (2):137-162.
     
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  49.  6
    Planck's Concept of Causality.Ralph W. Erickson - 1938 - Journal of Philosophy 35 (8):208-211.
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  50.  30
    Behavioral Momentum in Pavlovian Conditioning and the Learning/Performance Distinction.Hernán I. Savastano & Ralph R. Miller - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (5):694-695.
    Behavioral momentum theory has evolved within the realm of operant conditioning. The thought-provoking momentum metaphor equates the strength of an operant response with its resistance to change and preference (i.e., choice) for that response over other available responses. Whereas baseline response rate (velocity in the metaphor) is assumed to be largely influenced by the response-reinforcer contingency, resistance to change and preference are assumed to reflect an intervening variable called behavioral mass, which is determined primarily by the stimulus-reinforcer relationship. (...)
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