When we start with a scientific view of the world, we are at a loss when we try to deal with notions such as value, beauty, or meaning -- or more down to earth: anger, fear, joy, colour, smell, and other ‘secondary’ qualities whose putative reduction seems today as difficult as ever. Do these qualities then have to be put in by hand, so to speak? Or could it mean that the scientific view itself fails to capture aspects of reality (...) at least as fundamental as basic physical notions such as space, time, energy? These were some of the questions that came up in conversations between an astrophysicist and a philosopher that began two years ago, as they met, often by accident, usually in a cafe for breakfast. What happens if a philosopher and a scientist discuss such questions? Well, this was an experiment, and here is the outcome. We still think of it as an experiment, an exploration, without any definite conclusion. (shrink)
A new and comprehensive interpretation of Nietzsche's thought guided by the problem and task that Nietzsche himself identifies as the heart of his life's work: nihilism and his endeavor to overcome it. Warspeak presents a focused reading of Nietzsche's On The Genealogy of Morality, driven and ordered by three major themes Nietzsche uses to structure his attack on nihilism and to lay the foundation for his life-affirming counter-ideal to nihilism: the moral-theological prejudice, the genealogical method, and utilitarianism. Warspeak, like Nietzsche (...) himself, defies traditional academic categories--poetry, literature, science, philosophy, or political philosophy. At times the style is analytical, at times it is literary. Threaded through the book as a whole is a novel-like account of the evolution of the latest, most vital human life-form as Nietzsche understands it. (shrink)
Adrianus van Selms as protestantse Teoloog. Van Selms het in 1938 vanaf Nederland na Suid-Afrika toe gekom om Semitiese Tale te doseer in die Fakulteit Lettere en Wysbegeerte aan die Universiteit van Pretoria. Hy het ook deeltyds in die Fakulteit Teologie doseer. Die Universiteit van Pretoria het hom as een van denkleiers van die 20ste eeu aan die universiteit erken. Hy het geslagte van teologiese studente beïnvloed tydens sy amptelike dienstydperk aan die universiteit, vanaf 1938 tot 1971. Meer as 300 (...) publikasies staan agter sy naam. Behalwe vir werk wat hy op die terrein van die Semitiese Tale gelewer het, het hy ook verskeie kommentare oor Ou-Testamentiese boeke geskryf. Verder was hy ook aktief as prediker in die kerk en het ook 'n uitsonderlike bydrae tot die kategesemateriaal van die Kerk gelewer. As teoloog het Van Selms aansluiting gevind by die reformatoriese tradisie van die 16de eeu. As eksegeet het hy die uitdaging aanvaar om die Bybelse tekste te lees in die erkenning van die historiese afstand wat die hedendaagse leser van die oorspronklike tekste skei. Hy is sodoende gekonfronteer met die knaende probleem van die benadering tot die Bybelse tekste: dogmaties of histories-krities? Deur as eksegeet sy eie dogmatikus te word, het hy die twee benaderings nie apart gehou nie, maar tot 'n eenheid gebring en op die manier 'n hervorming in die beoefening van die teologie verteenwoordig. Hy aanvaar met hierdie werkswyse die verantwoordelikheid vir die erfenis van die Kerkhervorming vir die kerk van sy dag. Die hoofstuk ontwikkel langs die verwagtinge wat aan die amp van predikant in die reformatoriese tradisie gestel word: teologie, prediking, kategese en herdelike sorg. (shrink)
Betoog over de waarde van het zien i.t.t. het kijken. De kern van dit non-duale en onmiddellijke zien is dat je 'bent wat je ziet', een soort Schlüssel- of grenservaringen die tot een woordeloze wijsheid leiden en alle vanzelfsprekendheden laten vervagen.
This collection of original essays examines the relationship between women and religion in the history of political thought broadly conceived. This theme is a remarkably revealing lens through which to view the Western philosophical and poetical traditions that have culminated in secular and egalitarian modern society. The essays also give highly analytical accounts of the manifold and intricate relationships between religion, family and public life in the history of political thought, and the various ways in which these relationships have manifested (...) themselves in pagan, Jewish, Christian and post-Christian settings. (shrink)
To what extent can politics be part of education? Recent incidents indicate how educational activities aimed at raising political awareness are perceived by some as forms of ‘indoctrination’. This article explores, firstly, how philosophical perspectives might help us understand the notion of indoctrination in education. Drawing on the work of Hannah Arendt and Michael Hand, two notions of ‘indoctrination’ are discussed and subsequently problematized in light of classroom practices. Expanding our perspective to the larger historical context of reflections on education (...) and democracy, we then show how the dilemma of indoctrination should be understood as part of a tradition in pedagogical thinking that emphasizes the complex dynamics of socialization and critical thinking in education. Finally, we argue that from a pedagogical perspective, the issue is not whether or not certain educational activities might be forms of indoctrination, but to what extent these activities provide students an opportunity for both socialization and critical inquiry. (shrink)
''Biodiversity'' is all to often used as a buzz-word, with no clearly defined meaning, let alone a strict procedure to measure it. This article proposes a logical procedure, based on a similar approach in socio-economics (to measure income inequality). Every element in our logical procedure is known. Bringing it all together as presented is new, as far as we know.
If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term “health” is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human health and health as the absence of disease and illness—i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes (...) sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health. (shrink)
The die-hard viewpoint of an influential figure like President M.T. Steyn of the Republic of the Orange Free State led to the lengthening of the Anglo-Boer War by more than a year. The reasons for Steyn leading the Free State into this war, the reasons for his call not to surrender and the effect of the war on the Afrikaner, is discussed in this article. An ethical discussion of factors indicating a bitter end, is also on the cards. There was (...) a strong realisation among the representatives of the Republics of the Free State and the Transvaal in 1902 that this is the end of the war. (shrink)
In this article the transactional model of narrative as expounded by Louise Rosenblatt, supported by an analysis in terms of dramatic aspect, is employed to show how the interpolated scene in John 7:53–8:11 functions as a pivot of power in the gospel. The content of the scene, as well as its placement within the gospel, serves to promote an aesthetic reading that focusses attention on the experience during the reading event. Awareness of sensations, images, feelings and ideas from past experiences, (...) as well as the sounds and rhythms of the words become important. The reader responds to the aesthetic transaction, the various elements of total experience, rather than simply to the text, during and after the reading event. (shrink)
ABSTRACTAccording to many governments and educationalists, education should aim to develop dispositions conducive to political participation and solidarity, because democratic citizenship presupposes participation and solidarity. But there are radically different views on the nature of good citizenship. We examine the implications of this dissensus for citizenship education. Education, we contend, should involve and develop autonomy and open-mindedness. We argue that this requires a more critical approach than is possible when political participation and solidarity are conceived of as goals of education.
For, General C.R. de Wet, the well-known military leader of the Republic of the Orange Free State in the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902, this was a war undertaken in faith. As far as De Wet was concerned, his Christian faith had to determine his way of life: every decision and every action. Therefore it was also visible in his reasons for fighting and other actions in the war. De Wet cared for practical worship around the Bible and prayer with his (...) men on commando. His Christian convictions, however, also showed in his common sense and decision-making skills on the battle field, his respect for friend and foe when in contact, and his humanity in treating soldiers. From this point of departure, De Wet undertook, from his side, a gentleman's war. De Wet was a man of action and of deeds, and not of hesitance, which sometimes led to mistakes and tactical blunders on his side. (shrink)
The last two presidents of the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republic and the Republic of the Orange Free State, S.J.P. Kruger and M.T. Steyn, both stood in the tradition of the Christian Afrikaner. Kruger as the symbol of Afrikaner republicanism in the 19th century and Steyn as a younger and more modern Afrikaner, tried to base their policies openly and clearly on Biblical and Christian principles. Kruger as a member and recognised minister of the Reformed Churches in South Africa formulated his views in (...) a typical Dutch neo-Calvinistic way, while Steyn used Reformed concepts combined with his academic background in jurisprudence and the law of nations to foster the same ideas. Kruger and Steyn trusted one another, agreed on core issues and worked together rather well. Each strived to maintain the independence of his republic. (shrink)