Results for 'Philip Sidney Horky'

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  1. Plato and Pythagoreanism.Philip Sidney Horky - 2013 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Was Plato a Pythagorean? Plato's students and earliest critics thought so, but scholars since the nineteenth century have been more skeptical. With this probing study, Phillip Sidney Horky argues that a specific type of Pythagorean philosophy, called "mathematical" Pythagoreanism, exercised a decisive influence on fundamental aspects of Plato's philosophy. The progenitor of mathematical Pythagoreanism was the infamous Pythagorean heretic and political revolutionary Hippasus of Metapontum, a student of Pythagoras who is credited with experiments in harmonics that led to (...)
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  2. Persian Cosmos and Greek Philosophy: Plato's Associates and the Zoroastrian Magoi.Phillip Sidney Horky - 2009 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 37:47-103.
    Immediately upon the death of Plato in 347 BCE, philosophers in the Academy began to circulate stories involving his encounters with wisdom practitioners from Persia. This article examines the history of Greek perceptions of Persian wisdom and argues that the presence of foreign wisdom practitioners in the history of Greek philosophy has been undervalued since Diogenes Laertius.
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  3.  28
    Phillip Sidney Horky. Plato and Pythagoreanism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013. Pp. 320. £47.99. [REVIEW]Joseph G. Miller - 2014 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 4 (2):391-393.
  4.  91
    Sir Philip Sidney's Dilemma: On the Ethical Function of Narrative Art.Daniel Jacobson - 1996 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 54 (4):327-336.
  5.  18
    Plato and Pythagoreanism, by Phillip Sidney Horky.Richard McKirahan - 2014 - Ancient Philosophy 34 (2):415-418.
  6.  11
    Plato and Pythagoreanism by Phillip Sidney Horky.Federico M. Petrucci - 2014 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 52 (4):837-838.
  7.  9
    Plato and Pythagoreanism by Phillip Sidney Horky.Gabriele Cornelli - 2015 - American Journal of Philology 136 (2):353-357.
  8.  35
    Dynamic Stability and Basins of Attraction in the Sir Philip Sidney Game.Simon M. Huttegger & Kevin J. S. Zollman - unknown
    We study the handicap principle in terms of the Sir Philip Sidney game. The handicap principle asserts that cost is required to allow for honest signalling in the face of conflicts of interest. We show that the significance of the handicap principle can be challenged from two new directions. Firstly, both the costly signalling equilibrium and certain states of no communication are stable under the replicator dynamics ; however, the latter states are more likely in cases where honest (...)
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  9.  8
    Plato and Pythagoreanism. By Phillip Sidney Horky. Pp. Xxi, 305, Oxford University Press, 2013, £47.99. On Pythagoreanism. Edited by Gabriele Cornelli, Richard McKirahan, and Constantinos Macris. Pp. Xix, 532, De Gruyter, 2013, £109.95. Pythagorean Women: Their History and Writings. By Sarah B. Pomeroy. Pp. Xxii, 172, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013, £32.00. [REVIEW]Robin Waterfield - 2016 - Heythrop Journal 57 (1):160-161.
  10. When Did Kosmos Become the Kosmos?Phillip Sidney Horky - 2019 - In Cosmos in the Ancient World. Cambridge: pp. 22-41.
    When did kosmos come to mean *the* kosmos, in the sense of ‘world-order’? I venture a new answer by examining later evidence often underutilised or dismissed by scholars. Two late doxographical accounts in which Pythagoras is said to be first to call the heavens kosmos (in the anonymous Life of Pythagoras and the fragments of Favorinus) exhibit heurematographical tendencies that place their claims in a dialectic with the early Peripatetics about the first discoverers of the mathematical structure of the universe. (...)
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  11.  3
    From the Courtly World to the Infinite Universe: Sir Philip Sidney's twoArcadias.Lisa Freinkel - 1996 - History of European Ideas 22 (2):134-137.
  12.  26
    Herennius Pontius: The Construction of a Samnite Philosopher.Phillip Sidney Horky - 2011 - Classical Antiquity 30 (1):119-147.
    This article explores in greater depth the historiographical traditions concerning Herennius Pontius, a Samnite wisdom-practitioner who is said by the Peripatetic Aristoxenus of Tarentum to have been an interlocutor of the philosophers Archytas of Tarentum and Plato of Athens. Specifically, it argues that extant speeches attributed to Herennius Pontius in the writings of Cassius Dio and Appian preserve a philosophy of “extreme proportional benefaction” among unequals. Greek theories of ethics among unequals such as those of Aristotle and Archytas of Tarentum, (...)
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  13. Hellenistic Pythagorean Epistemology.Phillip Sidney Horky & Giulia De Cesaris - 2018 - Lexicon Philosophicum 6 (Special Issue: 'Hellenistic Theo):221-262.
    The paper offers a running commentary on ps-Archytas’ On Intellect and Sense Perception (composed ca. 80 BCE), with the aim to provide a clear description of Hellenistic/post-Hellenistic Pythagorean epistemology. Through an analysis of the process of knowledge and of the faculties that this involves, ps-Archytas presents an original epistemological theory which, although grounded in Aristotelian and Platonic theories, results in a peculiar Pythagorean criteriology that accounts for the acquisition and production of knowledge, as well as for the specific competences of (...)
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  14.  63
    'Law and Justice Among the Socratics: Contexts for Plato's Republic'.Phillip Sidney Horky - 2021 - Polis 38 (3):399-419.
    At the beginning of Republic 2 (358e–359b), Plato has Glaucon ascribe a social contract theory to Thrasymachus and ‘countless others’. This paper takes Glaucon’s description to refer both within the text to Thrasymachus’ views, and outside the text to a series of works, most of which have been lost, On Justice or On Law. It examines what is likely to be the earliest surviving work that presents a philosophical defence of law and justice against those who would prefer their opposites, (...)
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  15.  89
    'Archytas: Author and Authenticator of Pythagoreanism'.Phillip Sidney Horky - forthcoming - In Constantinos Macris, Luc Brisson & Tiziano Dorandi (eds.), Pythagoras Redivivus: Studies on the Texts Attributed to Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans. 53757 Sankt Augustin, Germany:
    This paper critically examines the use of the name 'Pseudo-Archytas' to refer to two aspects of the reception of Archytas of Tarentum in antiquity: the 'author-inflection' and the 'authority-inflection'. In order to make progress on our understanding of authority and authorship within the Pythagorean tradition, it attempts to reconstruct Porphyry's views on the importance of Archytas as guarantor of Pythagorean authenticity in the former's lost work On the History of the Philosophers by considering a fragment preserved in Arabic by Ibn (...)
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  16.  62
    'Gramsci and Ancient Philosophy: Prelude to a Study' (Please Contact Me for Proofs).Phillip Sidney Horky - 2021 - In Emilio Zucchetti & Anna Maria Cimino (eds.), Antonio Gramsci and the Classics. London, UK: pp. 86-100.
    This chapter investigates the precise ways in which Antonio Gramsci engaged with ancient philosophy. A brief examination of the longest discussion in the Prison Notebooks of any ancient philosopher or text, Plato’s Republic (Q8, §22), raises many questions about Gramsci’s approach to ancient philosophy. These questions motivate an investigation into Gramsci’s surprisingly minimal discussion of ancient philosophy and philosophers, which is best explained in the light of his theoretical commitments to his distinctive species of historical materialism. Rather than responding to (...)
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  17. Cosmic Spiritualism Among the Pythagoreans, Stoics, Jews, and Early Christians.Phillip Sidney Horky - 2019 - In Cosmos in the Ancient World. Cambridge, UK: pp. 270-94.
    This paper traces how the dualism of body and soul, cosmic and human, is bridged in philosophical and religious traditions through appeal to the notion of ‘breath’ (πνεῦμα). It pursues this project by way of a genealogy of pneumatic cosmology and anthropology, covering a wide range of sources, including the Pythagoreans of the fifth century BCE (in particular, Philolaus of Croton); the Stoics of the third and second centuries BCE (especially Posidonius); the Jews writing in Hellenistic Alexandria in the first (...)
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  18. 'Anonymus Iamblichi, On Excellence (Peri Aretês): A Lost Defense of Democracy'.Phillip Sidney Horky - 2020 - In D. Wolfsdorf (ed.), Early Greek Ethics. Oxford, UK: pp. 262-92.
    In 1889, the German philologist Friedrich Blass isolated a section of Chapter 20 from Iamblichus’ Exhortation to Philosophy (mid- or late 3rd Century CE) as an extract from a lost sophistic or philosophical treatise from the late 5th Century BCE. In this article, I introduce the text, which is now known as 'Anonymus Iamblichi' (or 'the anonymous work preserved in Iamblichus') by appeal to its two main contexts (source preservation and original historical composition), translate and discuss all eight surviving fragments (...)
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  19. Speusippus and Xenocrates on the Pursuit and Ends of Philosophy.Phillip Sidney Horky - 2018 - In Harold Tarrant, Danielle Lane, Dirk Baltzly & François Tanguay Renaud (eds.), Brill’s Companion to the Reception of Plato in Antiquity. Leiden, Netherlands: pp. 29-45.
    The philosophical practices undertaken in Plato's Academy remain, in the words of Cherniss, a 'riddle'. Yet surviving accounts of the views of the first two scholarchs of Plato's Academy after his death, Speusippus and Xenocrates, reveal a sophisticated engagement with their teacher's ideas concerning the pursuit of knowledge and the ends of philosophy. Speusippus and Xenocrates transform Plato's views on epistemology and happiness, and thereby help to lay the groundwork for the transformation of philosophy in the Hellenistic era.
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  20. Empedocles Democraticus: Hellenistic Biography at the Intersection of Philosophy and Politics.Phillip Sidney Horky - 2016 - In Mauro Bonazzi & Stefan Schorn (eds.), Bios Philosophos: Philosophy in Ancient Greek Biography. 2300 Turnhout, Belgium: pp. 37-71.
    Diogenes Laertius (8.63-6) preserves a fascinating account of the Presocratic philosopher Empedocles' life. There, drawing on evidence from Aristotle, Xanthus, and Timaeus of Tauromenium, the biographer provides several anecdotes which are meant to demonstrate how Empedocles had, contrary to expectation, been a democratic philosopher - a paradox of itself in Ancient Greece. This article unpacks the complex web woven by Diogenes and argues that there is no good reason to assume that Empedocles was indeed a democratic philosopher, and moreover, that (...)
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  21. The Imprint of the Soul: Psychosomatic Affection in Plato, Gorgias, and the “Orphic” Gold Tablets.Phillip Sidney Horky - 2006 - Mouseion 3 (6):383-398.
    Ancient intellectuals from Gorgias of Leontini forward employed the notion of 'imprinting' the soul in order to describe various sorts of psychic affections. The dominant context for this scientific language remains juridical both in 4th Century philosophy (e.g. Plato's description of the soul being whipped in the Gorgias) and in religion (e.g. the soul's imprint as keyword in "Orphic" Gold Tablets). This tradition continues in the fragments of Plutarch's de Libidine et Aegritudine, although without proper attention to its origins in (...)
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  22. Pseudo-Archytas’ Protreptics? On Wisdom in its Contexts.Phillip Sidney Horky - 2015 - In Debra Nails & Harold Tarrant (eds.), Second Sailing: Alternative Perspectives on Plato. Helsinki, Finland: pp. 21-39.
    In his Exhortation to Philosophy (Protrepticus), the Neoplatonic philosopher Iamblichus famously preserves material culled from lost works of ancient philosophy, including dialogues of Aristotle. He also preserves a work entitled On Wisdom and ascribed to the Pythagorean philosopher Archytas of Tarentum, who was a friend and challenger of Plato. The text On Wisdom is a later Hellenistic production, probably written in the 1st century BCE, but it presents an important piece in the puzzle of reconstructing Pythagoreanism for the Hellenistic and (...)
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  23. The Spectrum of Animal Rationality in Plutarch.Phillip Sidney Horky - 2017 - Apeiron 50 (1):103-133.
    Thanks to the work of Stephen Newmyer, Plutarch’s importance for modern philosophical debates concerning animal rationality and rights has been brought to the forefront. But Newmyer’s important scholarship overlooks Plutarch’s commitment to a range of rational functions that can be ascribed to animals of various sorts throughout the Moralia. Through an application of the ‘spectrum of animal rationality’ described in the treatise On Moral Virtue to the dialogues where his interlocutors explore the rational capacities of non-human animals (especially Whether Land (...)
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  24. Theophrastus on Platonic and 'Pythagorean' Imitation.Phillip Sidney Horky - 2013 - Classical Quarterly 63 (2):686-712.
    In the twenty-fourth aporia of Theophrastus' Metaphysics, there appears an important, if ‘bafflingly elliptical’, ascription to Plato and the ‘Pythagoreans’ of a theory of reduction to the first principles via ‘imitation’. Very little attention has been paid to the idea of Platonic and ‘Pythagorean’ reduction through the operation of ‘imitation’ as presented by Theophrastus in his Metaphysics. This article interrogates the concepts of ‘reduction’ and ‘imitation’ as described in the extant fragments of Theophrastus’ writings – with special attention to his (...)
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  25.  28
    The Texts of Early Greek Philosophy: The Complete Fragments and Selected Testimonies of the Major Presocratics Ed. By Daniel W. Graham.Phillip Sidney Horky - 2013 - American Journal of Philology 134 (1):149-155.
  26.  20
    Cosmos in the Ancient World.Phillip Sidney Horky (ed.) - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    How did the ancient Greeks and Romans conceptualise order? This book answers that question by analysing the formative concept of kosmos in ancient literature, philosophy, science, art, and religion. This concept encouraged the Greeks and Romans to develop theories to explain core aspects of human life, including nature, beauty, society, politics, the individual, and what lies beyond human experience. Hence, Greek kosmos, and its Latin correlate mundus, are subjects of profound reflection by a wide range of important ancient figures, including (...)
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  27.  15
    From Plato to Platonism by Lloyd P. Gerson. [REVIEW]Phillip Sidney Horky - 2015 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 53 (3):542-543.
  28.  8
    Gabriele Cornelli, Richard McKirahan, and Constantinos Macris , On Pythagoreanism. [REVIEW]Phillip Sidney Horky - 2016 - Rhizomata 4 (2):269-275.
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  29.  14
    (D.) Frede and (B.) Reis Eds. Body and Soul in Ancient Philosophy. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2009. Pp. Vi + 562. £58. 9783110202366. [REVIEW]Phillip Sidney Horky - 2011 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 131:263-264.
  30.  21
    Feudalism. Philip Grierson, F. L. Ganshof.Sidney Painter - 1953 - Speculum 28 (2):393-394.
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  31.  9
    Three Recent Books on Pragmatism Pragmatism and the Tragic Sense of Life. Four Pragmatists: A Critical Introduction to Peirce, James, Mead, and Dewey. The Phenomenology of Charles S. Peirce: From the Doctrine of Categories to Phaneroscopy. [REVIEW]Philip P. Wiener, Sidney Hook, Dewey, Israel Scheffler & William L. Rosensohn - 1975 - Journal of the History of Ideas 36 (4):739.
  32.  21
    Philip P. Wiener 1906-1992.Sidney Axinn - 1993 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 66 (7):40 - 41.
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  33. Symposium: Are Religious Dogmas Cognitive and Meaningful?Virgil C. Aldrich, Charles Hartshorne, Harold H. Titus, H. Rensselaer Wilsovann, Patrick Romanell, Woodrow W. Sayre, William S. Minor, Philip Merlan, Y. H. Krikorian, John Herman Randall Jr, James Gutmann, Sidney Hook, Virgil C. Aldrich, C. J. Ducasse & Raphael Demos - 1954 - Journal of Philosophy 51 (5):145 - 172.
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  34.  22
    Symposium: Are Religious Dogmas Cognitive and Meaningful?Virgil C. Aldrich, Charles Hartshorne, Harold H. Titus, H. Van Rensselaer Wilson, Patrick Romanell, Woodrow W. Sayre, William S. Minor, Philip Merlan, Y. H. Krikorian, John Herman Randall, James Gutmann, Sidney Hook, C. J. Ducasse & Raphael Demos - 1954 - Journal of Philosophy 51 (5):145.
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  35.  22
    Reviews of Books and Periodicals Chronique Bibliographique : ALMOND, Gabriel A. ; VERBA, Sidney, The Civic Culture. Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Princeton University Press, Princeton N.J. 1963, 562 P. JACOB, Philip E. ; TOSCANO, James V., , The Integration of Political Communities, J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia & New York, 1964, 314 P. [REVIEW]Jerzy J. Wiatr - 1965 - Social Sciences Information 4 (2):220-228.
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  36. Reviews of Books and Periodicals Chronique Bibliographique : ALMOND, Gabriel A. ; VERBA, Sidney, The Civic Culture. Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Princeton University Press, Princeton N.J. 1963, 562 P. JACOB, Philip E. ; TOSCANO, James V., (Eds.), The Integration of Political Communities, J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia & New York, 1964, 314 P. [REVIEW]Jerzy J. Wiatr - 1965 - Social Science Information 4 (2):220-228.
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  37.  2
    Poetic and Legal Fiction in the Aristotelian Tradition.Kathy Eden - 1986 - Princeton University Press.
    When Philip Sidney defends poetry by defending the methods used by poets and lawyers alike, he relies on the traditional association between fiction and legal procedure--an association that begins with Aristotle. In this study Kathy Eden offers a new understanding of this tradition, from its origins in Aristotle's Poetics and De Anima, through its development in the psychological and rhetorical theory of late antiquity and the Middle Ages, to its culmination in the literary theory of the Renaissance. Originally (...)
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  38.  1
    Poetics. Aristotle - 1932 - Oxford University Press.
    A founding text of European aestheticism and literary criticism, Poetics underpins our moden understanding of imaginative writing. Anthony Kenny's new translation is accompanied by associated material from Plato, Sir Philip Sidney, P. B. Shelley, and Dorothy L. Sayers and a wide-ranging introduction.
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  39.  38
    Inclusive Fitness and the Problem of Honest Communication.Justin P. Bruner & Hannah Rubin - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (1):115-137.
    Inclusive fitness has been under intense scrutiny in recent years, with many critics claiming the framework leads to incorrect predictions. We consider one particularly influential heuristic for estimating inclusive fitness in the context of the very case that motivated reliance on it to begin with: the Sir Philip Sidney signalling game played with relatives. Using a neighbour-modulated fitness model, we show when and why this heuristic is problematic. We argue that reliance on the heuristic rests on a misunderstanding (...)
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  40.  4
    Poetics.Anthony Kenny (ed.) - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    A founding text of European aestheticism and literary criticism, Poetics underpins our moden understanding of imaginative writing. Anthony Kenny's new translation is accompanied by associated material from Plato, Sir Philip Sidney, P. B. Shelley, and Dorothy L. Sayers and a wide-ranging introduction.
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  41.  44
    Behavioural Deception and Formal Models of Communication.Gregory McWhirter - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (3):757-780.
    Having a satisfactory definition of behavioural deception is important for understanding several types of evolutionary questions. No definition offered in the literature so far is adequate on all fronts. After identifying characteristics that are important for a definition, a new definition of behavioural deception is offered. The new definition, like some other proposed attempts, relies on formal game-theoretic models of signalling. Unlike others, it incorporates explicit consideration of the population in which the potentially deceptive interactions occur. The general structure of (...)
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  42.  56
    Poetics. Aristotle - 1934 - Oxford University Press.
    A founding text of European aestheticism and literary criticism, Poetics underpins our moden understanding of imaginative writing. Anthony Kenny's new translation is accompanied by associated material from Plato, Sir Philip Sidney, P. B. Shelley, and Dorothy L. Sayers and a wide-ranging introduction.
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  43. Antiquity Forgot: Essays on Shakespeare, Bacon and Rembrandt.Howard B. White - 1978 - Springer.
    It was probably Rousseau who first thought of dreams as ennobling experiences. Anyone who has ever read Reveries du Promeneur Solitaire must be struck by the dreamlike quality of Rousseau's meditations. This dreamlike quality is still with us, and those who experience it find themselves ennobled by it. Witness Martin Luther King's famous "1 have a dream. " Dreaming and inspiration raise the artist to the top rung in the ladder ofhuman relations. That is probably the prevailing view among educated (...)
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  44. Methodology in Biological Game Theory.Simon M. Huttegger & Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3):637-658.
    Game theory has a prominent role in evolutionary biology, in particular in the ecological study of various phenomena ranging from conflict behaviour to altruism to signalling and beyond. The two central methodological tools in biological game theory are the concepts of Nash equilibrium and evolutionarily stable strategy. While both were inspired by a dynamic conception of evolution, these concepts are essentially static—they only show that a population is uninvadable, but not that a population is likely to evolve. In this article, (...)
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  45.  16
    An Evolutionary Comparison of the Handicap Principle and Hybrid Equilibrium Theories of Signaling.Patrick Kane & Kevin J. S. Zollman - unknown
    The handicap principle has come under significant challenge both from empirical studies and from theoretical work. As a result, a number of alternative explanations for honest signaling have been proposed. This paper compares the evolutionary plausibility of one such alternative, the "hybrid equilibrium," to the handicap principle. We utilize computer simulations to compare these two theories as they are instantiated in Maynard Smith's Sir Philip Sidney game. We conclude that, when both types of communication are possible, evolution is (...)
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  46.  18
    Boccaccio's Poetic Anthropology: Allegories of History in the Genealogie Deorum Gentilium Libri.David Lummus - 2012 - Speculum 87 (3):724-765.
    When Giovanni Boccaccio undertook to compile the myths of Greco-Roman antiquity in the mid-fourteenth century, he was working within a long tradition of medieval commentaries on Ovid's mythological works and mythographical compendia, such as Alberic of London's De deis gentium. His Genealogie deorum gentilium libri, on which he worked until the final years of his life, also falls within the traditions of biblical exegesis and of philosophical commentary on texts, such as Boethius's De consolatione philosophiae and Virgil's Aeneid. The complex (...)
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  47. Hobbes, Romance, and the Contract of Mimesis.Victoria Kahn - 2001 - Political Theory 29 (1):4-29.
    It is worthy the observing that there is no passion in the mind of man so weak but it mates and masters the fear of death.... Revenge triumphs over death, love slights it, honour aspireth to it, grief flieth to it, fear preoccupateth it. Francis Bacon, “Of Death”This fight being the more cruel, since both Love and Hatred conspired to sharpen their humours, that hard it was to say whether Love with one trumpet, or Hatred with another, gave the louder (...)
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  48.  7
    The Ethical Turn in Aesthetic Education: Early Chinese Thinkers on Music and Arts. Gu - 2016 - Journal of Aesthetic Education 50 (1):95-111.
    In memory of Anthony C. Yu who read and commented on an early version of this article.In the comparative philosophy of art, there is a widely accepted view that, while classical Western aesthetic theory emphasizes the unity of beauty and truth, classical Chinese aesthetic theory focuses on the unity of beauty and goodness. Indeed, one striking feature of Chinese aesthetics is its emphasis on moral education and didacticism. Although Western tradition also emphasizes the importance of moral education in art as (...)
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  49. Scepticism and Literature: An Essay on Pope, Hume, Sterne, and Johnson. [REVIEW]B. O. X. M. A. - 2004 - Hume Studies 30 (1):204-207.
    To carry on reasoning in the face of the implications of skepticism is what Fred Parker calls “sceptical thinking.” Not to be confused with the engineered vacillation leading to a tranquillizing suspense of judgement, it involves the double perspective of someone conducting a life, believing and reasoning as we do, while acutely aware that the whole endeavor is, in a sense, untenable. If, as Sir Philip Sidney famously said, an imaginative writer “nothing affirms, and therefore never lieth,” then (...)
     
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  50. A Course on the Afterlife of Plato’s Symposium.James Lesher - 2004 - Classical Journal 100:75-85.
    A course on the afterlife of Plato’s Symposium can accomplish two worthwhile objectives. It can afford students an opportunity to study a philosophical and literary masterpiece, and it can introduce them to some of the main currents in modern European culture. One recent iteration of such a course addressed six questions: (1) Why might Plato have chosen to write a dialogue about a ‘drinking party’? (2) Why did Plato present multiple speeches on the nature of Eros? (3) Why have some (...)
     
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