Results for 'Peter M. Toscano'

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  1. The study of global solutions: A postmodern systems thinking view of grounded theory/grounded action.Peter M. Toscano - 2006 - World Futures 62 (7):505 – 515.
    The grounded theory research method embodies a crucial element of postmodernist thinking due to its aversion to theory verification and its ability to imbue analysts with the power to discover theory. These processes closely mirror systems thinking because they allow for holistic examination. Postmodern systems thinking combines the worldview of postmodernism with systems thinking, creating a mechanism that is both respectful to the variations of human interaction and the need for "de-compartmentalizing" complex systems. The postmodern systems thinking framework united with (...)
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  2. Parts: a study in ontology.Peter M. Simons - 1987 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Although the relationship of part to whole is one of the most fundamental there is, this is the first full-length study of this key concept. Showing that mereology, or the formal theory of part and whole, is essential to ontology, Simons surveys and critiques previous theories--especially the standard extensional view--and proposes a new account that encompasses both temporal and modal considerations. Simons's revised theory not only allows him to offer fresh solutions to long-standing problems, but also has far-reaching consequences for (...)
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  3. Newman's objection.Peter M. Ainsworth - 2009 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (1):135-171.
    This paper is a review of work on Newman's objection to epistemic structural realism (ESR). In Section 2, a brief statement of ESR is provided. In Section 3, Newman's objection and its recent variants are outlined. In Section 4, two responses that argue that the objection can be evaded by abandoning the Ramsey-sentence approach to ESR are considered. In Section 5, three responses that have been put forward specifically to rescue the Ramsey-sentence approach to ESR from the modern versions of (...)
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  4.  44
    Parts: A Study in Ontology.Peter M. Simons - 1987 - Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
    The relationship of part to whole is one of the most fundamental there is; this is the first and only full-length study of this concept. This book shows that mereology, the formal theory of part and whole, is essential to ontology. Peter Simons surveys and criticizes previous theories, especially the standard extensional view, and proposes a more adequate account which encompasses both temporal and modal considerations in detail. 'Parts could easily be the standard book on mereology for the next (...)
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  5.  11
    Are dialects epiphenomena?Peter M. Waser - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (1):117-117.
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  6.  73
    The Intellectual Powers: A Study of Human Nature.Peter M. S. Hacker - 2013 - Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
  7. Précis of simple heuristics that make us Smart.Peter M. Todd & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):727-741.
    How can anyone be rational in a world where knowledge is limited, time is pressing, and deep thought is often an unattainable luxury? Traditional models of unbounded rationality and optimization in cognitive science, economics, and animal behavior have tended to view decision-makers as possessing supernatural powers of reason, limitless knowledge, and endless time. But understanding decisions in the real world requires a more psychologically plausible notion of bounded rationality. In Simple heuristics that make us smart (Gigerenzer et al. 1999), we (...)
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  8. The Psychology of Action: Linking Cognition and Motivation to Behavior.Peter M. Gollwitzer & John A. Bargh (eds.) - 1996 - Guilford.
    Moving beyond the traditional, and unproductive, rivalry between the fields of motivation and cognition, this book integrates the two domains to shed new light ...
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  9. Appearance and Reality: A Philosophical Investigation into Perception and Perceptual Qualities.PETER M. S. HACKER - 1987 - Philosophy 64 (247):116-119.
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  10.  60
    Environments That Make Us Smart Ecological Rationality.Peter M. Todd & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2007 - Current Directions in Psychological Science 16 (3):167-171.
    Traditional views of rationality posit general-purpose decision mechanisms based on logic or optimization. The study of ecological rationality focuses on uncovering the “adaptive toolbox” of domain-specific simple heuristics that real, computationally bounded minds employ, and explaining how these heuristics produce accurate decisions by exploiting the structures of information in the environments in which they are applied. Knowing when and how people use particular heuristics can facilitate the shaping of environments to engender better decisions.
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  11. What should we want from a robot ethic.Peter M. Asaro - 2006 - International Review of Information Ethics 6 (12):9-16.
    There are at least three things we might mean by "ethics in robotics": the ethical systems built into robots, the ethics of people who design and use robots, and the ethics of how people treat robots. This paper argues that the best approach to robot ethics is one which addresses all three of these, and to do this it ought to consider robots as socio-technical systems. By so doing, it is possible to think of a continuum of agency that lies (...)
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  12.  53
    Building the Theory of Ecological Rationality.Peter M. Todd & Henry Brighton - 2016 - Minds and Machines 26 (1-2):9-30.
    While theories of rationality and decision making typically adopt either a single-powertool perspective or a bag-of-tricks mentality, the research program of ecological rationality bridges these with a theoretically-driven account of when different heuristic decision mechanisms will work well. Here we described two ways to study how heuristics match their ecological setting: The bottom-up approach starts with psychologically plausible building blocks that are combined to create simple heuristics that fit specific environments. The top-down approach starts from the statistical problem facing the (...)
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  13.  13
    Philosophy and Logic in central Europe from Bolzano to Tarski.Peter M. Simons - 1992 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    This book with an introduction by Witold Marciszewski, views the history of philosophy and logic from 1837 to 1939 from the perspective of the cradle of modern exact philosophy - Central Europe. In a series of case studies, it illuminates the developments in this region, most notably in Austria and Poland, examining thinkers such as Bolzano, Brentano, Meinong, Husserl, Twardowski, Lesniewski, and Tarski, as well as the logicians like Frege and Russell with whom they bore a close resemblance. The book (...)
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  14. Conditionalization and expected utility.Peter M. Brown - 1976 - Philosophy of Science 43 (3):415-419.
  15. Wittgenstein on Grammar, Theses and Dogmatism.Peter M. S. Hacker - 2011 - Philosophical Investigations 35 (1):1-17.
    It is sometimes argued that Wittgenstein's conception of grammar and the role he allocated to grammar (in his sense of the term) in philosophy changed between the Big Typescript and the Philosophical Investigations. It is also held that some of the grammatical propositions Wittgenstein asserted prior to his writing of the Philosophical Investigations are theses, doctrines, opinions or dogmatism, which he abandoned by 1936/37. The purpose of this paper is to show these claims to be misunderstandings and misinterpretations. On all (...)
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  16.  17
    A model for visual shape recognition.Peter M. Milner - 1974 - Psychological Review 81 (6):521-535.
  17.  49
    The denotation of generic terms in ancient Indian philosophy: grammar, Nyāya and Mīmāṃsā.Peter M. Scharf - 1996 - Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.
    Introduction By the late fifth century BCE Panini had composed the Astadhyayi, consisting of nearly 4000 rules giving a precise and fairly complete ...
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  18.  24
    The volitional benefits of planning.Peter M. Gollwitzer - 1996 - In P. Gollwitzer & John A. Bargh (eds.), The Psychology of Action: Linking Cognition and Motivation to Behavior. Guilford. pp. 13--287.
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  19. The control of the unwanted.Peter M. Gollwitzer, Ute C. Bayer & Kathleen C. McCulloch - 2005 - In Ran R. Hassin, James S. Uleman & John A. Bargh (eds.), The New Unconscious. Oxford Series in Social Cognition and Social Neuroscience. Oxford University Press. pp. 485--515.
  20. The Gibbs Paradox and the Definition of Entropy in Statistical Mechanics.Peter M. Ainsworth - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (4):542-560.
    This article considers the Gibbs paradox and its implications for three definitions of entropy in statistical mechanics: the “classical” Boltzmann entropy ; the modified Boltzmann entropy that is usually proposed in response to the paradox ; and a generalized version of the latter. It is argued that notwithstanding a recent suggestion to the contrary, the paradox does imply that SB1 is not a satisfactory definition of entropy; SB2 is undermined by “second-order” versions of the paradox; and SB2G solves the paradox (...)
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  21. Identity theories of truth and the tractatus.Peter M. Sullivan - 2005 - Philosophical Investigations 28 (1):43–62.
    The paper is concerned with the idea that the world is the totality of facts, not of things – with what is involved in thinking of the world in that way, and why one might do so. It approaches this issue through a comparison between Wittgenstein’s Tractatus and the identity theory of truth proposed by Hornsby and McDowell.The paper’s positive conclusion is that there is a genuine affinity between these two. A negative contention is that the modern identity theory is (...)
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  22. On Trying to be Resolute: A Response to Kremer on the Tractatus.Peter M. Sullivan - 2002 - European Journal of Philosophy 10 (1):43-78.
    A way of reading the Tractatus has been proposed which, according to its advocates, is importantly novel and essentially distinct from anything to be found in the work of such previously influential students of the book as Anscombe, Stenius, Hacker or Pears. The point of difference is differently described, but the currently most used description seems to be Goldfarb’s term ‘resolution’ – hence one speaks of ‘the resolute reading’. I’ll shortly ask what resolution is. For now, it is enough that (...)
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  23. De Veritate: Austro-Polish Contributions to the Theory of Truth from Brentano to Tarski.Peter M. Simons & Jan Wolenski - 1989 - In Klemens Szaniawski (ed.), The Vienna Circle and the Lvov-Warsaw School. Dordrecht.
  24. Farewell to substance: A differentiated leave-taking.Peter M. Simons - 1998 - Ratio 11 (3):235–252.
    For most of the history of metaphysics, the subject has been dominated by the concept of substance. There is an everyday commonsense notion of substance which is perfectly harmless and which I shall defend against attempts to remove it or revise it away. But I deny that substance has to be construed as a primitive even in everyday terms. Borrowing Strawson’s distinction between descriptive and revisionary metaphysics, I press the legitimate claims of revisionary metaphysics and argue that there is no (...)
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  25.  20
    Parts Study in Ontology: A Study in Ontology.Peter M. Simons - 1987 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press UK.
    The relationship of part to whole is one of the most fundamental there is, yet until now there has been no full-length study of this concept. This book shows that mereology, the formal theory of part and whole, is essential to ontology. Peter Simons surveys and criticizes previous theories, especially the standard extensional view, and proposes a more adequate account which encompasses both temporal and modal considerations in detail. This has far-reaching consequences for our understanding of such classical philosophical (...)
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  26. Brentano's reform of logic.Peter M. Simons - 1987 - Topoi 6 (1):25-38.
  27. The Natural Philosophy of James Clerk Maxwell.Peter M. Harman - 2001
     
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  28. What is the tractatus about?Peter M. Sullivan - 2004 - In Max Kölbel & Bernhard Weiss (eds.), Wittgenstein's Lasting Significance. Routledge. pp. 28-41.
     
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  29.  37
    The Use of Usus and the Function of Functio: Teleology and Its Limits in Descartes’s Physiology.Peter M. Distelzweig - 2015 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 53 (3):377-399.
    rené descartes famously and explicitly rejects appeals to final causes in natural philosophy, suggesting that such appeals depend on knowledge of God’s inscrutable ends.For since I now know that my own nature is very weak and limited, whereas the nature of God is immense, incomprehensible and infinite, I also know without more ado that he is capable of countless things whose causes are beyond my knowledge. And for this reason alone I consider the whole kind of causes, customarily sought from (...)
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  30. Wittgenstein's Tractatus: history and interpretation.Peter M. Sullivan & Michael D. Potter (eds.) - 2013 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    These new studies of Wittgenstein's Tractatus represent a significant step beyond recent polemical debate.
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  31.  37
    Max Horkheimer: a new interpretation.Peter M. R. Stirk - 1992 - Lanham, MD: Barnes & Noble.
    Introduction Max Horkheimer was born on February in Stuttgart. By the time he died, on 7 July in Nuremberg, he had played a decisive role in launching and ...
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  32.  89
    Me and mine.Peter M. Jaworski & David Shoemaker - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (1):1-22.
    In this paper we articulate and diagnose a previously unrecognized problem for theories of entitlement, what we call the Claims Conundrum. It applies to all entitlements that are originally generated by some claim-generating action, such as laboring, promising, or contract-signing. The Conundrum is spurred by the very plausible thought that a later claim to the object to which one is entitled is a function of whether that original claim-generating action is attributable to one. This is further assumed to depend on (...)
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  33. The general propositional form is a variable’.Peter M. Sullivan - 2004 - Mind 113 (449):43-56.
    Wittgenstein presents in the Tractatus a variable purporting to capture the general form of proposition. One understanding of what Wittgenstein is doing there, an understanding in line with the ‘new’ reading of his work championed by Diamond, Conant and others, sees it as a deflationary or even an implosive move—a move by which a concept sometimes put by philosophers to distinctively metaphysical use is replaced, in a perspicuous notation, by an innocent device of generalization, thereby dispersing the clouds of philosophy (...)
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  34. The totality of facts.Peter M. Sullivan - 2000 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 100 (2):175–192.
    Wittgenstein, in the Tractatus, conceives the world as ‘the totality of facts’. Type-stratification threatens that conception : the totality of facts is an obvious example of an illegitimate totality. Wittgenstein’s notion of truthoperation evidently has some role to play in avoiding that threat, allowing propositions, and so facts, to constitute a single type. The paper seeks to explain that role in a way that integrates the ‘philosophical’ and ‘technical’ pressures on the notion of an operation.
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  35.  23
    The Totality of Facts.Peter M. Sullivan - 2000 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 100 (1):175-192.
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  36.  11
    Promoting the Self-Regulation of Stress in Health Care Providers: An Internet-Based Intervention.Peter M. Gollwitzer, Doris Mayer, Christine Frick & Gabriele Oettingen - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
  37. Frege's logic.Peter M. Sullivan - 2004 - In Dov M. Gabbay, John Woods & Akihiro Kanamori (eds.), Handbook of the History of Logic. Elsevier. pp. 659-750.
  38.  40
    A Semantics for Ontology.Peter M. Simons - 1985 - Dialectica 39 (3):193-215.
    SummaryLeśniewski presented his logical systems in a way which conformed to his nominalism, so the question arises whether Leśniewski's logic can be given a natural formal semantics which, unlike current versions, avoids commitment to abstract entities. Building on hints in Wittgenstein's Tractatus, I develop the idea of a way of meaning which is the basis for what I call combinatorial semantics. I then consider whether this commits us to abstract objects or an intensional metalogic.
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  39.  24
    Simultaneous consonance in music perception and composition.Peter M. C. Harrison & Marcus T. Pearce - 2020 - Psychological Review 127 (2):216-244.
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  40. 4. A Version of the Picture Theory.Peter M. Sullivan - 1997 - In Wilhelm Vossenkuhl (ed.), Ludwig Wittgenstein: Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Berlin: Wiley-VCH. pp. 89-110.
    0. My aims in this paper are largely expository: I am more interested in presenting the picture theory than deciding its truth. Even so, I hope that the arguments by which I develop the theory will do something to support it, since I believe that what I will present as Wittgenstein's view is indeed the truth. This is not an admission of insanity, though some things that have been thought intrinsic to the picture theory are things it would be insane (...)
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  41.  88
    The Third Path to Structural Realism.Peter M. Ainsworth - 2012 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 2 (2):307-320.
  42. Untangling Entanglement.Peter M. Ainsworth - 2007 - Foundations of Physics 37 (1):144-158.
    In this paper recent work that attempts to link quantum entanglement to (i) thermodynamic energy, (ii) thermodynamic entropy and (iii) information is reviewed. With respect to the first two links the paper is essentially expository. The final link is elaborated on: it is argued that the value of the entanglement of a bipartite system in a pure state is equal to the value of the irreducible uncertainty (i.e. irreducibly missing information) about its subsystems and that this suggests that entanglement gives (...)
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  43.  44
    What Chains Does Liouville’s Theorem Put on Maxwell’s Demon?Peter M. Ainsworth - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (1):149-164.
    Recently Albert and Hemmo and Shenker have argued that, contrary to what is sometimes suggested, Liouville's theorem does not prohibit a Maxwellian demon from operating but merely places certain restrictions on its ability to operate. There are two main claims made in this article. First, that the restrictions Liouville's theorem places on Maxwell's demon's ability to operate depend on which notion of entropy one adopts. Second, that when one operates with the definition of entropy that is usual in this debate, (...)
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  44.  23
    A Constructive Look at Generalised Cauchy Reals.Peter M. Schuster - 2000 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 46 (1):125-134.
    We investigate how nonstandard reals can be established constructively as arbitrary infinite sequences of rationals, following the classical approach due to Schmieden and Laugwitz. In particular, a total standard part map into Richman's generalised Dedekind reals is constructed without countable choice.
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  45.  18
    Indian Semantic Analysis: The Nirvacana Tradition.Peter M. Scharf & Eivind Kahrs - 2001 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 121 (1):116.
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  46.  19
    Identity Theories of Truth and the Tractatus.Peter M. Sullivan - 2005 - Philosophical Investigations 28 (1):43-62.
    The paper is concerned with the idea that the world is the totality of facts, not of things – with what is involved in thinking of the world in that way, and why one might do so. It approaches this issue through a comparison between Wittgenstein's Tractatus and the identity theory of truth proposed by Hornsby and McDowell. The paper's positive conclusion is that there is a genuine affinity between these two. A negative contention is that the modern identity theory (...)
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  47. Planning and coordinating action.Peter M. Gollwitzer - 1996 - In P. Gollwitzer & John A. Bargh (eds.), The Psychology of Action: Linking Cognition and Motivation to Behavior. Guilford. pp. 283--312.
     
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  48.  18
    Husserl and Frege.Peter M. Simons - 1982 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 40 (2):300-302.
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  49.  66
    The intersection of the mathematical and natural sciences: The subordinate sciences in Aristotle.Peter M. Distelzweig - 2013 - Apeiron 46 (2):85-105.
    Journal Name: Apeiron Issue: Ahead of print.
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  50.  87
    The functional model of sentential complexity.Peter M. Sullivan - 1992 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 21 (1):91 - 108.
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