Results for 'Peter B. Josephson'

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  1.  27
    History of American Political Thought.John Agresto, John E. Alvis, Donald R. Brand, Paul O. Carrese, Laurence D. Cooper, Murray Dry, Jean Bethke Elshtain, Thomas S. Engeman, Christopher Flannery, Steven Forde, David Fott, David F. Forte, Matthew J. Franck, Bryan-Paul Frost, David Foster, Peter B. Josephson, Steven Kautz, John Koritansky, Peter Augustine Lawler, Howard L. Lubert, Harvey C. Mansfield, Jonathan Marks, Sean Mattie, James McClellan, Lucas E. Morel, Peter C. Meyers, Ronald J. Pestritto, Lance Robinson, Michael J. Rosano, Ralph A. Rossum, Richard S. Ruderman, Richard Samuelson, David Lewis Schaefer, Peter Schotten, Peter W. Schramm, Kimberly C. Shankman, James R. Stoner, Natalie Taylor, Aristide Tessitore, William Thomas, Daryl McGowan Tress, David Tucker, Eduardo A. Velásquez, Karl-Friedrich Walling, Bradley C. S. Watson, Melissa S. Williams, Delba Winthrop, Jean M. Yarbrough & Michael Zuckert - 2003 - Lexington Books.
    This book is a collection of secondary essays on America's most important philosophic thinkers—statesmen, judges, writers, educators, and activists—from the colonial period to the present. Each essay is a comprehensive introduction to the thought of a noted American on the fundamental meaning of the American regime.
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  2. New foundations for imperative logic I: Logical connectives, consistency, and quantifiers.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2008 - Noûs 42 (4):529-572.
    Imperatives cannot be true or false, so they are shunned by logicians. And yet imperatives can be combined by logical connectives: "kiss me and hug me" is the conjunction of "kiss me" with "hug me". This example may suggest that declarative and imperative logic are isomorphic: just as the conjunction of two declaratives is true exactly if both conjuncts are true, the conjunction of two imperatives is satisfied exactly if both conjuncts are satisfied—what more is there to say? Much more, (...)
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  3.  56
    Resolution in type theory.Peter B. Andrews - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):414-432.
  4. Can I kill my younger self? Time travel and the retrosuicide paradox.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2009 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 90 (4):520-534.
    If time travel is possible, presumably so is my shooting my younger self ; then apparently I can kill him – I can commit retrosuicide. But if I were to kill him I would not exist to shoot him, so how can I kill him? The standard solution to this paradox understands ability as compossibility with the relevant facts and points to an equivocation about which facts are relevant: my killing YS is compossible with his proximity but not with his (...)
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  5.  79
    Philosophical counseling: theory and practice.Peter B. Raabe - 2001 - Westport, Conn.: Praeger.
    Critiques existing theoretical approaches and practices of philosophical counseling and presents a new model.
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  6. In Defense of Imperative Inference.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2010 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 39 (1):59 - 71.
    "Surrender; therefore, surrender or fight" is apparently an argument corresponding to an inference from an imperative to an imperative. Several philosophers, however (Williams 1963; Wedeking 1970; Harrison 1991; Hansen 2008), have denied that imperative inferences exist, arguing that (1) no such inferences occur in everyday life, (2) imperatives cannot be premises or conclusions of inferences because it makes no sense to say, for example, "since surrender" or "it follows that surrender or fight", and (3) distinct imperatives have conflicting permissive presuppositions (...)
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  7.  26
    In Defense of Imperative Inference.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 55:85-92.
    “Surrender; therefore, surrender or fight” is apparently an argument corresponding to an inference from an imperative to an imperative. Several philosophers, however, have denied that imperative inferences exist, arguing that no such inferences occur in everyday life, imperatives cannot be premises or conclusions of inferences because it makes no sense to say, for example, “since surrender” or “it follows that surrender or fight”, and distinct imperatives have conflicting permissive presuppositions, so issuing distinct imperatives amounts to changing one’s mind and thus (...)
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  8. I Ought, Therefore I Can.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 136 (2):167-216.
    I defend the following version of the ought-implies-can principle: (OIC) by virtue of conceptual necessity, an agent at a given time has an (objective, pro tanto) obligation to do only what the agent at that time has the ability and opportunity to do. In short, obligations correspond to ability plus opportunity. My argument has three premises: (1) obligations correspond to reasons for action; (2) reasons for action correspond to potential actions; (3) potential actions correspond to ability plus opportunity. In the (...)
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  9.  45
    Nature Chose Abduction: Support from Brain Research for Lipton’s Theory of Inference to the Best Explanation.Peter B. Seddon - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1489-1505.
    This paper presents arguments and evidence from psychology and neuroscience supporting Lipton’s 2004 claim that scientists create knowledge through an abductive process that he calls “Inference to the Best Explanation”. The paper develops two conclusions. Conclusion 1 is that without conscious effort on our part, our brains use a process very similar to abduction as a powerful way of interpreting sensory information. To support Conclusion 1, evidence from psychology and neuroscience is presented that suggests that what we humans perceive through (...)
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  10.  17
    The nature of evolutionary theory: The semantic challenge.Peter B. Sloep & Wim J. van der Steen - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (1):1-15.
  11.  11
    Whistleblowing: A Restrictive Definition and Interpretation.Peter B. Jubb - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 21 (1):77-94.
    Whistleblowing has been defined often and in differing ways in the literature. This paper has as its main purposes to clarify the meaning of whistleblowing and to speak for a narrow interpretation of it. A restrictive, general purpose definition is provided which contains six necessary elements: act of disclosure, actor, disclosure subject, target, disclosure recipient, and outcome.Whistleblowing is characterised as a dissenting act of public accusation against an organisation which necessitates being disloyal to that organisation. The definition differs from others (...)
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  12.  35
    Methodology revitalized?Peter B. Sloep - 1993 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (2):231-249.
    Controversies in science have a tendency to be long-lasting. Moreover, they tend to wither rather than be solved by sorting out the arguments pro and con. Barring the sociological dimension, an important factor in the perpetuation of scientific controversies seems to be the contestants' passion for broad philosophical theses when it comes to defending their respective positions. In this paper one such controversy is analysed. It involves the alleged use of Popperian falsificationism to defend a position in (community) ecology some (...)
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  13. The indeterminacy paradox: Character evaluations and human psychology.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2005 - Noûs 39 (1):1–42.
    You may not know me well enough to evaluate me in terms of my moral character, but I take it you believe I can be evaluated: it sounds strange to say that I am indeterminate, neither good nor bad nor intermediate. Yet I argue that the claim that most people are indeterminate is the conclusion of a sound argument—the indeterminacy paradox—with two premises: (1) most people are fragmented (they would behave deplorably in many and admirably in many other situations); (2) (...)
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  14. “Ought” Implies “Can” but Does Not Imply “Must”: An Asymmetry between Becoming Infeasible and Becoming Overridden.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2018 - Philosophical Review 127 (4):487-514.
    The claim that (OIC) “ought” implies “can” (i.e., you have an obligation only at times at which you can obey it) entails that (1) obligations that become infeasible are lost (i.e., you stop having an obligation when you become unable to obey it). Moreover, the claim that (2) obligations that become overridden are not always lost (i.e., sometimes you keep having an obligation when you acquire a stronger incompatible obligation) entails that (ONIM) “ought” does not imply “must” (i.e., some obligations (...)
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  15. Gigerenzer's normative critique of Kahneman and Tversky.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2000 - Cognition 76 (3):179-193.
  16.  51
    Have Your Cake and Eat It Too: The Old Principal Principle Reconciled with the New.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2004 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (2):368-382.
    David Lewis (1980) proposed the Principal Principle (PP) and a “reformulation” which later on he called ‘OP’(Old Principle). Reacting to his belief that these principles run into trouble, Lewis (1994) concluded that they should be replaced with the New Principle (NP). This conclusion left Lewis uneasy, because he thought that an inverse form of NP is “quite messy”, whereas an inverse form of OP, namely the simple and intuitive PP, is “the key to our concept of chance”. I argue that, (...)
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  17. The Paradox of Addiction Neuroscience.Peter B. Reiner - 2010 - Neuroethics 4 (2):65-77.
    Neuroscience has substantially advanced the understanding of how changes in brain biochemistry contribute to mechanisms of tolerance and physical dependence via exposure to addictive drugs. Many scientists and mental health advocates scaffold this emerging knowledge by adding the imprimatur of disease, arguing that conceptualizing addiction as a brain disease will reduce stigma amongst the folk. Promoting a brain disease concept is grounded in beneficent and utilitarian thinking: the language makes room for individuals living with addiction to receive the same level (...)
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  18.  11
    Null Hypotheses in Ecology: Towards the Dissolution of a Controversy.Peter B. Sloep - 1986 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:307 - 313.
    Ever since ecology's inception, the concept of competition has generated discussion. Recent discussions have focused on the role of interspecific competition in shaping the structure of ecological communities. More in particular, ecologists are split up over the validity of a method that is currently in vogue to discredit explanations of community structure in terms of competition theory. An analysis of this controversy is presented which attempts to show that the discussions so far have focused on the wrong issues. Not the (...)
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  19. Wittgenstein, Tolstoy, and Shakespeare.Peter B. Lewis - 2005 - Philosophy and Literature 29 (2):241-255.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Wittgenstein, Tolstoy, and ShakespearePeter B. LewisNear the middle of the first of his 1938 Lectures on Aesthetics, Wittgenstein talks about what he calls "the tremendous things in art"(LC, I 23 8, italics in original).1 Apart from a brief indication of the way in which our response to the tremendous differs from the non-tremendous, he does not refer again in this way to the tremendous things in art, though he (...)
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  20.  8
    Effective solution of qualitative interval constraint problems.Peter B. Ladkin & Alexander Reinefeld - 1992 - Artificial Intelligence 57 (1):105-124.
  21. Epsilon-ergodicity and the success of equilibrium statistical mechanics.Peter B. M. Vranas - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (4):688-708.
    Why does classical equilibrium statistical mechanics work? Malament and Zabell (1980) noticed that, for ergodic dynamical systems, the unique absolutely continuous invariant probability measure is the microcanonical. Earman and Rédei (1996) replied that systems of interest are very probably not ergodic, so that absolutely continuous invariant probability measures very distant from the microcanonical exist. In response I define the generalized properties of epsilon-ergodicity and epsilon-continuity, I review computational evidence indicating that systems of interest are epsilon-ergodic, I adapt Malament and Zabell’s (...)
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  22.  41
    Dynamic semiotics.Peter Bøgh Andersen - 2002 - Semiotica 2002 (139):161-210.
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  23. Tentative syllabus.Peter B. M. Vranas - unknown
    Sep 17 Time travel in Special Relativity (1) Nahin 1999: 439-51 & 459-66; (2) Taylor & Wheeler 1992: 121-35; (3) Nahin 1999: 343-8. Sep 24 Time travel in General Relativity (1) Malament 1985: 91-5; (2) Thorne 1994: 483-90 & 498-521; (3) Gott 2001: 92-110. Oct 1 Time travel in Quantum Mechanics (1) Albert 1992: 17-38, 73-9, & 112-5; (2) Barrett 1999: 149-62; (3) Deutsch & Lockwood 1994.
     
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  24.  70
    General models and extensionality.Peter B. Andrews - 1972 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (2):395-397.
  25.  52
    Human male pair bonding and testosterone.Peter B. Gray, Judith Flynn Chapman, Terence C. Burnham, Matthew H. McIntyre, Susan F. Lipson & Peter T. Ellison - 2004 - Human Nature 15 (2):119-131.
    Previous research in North America has supported the view that male involvement in committed, romantic relationships is associated with lower testosterone (T) levels. Here, we test the prediction that undergraduate men involved in committed, romantic relationships (paired) will have lower T levels than men not involved in such relationships (unpaired). Further, we also test whether these differences are more apparent in samples collected later, rather than earlier, in the day. For this study, 107 undergraduate men filled out a questionnaire and (...)
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  26.  1
    Null Hypotheses in Ecology: Towards the Dissolution of a Controversy.Peter B. Sloep - 1986 - PSA Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986 (1):307-313.
    In present day ecology, competition is a subject typically generating controversies that pervade the whole field. Ecology is concerned with relations between organisms and their environment. As the environment of any organism has biotic besides physical components, relations between organisms are obviously important. Competition is one of them. According to many ecologists it crucially affects the fate of populations and species. Precisely this assumption has led to vigorous debates (cf. Lewin 1984).I intend to show that elementary methodological analysis could easily (...)
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  27.  16
    Philosophy's Role in Counseling and Psychotherapy.Peter B. Raabe - 2013 - Lanham: Jason Aronson.
    In this book, Raabe argues that philosophy can effectively inform and improve conventional methods of treating mental illness. He presents clinical evidence showing that mild and so-called clinical mental illnesses can be both prevented and alleviated with philosophical talk therapy. Raabe offers concrete case examples that support his findings.
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  28.  62
    Issues in philosophical counseling.Peter B. Raabe - 2002 - Westport, Conn.: Praeger.
    A detailed discussion of issues in philosophical counseling for the practitioner and general public.
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  29. Hempel's Raven paradox: A lacuna in the standard bayesian solution.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2004 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (3):545-560.
    According to Hempel's paradox, evidence (E) that an object is a nonblack nonraven confirms the hypothesis (H) that every raven is black. According to the standard Bayesian solution, E does confirm H but only to a minute degree. This solution relies on the almost never explicitly defended assumption that the probability of H should not be affected by evidence that an object is nonblack. I argue that this assumption is implausible, and I propose a way out for Bayesians. Introduction Hempel's (...)
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  30.  24
    TPS: A hybrid automatic-interactive system for developing proofs.Peter B. Andrews & Chad E. Brown - 2006 - Journal of Applied Logic 4 (4):367-395.
  31.  65
    New foundations for imperative logic III: A general definition of argument validity.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2016 - Synthese 193 (6):1703-1753.
    Besides pure declarative arguments, whose premises and conclusions are declaratives, and pure imperative arguments, whose premises and conclusions are imperatives, there are mixed-premise arguments, whose premises include both imperatives and declaratives, and cross-species arguments, whose premises are declaratives and whose conclusions are imperatives or vice versa. I propose a general definition of argument validity: an argument is valid exactly if, necessarily, every fact that sustains its premises also sustains its conclusion, where a fact sustains an imperative exactly if it favors (...)
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  32.  14
    Recruitment of Yoruba families from Nigeria for genetic research: experience from a multisite keloid study.Peter B. Olaitan, Victoria Odesina, Samuel Ademola, Solomon O. Fadiora, Odunayo M. Oluwatosin & Ernst J. Reichenberger - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):65.
    More involvement of sub-Saharan African countries in biomedical studies, specifically in genetic research, is needed to advance individualized medicine that will benefit non-European populations. Missing infrastructure, cultural and religious beliefs as well as lack of understanding of research benefits can pose a challenge to recruitment. Here we describe recruitment efforts for a large genetic study requiring three-generation pedigrees within the Yoruba homelands of Nigeria. The aim of the study was to identify genes responsible for keloids, a wound healing disorder. We (...)
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  33.  19
    A natural alliance of teaching and philosophy of science.Peter B. Sloep & Wim J. Steen - 1988 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 20 (2):24-32.
  34.  7
    Time in Whitehead and Heidegger.Peter B. Manchester - 1975 - Process Studies 5 (2):106-113.
  35.  9
    Same or different: Common pathways of behavioral biomarkers in infants and children with neurodevelopmental disorders?Peter B. Marschik, Dajie Zhang, Gianluca Esposito, Sven Bölte, Christa Einspieler & Jeff Sigafoos - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
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  36.  16
    Muscle organization: Beware of counting trees when mapping the forest.Peter B. C. Matthews - 1989 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (4):662-663.
  37. What time travelers may be able to do.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 150 (1):115 - 121.
    Kadri Vihvelin, in "What time travelers cannot do" (Philos Stud 81: 315-330, 1996), argued that "no time traveler can kill the baby who in fact is her younger self, because (V1) "if someone would fail to do something, no matter how hard or how many times she tried, then she cannot do it", and (V2) if a time traveler tried to kill her baby self, she would always fail. Theodore Sider (Philos Stud 110: 115-138, 2002) criticized Vihvelin's argument, and Ira (...)
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  38.  14
    Placing the Science of Agriculture in Early Twentieth-Century China.Peter B. Lavelle - 2022 - Isis 113 (4):816-828.
    Histories of science in modern China often explore their subjects within global or national frameworks. This essay uses data from gazetteers to address the place-based nature of Chinese agricultural science as it developed at smaller geographical scales. Information contained in gazetteers suggests that regional environmental knowledge and site-specific social networks influenced the construction and communication of scientific ideas about farming at the local level. By highlighting these dimensions of knowledge making, this essay demonstrates the benefits of using gazetteers to grapple (...)
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  39. Whistleblowing: A restrictive definition and interpretation. [REVIEW]Peter B. Jubb - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 21 (1):77 - 94.
    Whistleblowing has been defined often and in differing ways in the literature. This paper has as its main purposes to clarify the meaning of whistleblowing and to speak for a narrow interpretation of it. A restrictive, general purpose definition is provided which contains six necessary elements: act of disclosure, actor, disclosure subject, target, disclosure recipient, and outcome.Whistleblowing is characterised as a dissenting act of public accusation against an organisation which necessitates being disloyal to that organisation. The definition differs from others (...)
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  40. Who's afraid of undermining?Peter B. M. Vranas - 2002 - Erkenntnis 57 (2):151-174.
    The Principal Principle (PP) says that, for any proposition A, given any admissible evidence and the proposition that the chance of A is x%, one's conditional credence in A should be x%. Humean Supervenience (HS) claims that, among possible worlds like ours, no two differ without differing in the spacetime-point-by-spacetime-point arrangement of local properties. David Lewis (1986b, 1994a) has argued that PP contradicts HS, and the validity of his argument has been endorsed by Bigelow et al. (1993), Thau (1994), Hall (...)
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  41. I Ought, Therefore I Can Obey.Peter B. M. Vranas - 2018 - Philosophers' Imprint 18.
    According to typical ought-implies-can principles, if you have an obligation to vaccinate me tomorrow, then you can vaccinate me tomorrow. Such principles are uninformative about conditional obligations: what if you only have an obligation to vaccinate me tomorrow if you synthesize a vaccine today? Then maybe you cannot vaccinate me tomorrow ; what you can do instead, I propose, is make it the case that the conditional obligation is not violated. More generally, I propose the ought-implies-can-obey principle: an agent has (...)
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  42.  5
    Schopenhauer’s Laughter.Peter B. Lewis - 2005 - The Monist 88 (1):36-51.
    Schopenhauer is famous for his pessimism. Many people are surprised to learn that he articulated an important theory of laughter. While this theory has been scrutinised by aestheticians exploring the nature of humour, little has been written on the role of laughter in Schopenhauer’s pessimistic vision of the world. Admittedly, this latter topic is only a minor theme in Schopenhauer’s work: yet I contend that what he has to say illuminates the human predicament.
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  43. Discussion of Amit Goswami's Science Within Consciousness.Peter B. Lloyd - unknown
    Amit Goswami published his book, "The Self-Aware Universe: How Consciousness Creates the Material World", in 1993. In 1996, he and Henry Swift started up the online newsletter Science Within Consciousness, which carries articles and news features connected with the Goswamian philosophy. Below, I comment on Goswami 's metaphysical theories as represented in his writings in the SWC newsletter, especially in his pieces: Monistic Idealism May Provide Better Ontology for Cognitive Science: A Reply to Dyer, The Hard Question: View from A (...)
     
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  44.  15
    The establishment of active promoters in chromatin.Peter B. Becker - 1994 - Bioessays 16 (8):541-547.
    The organization of eukaryotic genomes as chromatin provides the framework within which regulated transcription occurs in the nucleus. The association of DNA with chromatin proteins required to package the genome into the nucleus is, in general, inhibitory to transcription, and therefore provides opportunities for regulated transcriptional activation. Granting access to the cis‐acting elements in DNA, a prerequisite for any further action of the trans‐acting factors involved, requires the establishment of local heterogeneity of chromatin and, in some cases, extensive remodeling of (...)
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  45.  5
    Mathematicians on creativity.Peter B. Borwein, Peter Liljedahl & Helen Zhai (eds.) - 2014 - [Washington, D.C.]: Mathematical Association of America.
  46.  33
    Philosophy of biology, faithful or useful?Peter B. Sloep & Wim J. van der Steen - 1991 - Biology and Philosophy 6 (1):93-98.
  47.  27
    The semiotics of smart appliances and pervasive computing.Peter Bøgh Andersen & Martin Brynskov - 2007 - In R. Gudwin & J. Queiroz (eds.), Semiotics and Intelligent Systems Development. Idea Group.
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  48.  64
    General models, descriptions, and choice in type theory.Peter B. Andrews - 1972 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (2):385-394.
  49.  27
    In Memoriam.Peter B. Gray, Alyssa N. Crittenden, Coren L. Apicella, Colette Berbesque, Duncan N. E. Stibbard-Hawkes & Brian Wood - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (1):1-8.
    The ratio of index- and ring-finger lengths is thought to be related to prenatal androgen exposure, and in many, though not all, populations, men have a lower average digit ratio than do women. In many studies an inverse relationship has been observed, among both men and women, between 2D:4D ratio and measures of athletic ability. It has been further suggested that, in hunter-gatherer populations, 2D:4D ratio might also be negatively correlated with hunting ability, itself assumed to be contingent on athleticism. (...)
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  50.  8
    Philosophy's Role in Counseling and Psychotherapy.Peter B. Raabe - 2013 - Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    In this book, Raabe argues that philosophy can effectively inform and improve conventional methods of treating mental illness. He presents clinical evidence showing that mild and so-called clinical mental illnesses can be both prevented and alleviated with philosophical talk therapy. Raabe offers concrete case examples that support his findings.
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