The articles intention is to construct a possible minimal response to violence, that is, to describe what would be justified противонасилие. This argument is built on reviving several important philosophical texts in Russian of the first half of the twentieth century as well as on going beyond that historical moment. Starting with the reconstruction of Tolstoys criticism of any use of violence, it is then shown that, paradoxically, resistance to Tolstoys or pseudo-Tolstoys teachings ends up incorporating Tolstoys thematization of counter-violence (...) into various theories, which sought to legitimate the use of force. In particular, Tolstoys discovery of a force, which, on the one hand, is not grounded in violence and, on the other hand, which is capable of countering violence, becomes fundamental in reasoning about the just use of force. The connection is made between Tolstoy and Petar II Petrović Njego, who also thematizes the use of force in Christian perspective. In his view, justice, blessed by the Creators hand, has the capacity to protect from violent force. Any living thing defends itself from what endangers it by means Creator bestowed it with. Living force and protective use of force are conceptually linked in Njegos reasoning. Thus, only protective force can defeat aggressive force. This is shown to be Njegos contribution to the Orthodox Christian discourse on violence. If a force can be counter-violent, the next step in our argument would be to search for a protocol that should have universal validity, that is, it has to be valid for all conflicting sides, The protocol of counter-violence requires that, firstly, it is a response to violence; secondly, it interrupts violence and forestalls any possible future violence ; thirdly, it is subject to verification, it addresses those who are a priori against any response to violence. Finally, it is shown that state power does not create law, but it is being right that makes law or gives life to social order, and thereby can authorize the use of force. This is the innovation in the histories of justification of force, absent in the West. Aggressive violence can necessarily be opposed only in the way that implies the possibility of constituting law and order. (shrink)
We discuss a number of fundamental aspects of modern cosmological concepts, from the phenomenological, observational, theoretical and epistemic points of view. We argue that the modern cosmology, despite a great advent, in particular in the observational sector, is yet to solve important problems, posed already by the classical times. In particular the stress is put on discerning the scientific features of modern cosmological paradigms from the more speculative ones, with the latter immersed in some aspects deeply into mythological world picture. (...) We finally discuss the principal paradigms, which are present in the modern cosmological studies and evaluate their epistemic merits. (shrink)
One of the main goals of sport psychology is to identify those psychological factors that are relevant for sport performance as well as possibilities of their development. The aim of the study was to determine whether the set of specific psychological characteristics [generalized self-efficacy, time perspective, emotional intelligence, general achievement motivation, and personality dimensions] makes the distinction between athletes based on their -participation in the senior national team, that is, their belonging to the subsample of elite or non-elite athletes depending (...) on this criterion. According to the group centroids it can be said that elite athletes are characterized by a positive high score in self-efficacy, emotionality, present fatalistic time perspective, past positive time perspective, and openness to experience. They are also characterized by low past negative time perspective, emotional competence, and future time perspective. Non-elite athletes have the opposite traits. The results have been discussed in the context of their application in the process of talent selection and development in sport as well as the development of life skills in athletes. (shrink)
Over the past 10 years, Cognitive Linguistics has taken a quantitative turn. Yet, concerns have been raised that this preoccupation with quantification and modelling may not bring us any closer to understanding how language works. We show that this objection is unfounded, especially if we rely on modelling techniques based on biologically and psychologically plausible learning algorithms. These make it possible to take a quantitative approach, while generating and testing specific hypotheses that will advance our understanding of how knowledge of (...) language emerges from exposure to usage. (shrink)
This paper explores relationships between environment and education after the Covid-19 pandemic through the lens of philosophy of education in a new key developed by Michael Peters and the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia. The paper is collectively written by 15 authors who responded to the question: Who remembers Greta Thunberg? Their answers are classified into four main themes and corresponding sections. The first section, ‘As we bake the earth, let's try and bake it from scratch’, gathers wider philosophical (...) considerations about the intersection between environment, education, and the pandemic. The second section, ‘Bump in the road or a catalyst for structural change?’, looks more closely into issues pertaining to education. The third section, ‘If you choose to fail us, we will never forgive you’, focuses to Greta Thunberg’s messages and their responses. The last section, ‘Towards a new normal’, explores future scenarios and develops recommendations for critical emancipatory action. The concluding part brings these insights together, showing that resulting synergy between the answers offers much more then the sum of articles’ parts. With its ethos of collectivity, interconnectedness, and solidarity, philosophy of education in a new key is a crucial tool for development of post-pandemic education. (shrink)
Uza sve teškoće pozicioniranja humanizma unutar povijesnog okvira, neslaganja oko definiranja njegove naravi, izvora i temeljnih motiva, kao i odnosa spram tradicija mišljenja, uputnim se čini usmjeriti humanistima samima i kroz njihove radove pokušati detektirati onaj novum humanističkog svjetonazora. U tome smislu ovaj će se rad temeljiti na djelu jednog humanista »prve generacije« i pisca utjecajnog pedagogijskog traktata.Petar Pavao Vergerije stariji , književnik, crkvenopolitički pisac i dužnosnik, na samome početku 15. stoljeća piše raspravu De ingenuis moribus ac liberalibus studiis (...) koju bilježimo kao svojevrsnu prekretnicu u filozofskome shvaćanju odgoja. Humanistički program kakav nudi Vergerije, u mudrosti vidi rezultat studija cjelovitog znanja i ostvarenje slobode. Dijalog s tradicionalnim vrijednostima osnova je razumijevanja vlastitoga vremena i njegovih vrijednosti, te zahtijeva slobodan studij kao jedini dostojan slobodna čovjeka. Odgoj pritom treba služiti svakidašnjici, a misao biti potkrijepljena i dopunjena djelom. Iako cijenjen kao prvi humanistički pedagogijski traktat, konfrontiran s misaonim naslijeđem srednjovjekovlja, Vergerijevo djelo i samo nastaje na tragu tradicije; pristupajući mudrima i sam postaje učeniji. Utoliko će i ovaj rad nastojati smjestiti Vergerijevo djelo u kontekst vremena njegova nastanka, kao i naznačiti utjecaj koji je imalo na promoviranje humanističkog svjetonazora.Against all difficulties of positioning humanism in frames of history, disagreements about defining its nature, sources and grounding motives, and also its relation to philosophical tradition, it seems recommendable to rely on humanists themselves and by studying their works try to detect the novum of humanistic way of perceiving the world. With that aim, this paper will be based on work of a “first generation” humanist and a writer of influential pedagogical treatise. Peter Paul Vergerio, Sr. , a writer, religiously political author and a dignitary, at very beginning of the 15th century writes the treatise De ingenuis moribus ac liberalibus studiis which we note as a kind of a milestone in philosophical understanding of education. Humanistic programme, offered by Vergerio, treats wisdom as an outcome of study in comprehensive knowledge and as achievement of freedom. A dialogue with traditional values is basic for understanding proper time and its system of values, and it calls for a free study as the only one that is worthy of a free man. Education should then be in service of every day life, and the idea should be verified and completed by an action. Although appreciated asthe first humanistic pedagogical treatise, being confronted to intellectual inheritance of the Middle-Ages, Vergerio’s work itself originates from tradition; admitting to the wise, he himself becomes wiser. For that reason this paper will tend to place Vergerio’s work in context of time when it was created, and to note the influence it had on promoting humanistic way of perceiving the world. (shrink)
Recently, we have witnessed an explosion of studies and discussions claiming that Neanderthals engaged in a range of “symbolic” behaviors, including personal ornament use (Radovčić et al., 2015), funerary practices (Balzeau et al., 2020), visual arts (Hoffmann et al., 2018), body aesthetics (Roebroeks et al., 2012), etc. In Paleolithic archaeology, it has become mainstream to axiomatically infer from these putative behaviors that Neanderthals engaged in symbol use and that Neanderthals thus possessed some form of language. Rudolf Botha's bombastic title "Neanderthal (...) Language: Demystifying the Linguistic Powers of Our Extinct Cousins" provides a detailed and very critical overview of the archaeological hypotheses and speculations about Neanderthal language. (shrink)
My intention in this text is to present the most significant contribution of some French philosophers and anthropologists to the notion of reconstruction and advancement of institutions. The paradox of change, reform or transformation of the institution – is an entirely new institution possible? How do institutions die? – lies in the difficulty or even impossibility to change something that manifests what we are as a group. If institutions really present or represent the relations among all of us, how can (...) they be changed in the first place? Whence the capacity for change? What allows for the idea of the “new”? (shrink)
This work analyzes the problem of the development of John Locke’s ideas on toleration, in particular the grounds of separation of church and state. The first part examines Locke’s arguments regarding the prerogatives of the magistrate towards ‘indifferent things’ and the religious sphere. I distinguish between three stages in the development of Locke’s view on toleration: a suspicion toward the plea for it (the Two Tracts); an implicit non-verbalized distinction between church and state, and support for toleration (An Essay on (...) Toleration); and toleration as a political right (A Letter Concerning Toleration, the Two Treatises and the later letters). The second part focuses on the definition of ‘commonwealth’ in A Letter Concerning Toleration. I outline two fundamental sets of interdependent arguments that Locke uses for the separation of church and state. The third part is dedicated to the sphere of the church and the dimensions of the duty of toleration. The relation between Locke’s views on toleration and political practice explains the shift between the three stages, and is explored throughout the paper. (shrink)
Carl Schmitt, Der Schatten Gottes: Introspektionen, Tagebücher und Briefe 1921 bis 1924, Hrsg. von Gerd Giesler, Ernst Hüsmert und Wolfgang H. Spindler, Berlin, Duncker & Humblot 2014. / Carl Schmitt, Tagebücher 1925 Bis 1929, Hrsg. von Martin Tielke und Gerd Giesler, Berlin, Duncker & Humblot, 2018 Petar Bojanić, Željko Radinković.
A set of propositional connectives is said to be functionally complete if all propositional formulae can be expressed using only connectives from that set. In this paper we give sufficient and necessary conditions for a one-element set of propositional connectives to be functionally complete. These conditions provide a simple and elegant characterization of functionally complete one-element sets of propositional connectives.
In diesem Aufsatz wird Schellings Begriff der Zeugung in der ersten Fassung seines Werkes Die Weltalter thematisiert. Mehrere Fassungen dieser unvollendeten Schrift lassen die Grundlage von den Schellings Überlegungen im Versuch erkennen, den Zeitbegriff von der mechanistischen Konzeption der verketteten Aufeinanderfolge zu befreien und die Zeit im Punkt des Unterschieds – der „Zeugung“ – zwischen der Vergangenheit, der Gegenwart und der Zukunft zu erfassen. In diesem Sinne wird der Ursprung der Zeit im breiteren Kontext der Entwicklung eines „Urwesens“, d.h. seiner (...) Selbstoffenbarung in der lebendigen Wirklichkeit interpretiert. Diese Selbstoffenbarung wird von Schelling als eine Differenzierung der ursprünglich potentiellen und unwirklichen Indifferenz von Subjekt und Objekt aufgefasst. Der entscheidende Punkt dieser Differenzierung liegt aber darin, dass die Indifferenz sich selbst von sich selbst scheidet und als der objektive Grund der eigenen lebendigen Subjektivität berwunden und hinter sich selbst zurückgelassen wird. Dieser Grund ist die Natur im Ganzen, die für das Subjektive sein immer schon vergangenes Sein darstellt. (shrink)
We elaborate on semantically labelled syntax trees that provide a method of proving the non-existence of modal formulae satisfying certain syntactic properties and defining a given class of frames and use them to show that there are classes of Kripke frames that are definable by both non-Sahlqvist and Sahlqvist formulae, but the latter requires more propositional variables.
With articles by Katharina Boele-Woelki and Ronald H. van Ooik, Marc Fallon and Johan Meeusen and Maarit Jänterä-Jareborg, national reports from Canada, Russia, Belgium and China, reports on court decisions and news from The Hague, Rome and Washington as well as texts, materials and recent developments.
With articles by Eric Clive, Manuel Rui Moura Ramos, William Duncan, national reports from Australia, the United States, Italy, Macao and Brazil and news from The Hague as well as texts, materials and recent developments.
With articles by Harry Duintjer Tebbens, David Goddard, Christoph Bernasconi, Bertrand Ancel and Frank Gerhard, Private International Law Issues in World War II Era Litigation, national reports from Germany and news from The Hague as well as texts, materials and recent developments.
With articles by Symeon Symeonides, Ronald A. Brand, Andrea Bonomi, national reports from Korea, Bulgaria and Slovenia and news from The Hague and Brussels as well as texts, materials and recent developments.
Traditionally, a presumption is a dialogically privileged, yet defeasible proposition that allocates the burden of proof to a party who challenges it. This paper investigates the strength of presumptions. First, it explains how ‘strength’ contributes to defining the concept of presumption. Second, it provides an overview of (contextual, justificatory, and deontic) factors determining a presumption’s strength. Finally, it analyses the predominant view that defines strength in terms of the Challenger’s burden of proof: the stronger (weaker) the presumptionp, the more (less) (...) difficult it is to prove non-p. I argue that the latter proposal applies only to practical presumptions, and that strength is conceived differently for cognitive presumptions. (shrink)
Forgetting Futures reignites the debate about the crisis of memory and the search to understand the relationship between past and present, remembering and forgetting. In the book Petar Ramadanovic presents an elegant critique of the most significant concepts of memory, from Plato to Nietzsche, as he challenges the prevalent, Aristotelain understanding of memory as mere repeated presentation of the past in the present. Ramadanovic skillfully examines the power of traumatic memory in history. Through an analysis of Cathy Caruth and (...) a ground breaking revisionist interpretation of Toni Morrison's Beloved he shows how the memory of the Holocaust and slavery has shaped American identity. This unique study of memory places trauma, identity, and race under the intellectual microscope resulting in a book of great use for literary and cultural studies scholars, and educated readers seeking to learn more about the relationship between history and memory. (shrink)
This book proposes a new approach to the question of the juridical domain of natural law with reference to the classical tools of Thomistic formulation. This book adds something new to the intersection between the normative status of natural law and the essence of the juridical domain.
This paper examines relationships between learning and technological change and argues that we urgently need new ways to approach what it means to learn in the context of a global Fourth Industrial Revolution. It briefly introduces the postdigital perspective, which considers the digital ‘revolution’ as something that has already happened and focuses to its reconfiguration. It claims that what we access, how we access it, what we do with it, and who then accesses what we have done, are important elements (...) of a postdigital world worthy of closer examination. Focusing to recent debates about postdigital collective intelligence, we develop the concept of postdigital we-learn by showing that it might help us, amongst other things, to counter the idea of a lone human accessing education primarily for future individual, economic profit, as prescribed by the neoliberal learning economy. Building on new schools of thought emerging in response to the expansion of non-human agency, we refine the concept of postdigital we-learn as a gathering between humans and machines. The consequences of this gathering are uncomfortable, as they imply unlearning elements of both capitalism and critical pedagogy. However, such unlearning is inherent to ‘a critical pedagogy of becoming’ and positions postdigital we-learn as a suitable framework for understanding and development of emancipatory, critical learning in our postdigital reality. (shrink)
This article conducts a literature review of current and future challenges in the use of artificial intelligence in cyber physical systems. The literature review is focused on identifying a conceptual framework for increasing resilience with AI through automation supporting both, a technical and human level. The methodology applied resembled a literature review and taxonomic analysis of complex internet of things interconnected and coupled cyber physical systems. There is an increased attention on propositions on models, infrastructures and frameworks of IoT in (...) both academic and technical papers. These reports and publications frequently represent a juxtaposition of other related systems and technologies. We review academic and industry papers published between 2010 and 2020. The results determine a new hierarchical cascading conceptual framework for analysing the evolution of AI decision-making in cyber physical systems. We argue that such evolution is inevitable and autonomous because of the increased integration of connected devices in cyber physical systems. To support this argument, taxonomic methodology is adapted and applied for transparency and justifications of concepts selection decisions through building summary maps that are applied for designing the hierarchical cascading conceptual framework. (shrink)
Once upon a time, there was this pilot. His plane was about to crash and he had to choose whether to steer his plane to a less or a more inhabited area. You'd think his choice would be simple, right? But before you give your response, consider the following situation that is practically the same, only a bit different.A judge faces rioters. The crowd demands that the culprit be found guilty for a certain crime or else they will take revenge (...) on a particular section of the community. Since the real culprit is unknown, the judge realizes that he can prevent bloodshed only by framing some innocent bystander and having him executed to save the lives of many. But should he do it? Can he, like the pilot from the scenario... (shrink)
Michael Oakeshott critique le rationalisme en politique car celui-ci exclut tout ce qui n’est pas fondé sur ou justifié par la théorie. L e savoir théorique, d’après Oakeshott, ne peut absorber la diversité du monde étant donné qu’il fonctionne avec des catégories différentes de celles de la réalité qu’il cherche à saisir. Par conséquent, le rationalisme réduit la politique à la résolution de problèmes. Ce que recommande Oakeshott pour un retour à l’autonomie de la politique est l’émancipation dans l’association civile. (...) Cette dernière est constituée sur la reconnaissance commune des règles générales dans le cadre desquelles la politique devrait s’exercer sous forme de dialogue. Une version plus élaborée du projet utopique de Michael Oakeshott est donnée par la pensée de Michel Foucault qui montre mieux que les institutions, les normes et les lois sont le résultat des relations de pouvoir complexes. (shrink)
Michael Oakeshott criticises rationalism in politics because it excludes everything that is not grounded in and justified by theory. Theoretical knowledge, according to Oakeshott, isn’t capable of absorbing the given diversity because it operates in different categories than the reality it seeks to grasp. As a consequence, rationalism reduces politics to problem- solving activity. Oakeshott’s formula for the return to autonomous politics is its emancipation in civil association, a framework constituted in terms of common recognition of general rules within which (...) politics in the form of conversation is to be exercised. Corrective to Oakeshott’s utopian project is given by Michel Foucault’s thought where it is best shown how common institutions, norms and laws are a result of very complex power relations. (shrink)
Michael Oakeshott upućuje kritiku racionalizmu u politici koji isključuje sve što nije utemeljeno u teoriji, odnosno njome opravdano. Teoretsko znanje, prema Oakeshottu, ne može apsorbirati raznolikost svijeta jer rukuje drugačijim kategorijama od onih koje pripadaju realnom svijetu. Posljedično, racionalizam svodi politiku na djelatnost rješavanja problema. Oakeshottova formula za povratak autonomiji političke djelatnosti jest njezina emancipacija u civilnom udruživanju, okviru koji se temelji na priznavanju općih pravila kao takvih, unutar kojeg politička djelatnost zauzima oblik razgovora. Korektiv Oakeshottovu utopijskom projektu nadaje se (...) u misli Michela Foucaulta gdje je najbolje demonstrirana ovisnost zajedničkih institucija, normi i zakona o vrlo kompleksnim odnosima moći. (shrink)
Michael Oakeshott kritisiert den Rationalismus in der Politik, da er im Vorhinein alles ausschließe, das einer theoretischen Grundlage bzw. Rechtfertigung entbehre. Theoretisches Wissen könne jedoch nicht, so Oakeshott, alle Mannigfaltigkeit der Welt in sich aufnehmen, denn es operiere mit anderen Kategorien, als in der realen Welt vorzufinden seien. Folglich werde nach rationalistischen Gesichtspunkten die Politik auf das L ösen von Problemen reduziert. Oakeshotts Formel für eine Rückkehr zur Autonomie politischen Handelns ist dessen Emanzipierung innerhalb der bürgerlichen Vereinigung als eines Rahmens, (...) dessen Grundlage die Anerkennung allgemein verbindlicher Regeln bildet und in dem das politische Handeln in Form von Unterhandlungen vor sich geht. Ein Korrektiv zu Oakeshotts utopischem Projekt ist das Denken Michel Foucaults, das am besten demonstriert, inwiefern gesellschaftliche Institutionen, Normen und Gesetze von äußerst komplexen Machtverhältnissen abhängig sind. (shrink)
Abstract: A Liar would express a proposition that is true and not true. A Liar Paradox would, per impossibile, demonstrate the reality of a Liar. To resolve a Liar Paradox it is sufficient to make out of its demonstration a reductio of the existence of the proposition that would be true and not true, and to "explain away" the charm of the paradoxical contrary demonstration. Persuasive demonstrations of the Liar Paradox in this paper trade on allusive scope-ambiguities of English definite (...) descriptions, and can seem confirmed by symbolizations in a Fregean theory in which scopes of definite descriptions are determinate. Symbolizing instead in a Russellian description theory in which alternative scopes are possible reveals that however the scope-ambiguities of the demonstration are settled the result is unsound. (shrink)