Results for 'Pekka Valkama'

247 found
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  1.  10
    To Ally or Not? The Critical Factors of a New Alliance Model in Urban Infrastructure Projects.Pekka Valkama, Lasse Oulasvirta & Ilari Karppi - 2019 - International Studies. Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal 24 (2):57-78.
    The research explains the background of an alliance model which is a new collaborative project concept in urban infrastructure investments and reviews stakeholder views of applied alliances based on a case study analys­ing project experiences in the city of Tampere, Finland. The alliance model is considered a potential solution for some of the chronic productivity and other problems of the building industry and the classic difficulties in public-sector investment projects, but the model fits a purpose primarily only in publicly funded, (...)
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  2.  41
    Smart cities in the new service economy: building platforms for smart services.Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko, Pekka Valkama & Stephen J. Bailey - 2014 - AI and Society 29 (3):323-334.
    Recent changes in service environments have changed the preconditions of their production and consumption. These changes include unbundling services from production processes, growth of the information-rich economy and society, the search for creativity in service production and consumption and continuing growth of digital technologies. These contextual changes affect city governments because they provide a range of infrastructure and welfare services to citizens. Concepts such as ‘smart city’, ‘intelligent city’ and ‘knowledge city’ build new horizons for cities in undertaking their challenging (...)
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  3. The Supervenience Challenge to Non-Naturalism.Pekka Väyrynen - 2017 - In Tristram Colin McPherson & David Plunkett (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Metaethics. New York: Routledge. pp. 170-84.
    This paper is a survey of the supervenience challenge to non-naturalist moral realism. I formulate a version of the challenge, consider the most promising non-naturalist replies to it, and suggest that no fully effective reply has yet been given.
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  4. Slim Epistemology with a Thick Skin.Pekka Väyrynen - 2008 - Philosophical Papers 37 (3):389-412.
    The distinction between “thick” and “thin” value concepts, and its importance to ethical theory, has been an active topic in recent meta-ethics. This paper defends three claims regarding the parallel issue about thick and thin epistemic concepts. (1) Analogy with ethics offers no straightforward way to establish a good, clear distinction between thick and thin epistemic concepts. (2) Assuming there is such a distinction, there are no semantic grounds for assigning thick epistemic concepts priority over the thin. (3) Nor does (...)
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  5. Thick Ethical Concepts.Pekka Väyrynen - 2016 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    [First published 09/2016; substantive revision 02/2021.] Evaluative terms and concepts are often divided into “thin” and “thick”. We don’t evaluate actions and persons merely as good or bad, or right or wrong, but also as kind, courageous, tactful, selfish, boorish, and cruel. The latter evaluative concepts are "descriptively thick": their application somehow involves both evaluation and a substantial amount of non-evaluative description. This article surveys various attempts to answer four fundamental questions about thick terms and concepts. (1) A “combination question”: (...)
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  6. Objectionable thick concepts in denials.Pekka Väyrynen - 2009 - Philosophical Perspectives 23 (1):439-469.
    So-called "thick" moral concepts are distinctive in that they somehow "hold together" evaluation and description. But how? This paper argues against the standard view that the evaluations which thick concepts may be used to convey belong to sense or semantic content. That view cannot explain linguistic data concerning how thick concepts behave in a distinctive type of disagreements and denials which arise when one speaker regards another's thick concept as "objectionable" in a certain sense. The paper also briefly considers contextualist, (...)
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  7. Reasons and Moral Principles.Pekka Väyrynen - 2018 - In Daniel Star (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Reasons and Normativity. New York, NY, United States of America: Oxford University Press. pp. 839-61.
    This paper is a survey of the generalism-particularism debate and related issues concerning the relationship between normative reasons and moral principles.
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  8. The Lewd, the Rude and the Nasty: A Study of Thick Concepts in Ethics.Pekka Väyrynen - 2013 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    In addition to thin concepts like the good, the bad and the ugly, our evaluative thought and talk appeals to thick concepts like the lewd and the rude, the selfish and the cruel, the courageous and the kind -- concepts that somehow combine evaluation and non-evaluative description. Thick concepts are almost universally assumed to be inherently evaluative in content, and many philosophers claimed them to have deep and distinctive significance in ethics and metaethics. In this first book-length treatment of thick (...)
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  9.  7
    Kosmopoliitteja ja kansallismielisiä: aatteiden kamppailu sotienvälisessä Suomessa.Pekka Valtonen - 2018 - [Helsinki]: Gaudeamus.
  10. A Wrong Turn to Reasons?Pekka Väyrynen - 2010 - In Michael Brady (ed.), New Waves in Metaethics. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This paper argues that the recent metaethical turn to reasons as the fundamental units of normativity offers no special advantage in explaining a variety of other normative and evaluative phenomena, unless perhaps a form of reductionism about reasons is adopted which is rejected by many of those who advocate turning to reasons.
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  11.  19
    From evaluative authorities to involved narrators.Pekka Posio & Riie Heikkilä - 2023 - Pragmatics and Society 14 (5):667-694.
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  12.  10
    Mutta väkevä on elämä.Pekka Kinnari - 1983 - Joensuu: Kansan Voima.
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  13.  72
    Collective agents and moral responsibility.Pekka Mäkelä - 2007 - Journal of Social Philosophy 38 (3):456–468.
  14.  24
    The Senses in Philosophy and Science: Mechanics of the Body or Activity of the Soul?Pekka Kärkkäinen - 2014 - In Richard G. Newhauser (ed.), A Cultural History of the Senses in the Middle Ages. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 111-132.
    This chapter present a glimpse of medieval academic discussions concerning sense perception, which had by the end of the Middle Ages gained a prominent position as a major element of Aristotelian psychology.
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  15.  12
    Textual artefacts at the centre of sensemaking: The use of discursive-material resources in constructing joint understanding in organisational workshops.Pekka Pälli & Riikka Nissi - 2020 - Discourse Studies 22 (2):123-145.
    The article examines the role of discourse in organisational sensemaking. By building links between the theorising undertaken within organisational studies and the empirical analysis of multimodal social interaction, it argues for a relational view of sensemaking and investigates how sense is made in and through social interaction in real organisational situations where language use intertwines with embodied actions and the manipulation of artefacts. In particular, the article studies the use of discourse technologies of textual artefacts in sensemaking processes. The data (...)
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  16.  15
    Novel prediction and the problem of low-quality accommodation.Pekka Syrjänen - 2023 - Synthese 202 (6):1-32.
    The accommodation of evidence has been argued to be associated with several methodological problems that should prompt evaluators to lower their confidence in the accommodative theory. Accommodators may overfit their model to data (Hitchcock and Sober, Br J Philos Sci 55(1):1–34, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjps/55.1.1), hunt for (spurious) associations between variables (Mayo, Error and the growth of experimental knowledge. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1996, pp 294–318), or ‘fudge’ their theory in the effort to accommodate a particular datum (Lipton, Inference to the (...)
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  17.  22
    The Phenomenal Hyperspace: A Study of the Dimensional and Spatio-temporal Structures of Phenomenal Space and Binding.Pekka Rechardt - 2023 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 30 (3):106-131.
    The dimensional structure of phenomenal space and its relation to the brain have not been widely focused on in brain and consciousness studies. This paper postulates that focusing on the dimensional structures displayed in the relation between phenomenal space and the brain is necessary for understanding the integration of distributed brain events in binding. A related issue is why items and events of phenomenal space and consciousness as they appear in experience seem to be beyond the reach of natural scientific (...)
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  18.  45
    The production of values: The concept of modality in textual discourse analysis.Pekka Sulkunen & Jukka Törrönen - 1997 - Semiotica 113 (1-2):43-70.
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  19.  98
    Toward Political Explanation of Change in Corporate Responsibility: Political Scholarship on CSR and the Case of Palm Oil Biofuels.Martin Fougère & Ville-Pekka Sorsa - 2021 - Business and Society 60 (8):1895-1923.
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been recently conceptualized and studied as a political phenomenon. Most debates in this scholarship have thus far focused on normative issues. Less attention has been paid to the explanatory potential of CSR research grounded in political theory and philosophy. In this article, we conduct a pragmatist reading of political scholarship on CSR and seek to deploy existing knowledge for research pursuing political explanation. We argue that the political ontologies that underlie scholarship on CSR can be (...)
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  20. Understanding Institutions without Collective Acceptance?Pekka Mäkelä, Raul Hakli & S. M. Amadae - 2018 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 48 (6):608-629.
    Francesco Guala has written an important book proposing a new account of social institutions and criticizing existing ones. We focus on Guala’s critique of collective acceptance theories of institutions, widely discussed in the literature of collective intentionality. Guala argues that at least some of the collective acceptance theories commit their proponents to antinaturalist methodology of social science. What is at stake here is what kind of philosophizing is relevant for the social sciences. We argue that a Searlean version of collective (...)
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  21.  29
    Finnish physicians’ attitudes towards active euthanasia have become more positive over the last 10 years.Pekka Louhiala, Heta Enkovaara, Hannu Halila, Heikki Pälve & Jukka Vänskä - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (4):353-355.
  22. Just Learning.Pekka Elo & Juha Savolainen - 2000 - Acta Philosophica Fennica 65:149-188.
  23.  92
    What do we really know about the deliberate use of placebos in clinical practice?Pekka Louhiala - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (7):403-405.
    The aim of the present study was to explore the use and understanding of the concepts ‘placebo’ and ‘placebo effect’ in 12 empirical studies that have addressed the prescription of placebos by doctors in clinical practice. There were great differences in the general methodology and in the definitions (or lack of any definition) of the basic concepts in these 12 studies. Therefore, the results reflect different things. They tell us a little about the use of ‘pure placebos’, more about the (...)
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  24.  20
    Extrapolation and the Russo–Williamson thesis.Michael Wilde & Veli-Pekka Parkkinen - 2019 - Synthese 196 (8):3251-3262.
    A particular tradition in medicine claims that a variety of evidence is helpful in determining whether an observed correlation is causal. In line with this tradition, it has been claimed that establishing a causal claim in medicine requires both probabilistic and mechanistic evidence. This claim has been put forward by Federica Russo and Jon Williamson. As a result, it is sometimes called the Russo–Williamson thesis. In support of this thesis, Russo and Williamson appeal to the practice of the International Agency (...)
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  25.  18
    X‐linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA): A genetic tyrosine kinase (Btk) disease.Pekka T. Mattsson, Mauno Vihinen & C. I. Edvard Smith - 1996 - Bioessays 18 (10):825-834.
    X‐linked agammaglobulinemia is a heritable immunodeficiency disease caused by a differentiation abnormality, resulting in the virtual absence of B Iymphocytes and plasma cells. The affected gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase, Bruton's agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase, designated Btk. Btk and the other family members, Tec, Itk and Bmx, contain five regions, four of which are common structural and functional modules that are found in other signaling proteins. Mutations affect all domains of the gene, but amino acid substitutions seem to be (...)
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  26. A Theory of Hedged Moral Principles.Pekka Väyrynen - 2009 - Oxford Studies in Metaethics 4:91-132.
    This paper offers a general model of substantive moral principles as a kind of hedged moral principles that can (but don't have to) tolerate exceptions. I argue that the kind of principles I defend provide an account of what would make an exception to them permissible. I also argue that these principles are nonetheless robustly explanatory with respect to a variety of moral facts; that they make sense of error, uncertainty, and disagreement concerning moral principles and their implications; and that (...)
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  27. Grounding and Normative Explanation.Pekka Väyrynen - 2013 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 87 (1):155-178.
    This paper concerns non-causal normative explanations such as ‘This act is wrong because/in virtue of__’. The familiar intuition that normative facts aren't brute or ungrounded but anchored in non- normative facts seems to be in tension with the equally familiar idea that no normative fact can be fully explained in purely non- normative terms. I ask whether the tension could be resolved by treating the explanatory relation in normative explanations as the sort of ‘grounding’ relation that receives extensive discussion in (...)
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  28.  70
    Trust: Analytic and Applied Persectives.Pekka Mäkelä & Cynthia Townley (eds.) - 2013 - Rodopi.
    “Whatever matters to human beings, trust is the atmosphere in which it thrives” writes Sissela Bok. Although trust is ubiquitous, understanding trust is a non-trivial challenge. Trust: Analytic and Applied Perspectives addresses critical and analytical issues of trust. It examines trust from a conceptual perspective as well as considers it in practical contexts ranging from the public sphere broadly understood to particular social institutions, such as universities and medical care. Trust: Analytic and Applied Perspectives explores what kind of good trust (...)
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  29.  9
    Automated query learning with Wikipedia and genetic programming.Pekka Malo, Pyry Siitari & Ankur Sinha - 2013 - Artificial Intelligence 194:86-110.
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  30. Collective Moral Responsibility: a Collective as an Independent Moral Agent?Pekka Makela - 2000 - Australian Journal of Professional and Applied Ethics 2 (2).
     
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  31. The collectivist approach to collective moral responsibility.Seumas Miller & Pekka Makela - 2005 - Metaphilosophy 36 (5):634-651.
    In this article we critique the collectivist approach to collective moral responsibility. According to philosophers of a collectivist persuasion, a central notion of collective moral responsibility is moral responsibility assigned to a collective as a single entity. In our critique, we proceed by way of discussing the accounts and arguments of three prominent representatives of the collectivist approach with respect to collective responsibility: Margaret Gilbert, Russell Hardin, and Philip Pettit. Our aims are mainly critical; however, this should not be taken (...)
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  32. We-attitudes and Social Institutions.Petri Ylikoski & Pekka Mäkelä - 2002 - In Georg Meggle (ed.), Social Facts and Collective Intentionality. Philosophische Forschung / Philosophical research. Dr. Hänsel-Hohenhausen.
  33. Moral Generalism: Enjoy in Moderation.Pekka Väyrynen - 2006 - Ethics 116 (4):707-741.
    I defend moral generalism against particularism. Particularism, as I understand it, is the negation of the generalist view that particular moral facts depend on the existence of a comprehensive set of true moral principles. Particularists typically present "the holism of reasons" as powerful support for their view. While many generalists accept that holism supports particularism but dispute holism, I argue that generalism accommodates holism. The centerpiece of my strategy is a novel model of moral principles as a kind of "hedged" (...)
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  34.  7
    Dempster's rule of combination is #P-complete.Pekka Orponen - 1990 - Artificial Intelligence 44 (1-2):245-253.
  35. A Simple Escape from Moral Twin Earth.Pekka Väyrynen - 2018 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 7 (2):109-118.
    This paper offers a simple response to the Moral Twin Earth (MTE) objection to Naturalist Moral Realism (NMR). NMR typically relies on an externalist metasemantics such as a causal theory of reference. The MTE objection is that such a theory predicts that terms like ‘good’ and ‘right’ have a different reference in certain twin communities where it’s intuitively clear that the twins are talking about the same thing when using ‘good’. I argue that Boyd’s causal regulation theory, the original target (...)
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  36. Some Good and Bad News for Ethical Intuitionism.Pekka Väyrynen - 2008 - Philosophical Quarterly 58 (232):489–511.
    The core doctrine of ethical intuitionism is that some of our ethical knowledge is non-inferential. Against this, Sturgeon has recently objected that if ethical intuitionists accept a certain plausible rationale for the autonomy of ethics, then their foundationalism commits them to an implausible epistemology outside ethics. I show that irrespective of whether ethical intuitionists take non-inferential ethical knowledge to be a priori or a posteriori, their commitment to the autonomy of ethics and foundationalism does not entail any implausible non-inferential knowledge (...)
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  37.  55
    Group Action and Group Responsibility.Pekka Mäkelä & Raimo Tuomela - 2002 - ProtoSociology 16:195-214.
    In this paper a social group’s (retrospective) responsibility for its actions and their consequences are investigated from a philosophical point of view. Building on Tuomela’s theory of group action, the paper argues that group responsibility can be analyzed in terms of what its members (jointly) think and do qua group members. When a group is held responsible for some action, its members, acting qua members of the group, can collectively be regarded as praiseworthy or blameworthy, in the light of some (...)
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  38. Practical Commitment in Normative Discourse.Pekka Vayrynen - 2022 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 21 (2).
    Many normative judgments play a practical role in our thought. This paper concerns how their practical role is reflected in language. It is natural to wonder whether the phenomenon is semantic or pragmatic. The standard assumption in moral philosophy is that at least terms which can be used to express “thin” normative concepts – such as 'good', 'right', and 'ought' – are associated with certain practical roles somehow as a matter of meaning. But this view is rarely given explicit defense (...)
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  39. Resisting the buck-passing account of value.Pekka Vayrynen - 2006 - Oxford Studies in Metaethics 1:295-324.
    I first distinguish between different forms of the buck-passing account of value and clarify my target in other respects on buck-passers' behalf. I then raise a number of problems for the different forms of the buck-passing view that I have distinguished.
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  40.  12
    Physics student teachers' ideas about the objectives of practical work.Pekka E. Hirvonen & Jouni Viiri - 2002 - Science & Education 11 (3):305-316.
  41.  25
    6. what's in a concept? The kinetic empire of the comanches.Pekka Hämäläinen - 2013 - History and Theory 52 (1):81-90.
    This essay revisits the main themes and arguments put forward in The Comanche Empire: indigenous agency; spatial reorientation in the writing of colonial histories; the composition of the Comanche empire and its impact on the history of North America. It also responds to a number of specific issues raised by the roundtable participants: differences and similarities between indigenous and Euro-colonial power regimes; balancing of culture-specific frameworks with broad-gauge political economic analysis; linkages between indigenous agency and indigenous sovereignty in colonial encounters; (...)
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  42.  10
    Gender and interface agents in the on-line news.Pekka Isotalus - 2009 - Communications 34 (1):39-53.
    Interface agents are increasingly being used to enhance the user-friendliness of computers. In the new mobile technology of handheld computers, interface agents are also being used to present on-line news. The purpose of the study was to explore how the gender of the interface agent and the user affect evaluations of the agent and the news service. The results revealed that attitudes toward the interface agent significantly correlated with evaluations of the entire news service. Moreover, the gender of the participant (...)
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  43.  6
    Introduction.Pekka Isotalus & Owen Hargie - 2011 - Empedocles: European Journal for the Philosophy of Communication 3 (1):3-6.
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  44.  27
    Metaphors for the Mobile Internet.Pekka Isomursu, Rachel Hinman, Minna Isomursu & Mirjana Spasojevic - 2007 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 20 (4):259-268.
  45.  7
    Television as a Context of Performance.Pekka Isotalus - 1998 - Communications 23 (2):189-210.
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  46.  15
    Affective Familiarity and the Experience of Home.Paananen Olli-Pekka - 2022 - Metodo. International Studies in Phenomenology and Philosophy 10 (1):79-108.
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  47.  28
    Clinical use of placebo treatments may undermine the trust of patients: a response to Gold and Lichtenberg.Pekka Louhiala, Harri Hemilä & Raimo Puustinen - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (11):787-788.
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  48. Normative Explanation and Justification.Pekka Väyrynen - 2019 - Noûs 55 (1):3-22.
    Normative explanations of why things are wrong, good, or unfair are ubiquitous in ordinary practice and normative theory. This paper argues that normative explanation is subject to a justification condition: a correct complete explanation of why a normative fact holds must identify features that would go at least some way towards justifying certain actions or attitudes. I first explain and motivate the condition I propose. I then support it by arguing that it fits well with various theories of normative reasons, (...)
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  49.  43
    Physicians' Ethics Forum: a web-based ethics consultation service.Pekka Louhiala, Samuli Saarni, Katri Hietala & Amos Pasternack - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (2):83-86.
    To meet all physicians' needs for ethics consultation in Finland, a novel form of service, the Physicians' Ethics Forum, was founded in 2003. The Forum is a cost-efficient service based on electronic communication. In this paper, experiences throughout its first 6 years are described.
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  50. Thick Concepts and Variability.Pekka Väyrynen - 2011 - Philosophers' Imprint 11:1-17.
    Some philosophers hold that so-called "thick" terms and concepts in ethics (such as 'cruel,' 'selfish,' 'courageous,' and 'generous') are contextually variable with respect to the valence (positive or negative) of the evaluations that they may be used to convey. Some of these philosophers use this variability claim to argue that thick terms and concepts are not inherently evaluative in meaning; rather their use conveys evaluations as a broadly pragmatic matter. I argue that one sort of putative examples of contextual variability (...)
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