In the last 7 years, Russia has seen deep changes in all spheres of political and economic life. Some new realities have appeared in Russian medicine as well. This paper tells the story of how these changes came about, what kind of unusal situation were created, and how these situation are recognized in professional and public debates.
The article discusses the challenges, benefits, and risks that, from a bioethical perspective, arise because of the the development of eHealth projects. The conceptual framework of the research is based on H. Jonas’ principles of the ethics of responsibility and B.G. Yudin’s anthropological ideas on human beings as agents who constantly change their own boundaries in the “zone of phase transitions.” The article focuses on the events taking place in the zone of phase transitions between humans and machines in eHealth. (...) It is shown that for innovative practices related to digitalization and datafication in medicine, it is needed to rethink central bioethical concepts of personal autonomy and informed consent. In particular, the concept of broad or open informed consent is discussed, which allows the idea of moral responsibility in the field of biomedical technologies to be extended to events of uncertain future. The authors draw attention to the problems associated with the emergence of new autonomous subjects/agents in relationship between doctors and patients. The humanization of machines occurring in eHealth is accompanied by a counter trend – the formation of conceptions and practices of the quantified self. There emerges the practices of self-care and bio-power caused by the datafication and digitization of personality. The authors conclude that bioethics should proactively develop norms for the evolving interaction between doctor and patients. (shrink)
Starting bioethics in Russia we were motivated with the idea of the democratization of our society on a basic micro-social level. The country was swift enough to take several important steps in this direction on the macro-social level, i.e., to adopt a new constitution with guarantees of human rights and rights of ownership of private property, to elect the parliament and the president. But these modernizations in the Russian political facade did not sufficiently change the internal structure of the society–the (...) net of everyday relationships in the home, at work, at school, in hospitals and other places. One of the most brilliant philosophers of the Russian “silver age,” L.S. Frank, wrote in the beginning of the century that a tyrannical state grows out of tyrannical interpersonal relationships. Political revolution not grounded in a social evolution on the basic level of satisfying “simple” human economic, physical, and psychological needs could reproduce only the same totalitarian pattern under a new ideological label. Events resulting from the Bolshevik revolution in 1917 proved the wisdom of his statement. Russia could suffer the same fate today. (shrink)
In the early 1990s, the primary problem in Russian bioethics was to gain the attention and recognition of the public and the medical establishment. Very few people were even familiar with the word “bioethics.” Within medical education, only a paternalistic and scholastic “medical deontology” was viewed as the professionally acceptable way to deal with the existing moral problems. The public was ignorant of the rights of patients and consumers of medical services. The usual way of resolving conflicts between patients and (...) physicians was to complain to medical authorities. Very few cases of disputes were brought to the courts. Representatives of religious groups did not participate in discussions involving dilemmas generated by progress in biomedical technologies, and they did not seek to influence legislation in this area. (shrink)
The Central and East European Association of Bioethics, CEEAB, was founded in the Hungarian city of Pecs, on 6 February 1999, at a meeting of scholars from Croatia, Hungry, Lithuania, Slovakia, and Russia. The meeting was supported by the Soros Foundation and the Albert Schweitzer Institute for the Humanities.
I graduated from, medical school in 1972. According to orders signed at the Kremlin by the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, I was obliged, along with every graduating medical student, to swear to a new professional code, “The Oath of the Soviet Physicians.” This was the second year the oath was used. Incorporated in the oath were promises to “conduct all my actions according to the principles of the Communist morality, to always keep in mind … the (...) high responsibility I have to my people and to the Soviet government” I felt no discomfort joining with my friends in repeating words about the communist morality which by that time had already become a ritualized and meaningless official decoration of our life. The text of this oath fit into the political and medical ideology of that time. Not surprisingly, “The Oath of the Soviet Physicians” died along with the Soviet Union. (shrink)
The healthcare system in the new Russia is in an agonizing flux of political, economic, and ideological turmoil. The individual in this system, comfortable with the long-established policies of the former Soviet system, is now confronted with instability, rapid change, and an uncertain future.
Understanding the linkages between grain mineralogy and diagenetic and sedimentary processes enhances the reliability of petrophysical models to predict reservoir deliverability from permeability. Petrographic data within well-defined depositional facies reveal the diagenetic evolution of porosity-permeability relationships. Formation evaluation methods relying solely on petrophysical rock typing are seriously limited when predicting ultimate reservoir performance in complex pore structures. The Almond Formation, Wyoming, is characterized by three depositional facies associations — shoreface, deltaic, and fluvial-coastal plain — which present three distinctive porosity-permeability trends. (...) Textural features resulting from depositional processes, such as grain size and sorting, vary little between facies associations, yet permeability can vary by up to four orders of magnitude for the same porosity value. Differences between petrophysical facies are primarily driven by diagenetic effects on different framework grain compositions. Therefore, the main difference between the facies associations is diagenetic, due to provenance and transport mechanisms. The characterization of depositional and diagenetic controls on pore geometry allows the narrowing of uncertainty in absolute permeability prediction. We have quantified the relationship between depositional facies, with their specific mineral composition and diagenetic overprint, and the steepness functions in porosity-permeability space. This analysis allowed us to effectively reduce the uncertainty in the prediction of initial gas production from wireline logs. (shrink)
On the one hand, Pavel Tichý has shown in his Transparent Intensional Logic (TIL) that the best way of explicating meaning of the expressions of a natural language consists in identification of meanings with abstract procedures. TIL explicates objective abstract procedures as so-called constructions. Constructions that do not contain free variables and are in a well-defined sense ´normalized´ are called concepts in TIL. On the second hand, Kolmogorov in (Mathematische Zeitschrift 35: 58–65, 1932) formulated a theory of problems, using (...) NL expressions. He explicitly avoids presenting a definition of problems. In the present paper an attempt at such a definition (explication)—independent of but in harmony with Medvedev´s explication—is given together with the claim that every concept defines a problem. The paper treats just mathematical concepts, and so mathematical problems, and tries to show that this view makes it possible to take into account some links between conceptual systems and the ways how to replace a noneffective formulation of a problem by an effective one. To show this in concreto a wellknown Kleene’s idea from his (Introduction to metamathematics. D. van Nostrand, New York, 1952) is exemplified and explained in terms of conceptual systems so that a threatening inconsistence is avoided. (shrink)
The canonical pair of a proof system P is the pair of disjoint NP sets where one set is the set of all satisfiable CNF formulas and the other is the set of CNF formulas that have P-proofs bounded by some polynomial. We give a combinatorial characterization of the canonical pairs of depth d Frege systems. Our characterization is based on certain games, introduced in this article, that are parametrized by a number k, also called the depth. We show that (...) the canonical pair of a depth d Frege system is polynomially equivalent to the pair (Ad+2,Bd+2) where Ad+2 (respectively, Bd+1) are depth d+1 games in which Player I (Player II) has a positional winning strategy. Although this characterization is stated in terms of games, we will show that these combinatorial structures can be viewed as generalizations of monotone Boolean circuits. In particular, depth 1 games are essentially monotone Boolean circuits. Thus we get a generalization of the monotone feasible interpolation for Resolution, which is a property that enables one to reduce the task of proving lower bounds on the size of refutations to lower bounds on the size of monotone Boolean circuits. However, we do not have a method yet for proving lower bounds on the size of depth d games for d>1. (shrink)
The subject of the present inquiry is the approach-to-the-truth research, which started with the publication of Sir Karl Popper's Conjectures and Refutations. In the decade before this publication, Popper fiercely attacked the ideas of Rudolf Carnap about confirmation and induction; and ten years later, in the famous tenth chapter of Conjectures he introduced his own ideas about scientific progress and verisimilitude. Abhorring inductivism for its apprecia tion of logical weakness rather than strength, Popper tried to show that fallibilism could serve (...) the purpose of approach to the truth. To substantiate this idea he formalized the common sense intuition about preferences, that is: B is to be preferred to A if B has more advantages andfewer drawbacks than A. In 1974, however, David Millerand Pavel Tichy proved that Popper's formal explication could not be used to compare false theories. Subsequently, many researchers proposed alternatives or tried to improve Popper's original definition. (shrink)
The first, easiest answer to the question "What do novels speak about?" is D. H. Lawrence's conviction that novels are about "man alive," as quoted at the beginning of Guido Mazzoni's recent book on the theory of the novel.1 In a slightly more explicit accounting, one could say that novels speak about human actions and passions. These answers are the first, because they are plausible and general. They are the easiest, because they state the obvious. And yet, precisely because they (...) are so obvious, such answers often tend to be overlooked in our search for better, more complete explanations.One can improve these answers by noting that, culturally and historically, the novel has been divided into older, therefore... (shrink)
Durante el último siglo de estudios orientales, la cuestión de cuándo y dónde llegaron a consolidarse las tradiciones proféticas con líneas válidas de transmisión ha atraído la atención de un considerable número de investigadores que se dedicaron a la cuestión fundamental de la historicidad del ḥadīṯ. En este trabajo, revisaré las teorías existentes sobre los orígenes del isnād, orígenes que se datan o bien en la vida de los Compañeros del Profeta, o bien a finales del siglo II de la (...) hégira, es decir 816 d.C. Basándome en una hasta ahora olvidada tradición y en dos premisas de tipo metodológico, asociaré el comienzo de la atribución de autoridad en hadices legales y teológicos con las postrimerías de la revuelta de al-Mujtār b. Abī ‘Ubayd al-Ṯaqafī en Kūfa. En el curso del siglo II/VIII, la institución del isnād se expandió por los mayors centros de enseñanza en el califato y entró en la disciplina de la historia. Esta falta de igualdad geográfica y tipológica de la evolución del isnād dio lugar a esas teorías conflictivas respecto a su cronología. (shrink)
En Occidente son bien conocidos los pensadores rusos de los siglos XIX y XX: Fiodor Doctoievski, Lev Tolstoj, Vladimir Soloviev, Pavel Florenskij, Nicolaj Berdaiev y otros. Pero si los especialistas estudian con profundidad y seriedad el pensamiento ruso literario y filosófico. Por otro lado, las tradiciones filosóficas que se han desarrollado en Rusia a lo largo de los siglos constituyen sin duda parte de la cultura nacional rusa, así como de la cultura europea y mundial. Este breve artículo persigue (...) dos metas: dar a conocer al lector español algunos jalones del desarrollo de la filosofía rusa en el contexto de la historia del pensamiento europeo, con especial atención a su papel en el campo de la educación, y describir la situación y el papel de la filosofía en la actual sociedad rusa. (shrink)
Abstract Pavel Florensky solves Lewis Carroll’s ‘Barbershop’ paradox to support his reasoning in a previous chapter. Our discussion includes a) the problem (which we also refer to as the p paradox), b) Carroll’s solution, c) Bertrand Russell’s solution, d) Florensky’s solution and then e) a material example proffered by Florensky. Both Russell and Florensky disagree with Carroll’s solution, yet, (ostensibly) unbeknownst to themselves they offer the same solution, which is ‘p implies not-q’. Given Florensky’s material example, the solution seems (...) to tell us something about the logic of belief. We ask whether Florensky’s example has reverse implications for Russell’s solution. Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-10 DOI 10.1007/s11406-011-9333-6 Authors Michael Rhodes, Philosophy and Religious Studies (NPD), Chicago, IL, USA Journal Philosophia Online ISSN 1574-9274 Print ISSN 0048-3893. (shrink)
Vorwort - I. EINFUHRUNG IN DEN PROBLEMBEREICH EINER SPEKULATIVEN LOGIK. Werner Flach. Die dreifache Stellung des Denkens zur Objektivitat und das Problem der spekulativen Logik - Leo Lugarini. Die Bedeutung des Problems des Ganzen in der Hegelschen Logik - Pavel Apostol. Wie ist die Entwicklung einer logica humana im Rahmen der Darlegung der logica divina in Hegels Wissenschaft der Logik moglich? II. STRUKTURPROBLEME DER WISSENSCHAFT DER LOGIK. Peter Rohs. Der Grund der Bewegung des Begriffs - Josef Simon. Die Bewegung (...) des Begriffs in Hegels Logik. - Werner Becker. Das Problem der Selbstanwendung im Kategorienverstandnis der dialektischen Logik - Reiner Wiehl. Selbstbeziehung und Selbstanwendung dialektischer Kategorien - Michael Kosok. The Dialectical Matrix or Hegel's Absolute Idea as Pure Method - David Lachterman. Response to Prof. M. Kosok's Lecture - Manfred Wetzel. Zum Verhaltnis von Darstellung und Dialektik in Hegels Wissenschaft der Logik III. ANALYSEN ZUR LOGIK DES WESENS. Dominique Dubarle. La logique de la reflexion et la transition de la logique de l'etre a celle de l'essence - Dieter Henrich. Hegels Logik der Reflexion. Neue Fassung - David Lachterman. Response to Prof. D. Henrich: Hegels Logik der Reflexion - Yvon Belaval. L'essence de la force dans la logique de Hegel. Print-on-Demand-Nachdruck der Ausgabe von 1978.". (shrink)
Das »Richtige und das Gute« (1930), das ethische Hauptwerk W. D. Ross’, enthält eine Vielzahl wichtiger moralphilosophischer Thesen und Argumente, die bis in die Gegenwart kontrovers diskutiert werden. Im Mittelpunkt steht seine pluralistische Deontologie, der zufolge sich die richtige Handlung aus einer Abwägung der in der jeweiligen Situation relevanten und unableitbaren Prima-facie-Pflichten ergibt, von denen nur ein Teil auf die Optimierung der Handlungsfolgen bezogen ist. Diese Deontologie wurde zu einem modernen Klassiker unter den normativen ethischen Theorien. Darüber hinaus stellt Ross’ (...) These, dass moralische Intuitionen eine Quelle selbstevidenten Wissens sein können, einen wichtigen Referenzpunkt in Debatten um den erkenntnistheoretischen Fundamentalismus dar. Auch für die Handlungstheorie liefert Ross einflussreiche Argumente, wenn er die Ansicht vertritt, dass Pflichten nie ein bestimmtes Motiv des Handelnden zum Gegenstand haben können. Eine zentrale Stellung nimmt für Ross die Güterlehre ein, in welcher er von vier Grundgütern, Tugend, Wissen, Lust und Gerechtigkeit, ausgeht. Wurde Ross in den ersten Jahrzehnten des 20. Jahrhunderts im damaligen Großbritannien als ein herausragender Ethiker – einer der bedeutendsten des Jahrhunderts, auf Augenhöhe mit G.E. Moore – angesehen, wandelte sich das Meinungsbild in den folgenden Jahrzehnten unter dem Einfluss besonders des Logischen Positivismus und der Philosophie Wittgensteins. In den letzten Jahrzehnten ist jedoch wieder ein wachsendes Interesse an Ross’ Ethik festzustellen. Dabei wird »Das Richtige und das Gute« bisweilen sogar mit der »Nikomachischen Ethik«, Kants »Grundlegung« und Humes »Untersuchung über die Prinzipien der Moral« verglichen. (shrink)
Professor Maurice Cranston, who died suddenly on 5 November 1993, was a man of many talents. Pre-eminent as a biographer of Locke and Rousseau, he was also distinguished for his own contribution to political philosophy and for his capacity to expound the political thought of others in clear, simple language. He did this with great success not only in the lecture room but also in numerous broadcast talks and discussions, notably on the Third Programme of the BBC. In his academic (...) work he was particularly well informed on French political thought, contemporary as much as classical, and he wrote extensively on Sartre and more briefly on Camus and Foucault. He was himself fluent in the French language and he translated Rousseau's Social Contract and Discourse on Inequality for the Penguin Classics series. He was proficient in German and Italian too, and he knew enough Danish to translate a book on Wittgenstein written in that language. His love of literature often led him to illustrate philosophical points with apt examples from classical novels. He even wrote a couple of novels himself in his youth. It will be plain from this brief catalogue that he was an eminently civilized person. He was, in addition, an exceptionally friendly man and engagingly modest about his own abilities. (shrink)
In this important study D. M. Armstrong offers a comprehensive system of analytical metaphysics that synthesises but also develops his thinking over the last twenty years. Armstrong's analysis, which acknowledges the 'logical atomism' of Russell and Wittgenstein, makes facts the fundamental constituents of the world, examining properties, relations, numbers, classes, possibility and necessity, dispositions, causes and laws. All these, it is argued, find their place and can be understood inside a scheme of states of affairs. This is a comprehensive and (...) rigorously this-worldly account of the most general features of reality, argued from a distinctive philosophical perspective, and it will appeal to a wide readership in analytical philosophy. (shrink)
My book is about the human creativity being a source of progress, and cycling of evolution caused by platitude and triviality of once high-reaching idealism. In essence the book presents an original perception of human history, based on Christian values as vital coordinates system. I hope this book will revive the interest to the Russian school of thoughts and to humanism in general.
The success of the atheistic hiddenness argument depends on the “consciousness constraint” it imposes on the divine-human loving relationship: namely, that this relationship requires human conscious awareness of being in the relationship with God. I challenge the truth of this proposition by introducing the concept of a physical relationship with God that is not subject to this constraint. I argue, first, that a physical relationship with God is metaphysically possible; second, that its plausibility is supported by natural theology; and third, (...) that a perfectly loving God would prefer physical relationships with human beings over consciousness-constrained relationships, because a perfectly loving God would prefer to preserve the integrity of human freedom of participation and allow inclusion of all people regardless of their natural cognitive capabilities. I also offer an interpretation of apparent divine hiddenness in the light of the idea of God’s openness for physical relationships. (shrink)
I. The framework. 1, Aristotle's project and methods. 2, The perceptual capacity of the soul. 3, The sensory apparatus. 4, The common sense and the related capacities -- II. The terminology. 1, Overlooked occurrences of the phrase 'common sense'. 2, De anima III.1 425a27. 3, De partibus animalium IV.10 686a31. 4, De memoria et reminiscentia 1 450a10. 5, De anima III.7 431b5. 6, Conclusions on the terminology -- III. Functions of the common sense. 1, Simultaneous perception and cross-modal binding. 2, (...) Perceptual discrimination. 3, Waking, sleep, and control of the senses. 4, Perceiving that what we see and hear, and monitoring of the senses. 5, Other roles of the common sense -- Conclusion. (shrink)
Science naively presupposes the intelligibility of the universe, necessary laws, and a universal truth. The author reflects on these presuppositions to arrive at a demonstration of God's existence. In a vigorous and exclamatory style, he condemns the alternative views of idealism, phenomenology, and philosophies of science which cannot rationally justify their faith in a universal truth. The only rational basis for these presuppositions is a theistic God--the "Vérité mesurante" and "Pensée fondatrice" of scientific reason.--A. B. D.
The transmission of Greek learning to the Arabic-speaking world paved the way to the rise of Arabic philosophy. This volume offers a deep and multifarious survey of transmission of Greek philosophy through the schools of late Antiquity to the Syriac-speaking and Arabic-speaking worlds.
It is natural for those with permissive attitudes toward abortion to suppose that, if they have examined all of the arguments they know against abortion and have concluded that they fail, their moral deliberations are at an end. Surprisingly, this is not the case, as I argue. This is because the mere risk that one of those arguments succeeds can generate a moral reason that counts against the act. If this is so, then liberals may be mistaken about the morality (...) of abortion. However, conservatives who claim that considerations of risk rule out abortion in general are mistaken as well. Instead, risk-based considerations generate an important but not necessarily decisive reason to avoid abortion. The more general issue that emerges is how to accommodate fallibilism about practical judgment in our decision-making. (shrink)
There are certain metaphysical theories which present a view of the world and of the position of human-beings within it which have seemed attractive or at least impressive to many irrespective of the arguments that are marshalled in their favour. That is certainly true of Schopenhauer. His identification of the inner nature of reality with the will, and the conclusions which he drew from this as regards the nature of human-beings and their place in the world, have seemed striking and (...) perhaps even illuminating to many thinkers, not all of whom have been philosophers in the most obvious sense and not all of whom have had much concern for the underlying argument that led Schopenhauer to his conclusions. It is in this way too, perhaps, that certain of Schopenhauer's ideas have become well known—his emphasis on the will to live, his pessimism and his views on suicide, and his thoughts about human nature and about sex that have been seen as something of an anticipation of Freud. In recent times attention has also been directed to his influence on Wittgenstein. In all these respects, however, it is Schopenhauer's ideas that have been influential, rather than the argument that underlies them. Indeed it is sometimes said that Schopenhauer was not a very systematic thinker at all. If that seems true it is so in the sense that Kant too has seemed to some unsystematic in the details of his argument. That does not mean that the main structure of the argument is not clear. So it is with Schopenhauer. (shrink)
The paper considers a commonly used axiomatization of the classical propositional logic and studies how different axiom schemata in this system contribute to proof complexity of the logic. The existence of a polynomial bound on proof complexity of every statement provable in this logic is a well-known open question.The axiomatization consists of three schemata. We show that any statement provable using unrestricted number of axioms from the first of the three schemata and polynomially-bounded in size set of axioms from the (...) other schemata, has a polynomially-bounded proof complexity. In addition, it is also established, that any statement, provable using unrestricted number of axioms from the remaining two schemata and polynomially-bounded in size set of axioms from the first scheme, also has a polynomially-bounded proof complexity. (shrink)