48 found
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  1. The Work of the Imagination.Paul L. Harris - 2000 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This book demonstrates how children's imagination makes a continuing contribution to their cognitive and emotional development.
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  2.  24
    Understanding Mortality and the Life of the Ancestors in Rural Madagascar.Rita Astuti & Paul L. Harris - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (4):713-740.
    Across two studies, a wide age range of participants was interviewed about the nature of death. All participants were living in rural Madagascar in a community where ancestral beliefs and practices are widespread. In Study 1, children (8–17 years) and adults (19–71 years) were asked whether bodily and mental processes continue after death. The death in question was presented in the context of a narrative that focused either on the corpse or on the ancestral practices associated with the afterlife. Participants (...)
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  3.  79
    From Simulation to Folk Psychology: The Case for Development.Paul L. Harris - 1992 - Mind and Language 7 (1-2):120-144.
  4.  6
    Young Children's Understanding of Pretense.Paul L. Harris & Robert D. Kavanaugh - 1993
  5.  65
    Children's use of counterfactual thinking in causal reasoning.Paul L. Harris, Tim German & Patrick Mills - 1996 - Cognition 61 (3):233-259.
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  6.  46
    Stick to the script: The effect of witnessing multiple actors on children’s imitation.Patricia A. Herrmann, Cristine H. Legare, Paul L. Harris & Harvey Whitehouse - 2013 - Cognition 129 (3):536-543.
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  7.  18
    Shall I Trust You? From Child–Robot Interaction to Trusting Relationships.Cinzia Di Dio, Federico Manzi, Giulia Peretti, Angelo Cangelosi, Paul L. Harris, Davide Massaro & Antonella Marchetti - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Studying trust in the context of human-robot interaction is of great importance given the increasing relevance and presence of robotic agents in the social sphere, including educational and clinical. We investigated the acquisition, loss and restoration of trust when preschool and school-age children played with either a human or a humanoid robot in-vivo. The relationship between trust and the representation of the quality of attachment relationships, Theory of Mind, and executive function skills was also investigated. Additionally, to outline children’s beliefs (...)
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  8.  7
    Caregiving, Cultural, and Cognitive Perspectives on Secure-base Behavior and Working Models: New Growing Points of Attachment Theory and Research.John H. Flavell, Janet W. Astington, Paul L. Harris, Eleanor R. Flavell & Frances L. Green - 1995
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  9. The Basis of Epistemic Trust: Reliable Testimony or Reliable Sources?Paul L. Harris & Melissa A. Koenig - 2007 - Episteme 4 (3):264-284.
    What is the nature of children's trust in testimony? Is it based primarily on evidential correlations between statements and facts, as stated by Hume, or does it derive from an interest in the trustworthiness of particular speakers? In this essay, we explore these questions in an effort to understand the developmental course and cognitive bases of children's extensive reliance on testimony. Recent work shows that, from an early age, children monitor the reliability of particular informants, differentiate between those who make (...)
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  10.  20
    Children’s imagination and belief: Prone to flights of fancy or grounded in reality?Jonathan D. Lane, Samuel Ronfard, Stéphane P. Francioli & Paul L. Harris - 2016 - Cognition 152 (C):127-140.
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  11.  55
    ‘I Don't Know’: Children's Early Talk About Knowledge.Paul L. Harris, Bei Yang & Yixin Cui - 2017 - Mind and Language 32 (3):283-307.
    Children's utterances from late infancy to 3 years of age were examined to infer their conception of knowledge. In Study 1, the utterances of two English-speaking children were analysed and in Study 2, the utterances of a Mandarin-speaking child were analysed – in both studies, for their use of the verb know. Both studies confirmed that know and not know were used to affirm, query or deny knowledge, especially concerning an ongoing topic of conversation. References to a third party were (...)
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  12.  45
    Young Children's Theory of Mind and Emotion.Paul L. Harris, Carl N. Johnson, Deborah Hutton, Giles Andrews & Tim Cooke - 1989 - Cognition and Emotion 3 (4):379-400.
  13.  39
    Judgments About Fact and Fiction by Children From Religious and Nonreligious Backgrounds.Kathleen H. Corriveau, Eva E. Chen & Paul L. Harris - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (2):353-382.
    In two studies, 5- and 6-year-old children were questioned about the status of the protagonist embedded in three different types of stories. In realistic stories that only included ordinary events, all children, irrespective of family background and schooling, claimed that the protagonist was a real person. In religious stories that included ordinarily impossible events brought about by divine intervention, claims about the status of the protagonist varied sharply with exposure to religion. Children who went to church or were enrolled in (...)
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  14.  75
    Young Children Treat Robots as Informants.Cynthia Breazeal, Paul L. Harris, David DeSteno, Jacqueline M. Kory Westlund, Leah Dickens & Sooyeon Jeong - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (2):481-491.
    Children ranging from 3 to 5 years were introduced to two anthropomorphic robots that provided them with information about unfamiliar animals. Children treated the robots as interlocutors. They supplied information to the robots and retained what the robots told them. Children also treated the robots as informants from whom they could seek information. Consistent with studies of children's early sensitivity to an interlocutor's non-verbal signals, children were especially attentive and receptive to whichever robot displayed the greater non-verbal contingency. Such selective (...)
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  15.  9
    Epistemic justifications for belief in the unobservable: The impact of minority status.Telli Davoodi, Yixin Kelly Cui, Jennifer M. Clegg, Fang E. Yan, Ayse Payir, Paul L. Harris & Kathleen H. Corriveau - 2020 - Cognition 200 (C):104273.
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  16.  41
    17 What do children learn from testimony?Paul L. Harris - 2002 - In Peter Carruthers, Stephen P. Stich & Michael Siegal (eds.), The Cognitive Basis of Science. Cambridge University Press. pp. 316.
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  17.  30
    Psychological and Deontic Concepts: Separate Domains or Intimate Connection?María Núñez & Paul L. Harris - 1998 - Mind and Language 13 (2):153-170.
    Despite recent research showing that children rapidly interpret human action in terms of intention, a long tradition of empirical research on moral development and recent conceptual analyses of the deontic domain suggest that children do not apply their understanding of intention to the deontic domain. However, two experiments are described showing that children do make that connection. Preschool children heard stories in which a protagonist was obliged to meet a particular condition if an action was to be taken (e.g. obliged (...)
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  18.  65
    Infants Understand How Testimony Works.Paul L. Harris & Jonathan D. Lane - 2014 - Topoi 33 (2):443-458.
    Children learn about the world from the testimony of other people, often coming to accept what they are told about a variety of unobservable and indeed counter-intuitive phenomena. However, research on children’s learning from testimony has paid limited attention to the foundations of that capacity. We ask whether those foundations can be observed in infancy. We review evidence from two areas of research: infants’ sensitivity to the emotional expressions of other people; and their capacity to understand the exchange of information (...)
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  19.  26
    Young Children’s Deference to a Consensus Varies by Culture and Judgment Setting.Kathleen H. Corriveau, Elizabeth Kim, Ge Song & Paul L. Harris - 2013 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 13 (3-4):367-381.
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  20.  20
    Training children’s theory-of-mind: A meta-analysis of controlled studies.Stefan G. Hofmann, Stacey N. Doan, Manuel Sprung, Anne Wilson, Chad Ebesutani, Leigh A. Andrews, Joshua Curtiss & Paul L. Harris - 2016 - Cognition 150 (C):200-212.
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  21.  43
    Checking our sources: the origins of trust in testimony.Paul L. Harris - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (2):315-333.
    Developmental psychologists have often portrayed young children as stubborn autodidacts who ignore the testimony of others. Yet the basic design of the human cognitive system indicates an early ability to co-ordinate information derived from first-hand observation with information derived from testimony. There is no obvious tendency to favour the former over the latter. Indeed, young children are relatively poor at monitoring whether they learned something from observation or from testimony. Moreover, the processes by which children and adults understand and remember (...)
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  22. Imagining and pretending.Paul L. Harris - 1995 - In Mental Simulation. Cambridge: Blackwell.
     
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  23.  50
    Early understanding of emotion: Evidence from natural language.Henry M. Wellman, Paul L. Harris, Mita Banerjee & Anna Sinclair - 1995 - Cognition and Emotion 9 (2):117-149.
    Young children's early understanding of emotion was investigated by examining their use of emotion terms such as happy, sad, mud, and cry. Five children's emotion language was examined longitudinally from the age of 2 to 5 years, and as a comparison their reference to pains via such terms as burn, sting, and hurt was also examined. In Phase 1 we confirmed and extended prior findings demonstrating that by 2 years of age terms for the basic emotions of happiness, sadness, anger, (...)
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  24.  32
    Entitled to Trust? Philosophical Frameworks and Evidence from Children.Caitlin A. Cole, Paul L. Harris & Melissa A. Koenig - 2012 - Analyse & Kritik 34 (2):195-216.
    How do children acquire beliefs from testimony? In this chapter, we discuss children's trust in testimony, their sensitivity to and use of defeaters, and their appeals to positive reasons for trusting what other people tell them. Empirical evidence shows that, from an early age, children have a tendency to trust testimony. However, this tendency to trust is accompanied by sensitivity to cues that suggest unreliability, including inaccuracy of the message and characteristics of the speaker. Not only are children sensitive to (...)
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  25.  23
    First-person current.Paul L. Harris - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):48-49.
  26.  43
    Persisting effects of instruction on young children's syllogistic reasoning with incongruent and abstract premises.Hilary J. Leevers & Paul L. Harris - 1999 - Thinking and Reasoning 5 (2):145 – 173.
    Studies of reasoning have often invoked a distinction between a natural or ordinary consideration of the premises, in which they are interpreted, and even distorted, in the light of empirical knowledge, and an analytic or logical consideration of the premises, in which they are analysed in a literal fashion for their logical implications. Two or three years of schooling have been seen as critical for the spontaneous use of analytic reasoning. In two experiments, however, 4-year-olds who were given brief instructions (...)
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  27.  57
    The Basis of Epistemic Trust: Reliable Testimony or Reliable Sources?Melissa A. Koenig & Paul L. Harris - 2007 - Episteme: A Journal of Social Epistemology 4 (3):264-284.
    ABSTRACTWhat is the nature of children's trust in testimony? Is it based primarily on evidential correlations between statements and facts, as stated by Hume, or does it derive from an interest in the trustworthiness of particular speakers? In this essay, we explore these questions in an effort to understand the developmental course and cognitive bases of children's extensive reliance on testimony. Recent work shows that, from an early age, children monitor the reliability of particular informants, differentiate between those who make (...)
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  28.  32
    The veridicality assumption.Paul L. Harris - 2001 - Mind and Language 16 (3):247–262.
    Writers on cognitive development differ on whether children are naturally inclined to maintain a veridical conception of the world or whether such an inclination emerges only gradually in the course of development. In either case, however, it is assumed that there is a consistent premium on veridicality. I argue against that assumption. Three different contexts are examined in which successful cognitive performance depends on temporarily setting aside what is known to be the case: counterfactual thinking, syllogistic reasoning and the comprehension (...)
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  29.  10
    Parents’ Beliefs about Their Influence on Children’s Scientific and Religious Views: Perspectives from Iran, China and the United States.Niamh McLoughlin, Telli Davoodi, Yixin Kelly Cui, Jennifer M. Clegg, Paul L. Harris & Kathleen H. Corriveau - 2021 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 21 (1-2):49-75.
    Parents in Iran, China and the United States were asked 1) about their potential influence on their children’s religious and scientific views and 2) to consider a situation in which their children expressed dissent. Iranian and US parents endorsed their influence on the children’s beliefs in the two domains. By contrast, Chinese parents claimed more influence in the domain of science than religion. Most parents spoke of influencing their children via Parent-only mechanisms in each domain, although US parents did spontaneously (...)
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  30. Mental Simulation.Paul L. Harris - 1995 - Cambridge: Blackwell.
     
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  31.  54
    Abraham Lincoln and Harry Potter: Children’s differentiation between historical and fantasy characters.Kathleen H. Corriveau, Angie L. Kim, Courtney E. Schwalen & Paul L. Harris - 2009 - Cognition 113 (2):213-225.
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  32.  66
    William James, 'the world of sense' and trust in testimony.Paul L. Harris & Rebekah A. Richert - 2008 - Mind and Language 23 (5):536-551.
    Abstract: William James argued that we ordinarily think of the objects that we can observe—things that belong to 'the world of sense'—as having an unquestioned reality. However, young children also assert the existence of entities that they cannot ordinarily observe. For example, they assert the existence of germs and souls. The belief in the existence of such unobservable entities is likely to be based on children's broader trust in other people's testimony about objects and situations that they cannot directly observe (...)
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  33.  20
    Emotion Understanding in Clinically Anxious Children: A Preliminary Investigation.Patrick K. Bender, Francisco Pons, Paul L. Harris, Barbara H. Esbjørn & Marie L. Reinholdt-Dunne - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  34.  14
    Children’s Decision to Transmit Information is Guided by their Evaluation of the Nature of that Information.Samuel Ronfard & Paul L. Harris - 2018 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 9 (4):849-861.
    Recent findings have shown that children’s teaching is guided by their evaluation of what a pupil does versus does not know. While children certainly teach to remedy a knowledge gap between themselves and a learner, we argue that children’s appraisal of the nature of the knowledge that they are seeking to convey and not just whether a knowledge gap exists plays an important role in children’s decision to transmit information. Specifically, we argue that children are more likely to transmit information (...)
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  35.  61
    Flat vs. Expressive Storytelling: Young Children’s Learning and Retention of a Social Robot’s Narrative.Jacqueline M. Kory Westlund, Sooyeon Jeong, Hae W. Park, Samuel Ronfard, Aradhana Adhikari, Paul L. Harris, David DeSteno & Cynthia L. Breazeal - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
  36.  12
    The active role played by human learners is key to understanding the efficacy of teaching in humans.Samuel Ronfard & Paul L. Harris - 2015 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 38.
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  37.  7
    Young children's conceptualization of empirical disagreement.Qianru Tiffany Yang, Selesteel Sleight, Samuel Ronfard & Paul L. Harris - 2023 - Cognition 241 (C):105627.
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  38.  11
    Expressions of uncertainty in invisible scientific and religious phenomena during naturalistic conversation.Niamh McLoughlin, Yixin Kelly Cui, Telli Davoodi, Ayse Payir, Jennifer M. Clegg, Paul L. Harris & Kathleen H. Corriveau - 2023 - Cognition 237 (C):105474.
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  39.  64
    Credulity and the development of selective trust in early childhood.Paul L. Harris, Kathleen H. Corriveau, Elisabeth S. Pasquini, Melissa Koenig, Maria Fusaro & Fabrice Clément - 2012 - In Michael Beran, Johannes Brandl, Josef Perner & Joëlle Proust (eds.), The Foundations of Metacognition. Oxford University Press. pp. 193.
  40.  2
    The development of the imagination and imaginary worlds.Sarah R. Beck & Paul L. Harris - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45:e278.
    Evidence from developmental psychology on children's imagination is currently too limited to support Dubourg and Baumard's proposal and, in several respects, it is inconsistent with their proposal. Although children have impressive imaginative powers, we highlight the complexity of the developmental trajectory as well as the close connections between children's imagination and reality.
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  41.  6
    From Charitable Inference to Active Credence.Paul L. Harris - 2022 - Scientia et Fides 10 (2):121-135.
    Young children routinely display a naturalistic understanding of the world. When asked for explanations, they rarely invoke supernatural or religious explanations even when confronted by puzzling or unexpected phenomena. Nevertheless, depending on the surrounding culture, children are eventually prone to accept God as a creator, to believe in the power of prayer and to expect there to be an afterlife. A plausible interpretation of this dual stance is that children adopt two different cognitive routes to understanding: one grounded in empirical (...)
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  42.  15
    Turning Water into Wine.Consuelo Orozco-Giraldo & Paul L. Harris - 2019 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 19 (3-4):219-243.
    Young children judge that violations of ordinary, causal constraints are impossible. Yet children’s religious beliefs typically include the assumption that such violations can occur via divine agency in the form of miracles. We conducted two studies to examine this potential conflict. In Study 1, we invited 5- and 6-year-old Colombian children attending either a secular or a religious school to judge what is and is not possible. Children made their judgments either following a minimal prompt or following a reminder of (...)
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  43.  13
    Children's Ideas About What Can Really Happen: The Impact of Age and Religious Background.Ayse Payir, Niamh Mcloughlin, Yixin Kelly Cui, Telli Davoodi, Jennifer M. Clegg, Paul L. Harris & Kathleen H. Corriveau - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (10):e13054.
    Five‐ to 11‐year‐old U.S. children, from either a religious or secular background, judged whether story events could really happen. There were four different types of stories: magical stories violating ordinary causal regularities; religious stories also violating ordinary causal regularities but via a divine agent; unusual stories not violating ordinary causal regularities but with an improbable event; and realistic stories not violating ordinary causal regularities and with no improbable event. Overall, children were less likely to judge that religious and magical stories (...)
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  44. Piaget's conception of the development of consciousness: An examination of two hypotheses.Fransisco Pons & Paul L. Harris - 2001 - Human Development 44 (4):220-227.
     
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  45.  7
    Children's Understanding of Death: From Biological to Religious Conceptions.Victoria Talwar, Paul L. Harris & Michael Schleifer (eds.) - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    In order to understand how adults deal with children's questions about death, we must examine how children understand death, as well as the broader society's conceptions of death, the tensions between biological and supernatural views of death and theories on how children should be taught about death. This collection of essays comprehensively examines children's ideas about death, both biological and religious. Written by specialists from developmental psychology, pediatrics, philosophy, anthropology and legal studies, it offers a truly interdisciplinary approach to the (...)
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  46.  25
    The impact of emotional expressions on children’s trust judgments.Yulong Tang, Paul L. Harris, Hong Zou & Qunxia Xu - 2018 - Cognition and Emotion 33 (2):318-331.
    ABSTRACTResearch on the development of selective trust has shown that young children do not indiscriminately trust all potential informants. They are likely to seek and endorse information from individuals who have proven competent or benign in the past. However, research on trust among adults raises the possibility that children might also be influenced by the emotions expressed by potential informants. In particular, they might trust individuals expressing more positive emotion. Indeed, young children’s trust in particular informants based on their past (...)
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  47.  25
    Indices of program-level comprehension.Stephen C. Want & Paul L. Harris - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):706-707.
    Byrne & Russon suggest that the production of action by primates is hierarchically organised. We assess the evidence for hierarchical structure in the comprehension of action by primates. Focusing on work with human children we evaluate several possible indices of program-level comprehension.
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  48.  9
    Missing persons: Young children's talk about absent members of their social network.Qianru Tiffany Yang, Kathryn A. Leech & Paul L. Harris - 2022 - Mind and Language 37 (5):933-954.
    Little is known about young children's ability to talk about absent members of their social network. We analyzed the speech of four children from 2 to 5 years. References to absent caregivers were relatively frequent, even when children were 2 years old. Such references were often generated spontaneously rather than being repetitions of a name produced by the child's interlocutor. Children's comments about absent family members occasionally expressed concern about contact with them but were predominantly neutral or reflective. By implication, (...)
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