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    Engineering Values Into Genetic Engineering: A Proposed Analytic Framework for Scientific Social Responsibility.Pamela L. Sankar & Mildred K. Cho - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (12):18-24.
    Recent experiments have been used to “edit” genomes of various plant, animal and other species, including humans, with unprecedented precision. Furthermore, editing the Cas9 endonuclease gene with a gene encoding the desired guide RNA into an organism, adjacent to an altered gene, could create a “gene drive” that could spread a trait through an entire population of organisms. These experiments represent advances along a spectrum of technological abilities that genetic engineers have been working on since the advent of recombinant DNA (...)
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    Moral Engagement and Disengagement in Health Care AI Development.Ariadne A. Nichol, Meghan Halley, Carole Federico, Mildred K. Cho & Pamela L. Sankar - forthcoming - AJOB Empirical Bioethics.
    Background Machine learning (ML) is utilized increasingly in health care, and can pose harms to patients, clinicians, health systems, and the public. In response, regulators have proposed an approach that would shift more responsibility to ML developers for mitigating potential harms. To be effective, this approach requires ML developers to recognize, accept, and act on responsibility for mitigating harms. However, little is known regarding the perspectives of developers themselves regarding their obligations to mitigate harms.Methods We conducted 40 semi-structured interviews with (...)
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    “What Is the FDA Going to Think?”: Negotiating Values through Reflective and Strategic Category Work in Microbiome Science.Pamela L. Sankar, Mildred K. Cho, Angie M. Boyce & Katherine W. Darling - 2015 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 40 (1):71-95.
    The US National Institute of Health’s Human Microbiome Project aims to use genomic techniques to understand the microbial communities that live on the human body. The emergent field of microbiome science brought together diverse disciplinary perspectives and technologies, thus facilitating the negotiation of differing values. Here, we describe how values are conceptualized and negotiated within microbiome research. Analyzing discussions from a series of interdisciplinary workshops conducted with microbiome researchers, we argue that negotiations of epistemic, social, and institutional values were inextricable (...)
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