In Hermann Hesse's work named "Between the Wheels", an outdated education system where childhood period expected to grow mature early creates a danger that the child shall begin to experience a second unrealistic childhood period is criticized. The introverted aggression of the soul, which is deprived of childhood, gradually begins to turn towards itself. In the work, it is stated that the "ideal of high achievement" is adopted by the education authorities and their families to children by alienating them from (...) their selves, and by using a rigid and disciplinary education system and the trauma caused by this ideal on the child self and its irreparable consequences are explained. In the work, negative educational relations exposed by the children at the Maulbronn Monastery school in Schwaben, Germany are addressed. The psychic confusion of the psychic soul of Hans Giebenrath, who enrolled this school in second place under the pressure of his family and town people, but who realized later saw that this school did not give him any opportunity to develop himself, takes him away from both his nature-loving habits and his ideal of success, and he starts to dispose of working. Returning to the town, he continues his life as "the apprentice who bends the iron wheels". The work he performs with his hand skill does not make him happy. He falls into the river and his mysterious death saddens the whole people of the town. When evaluated from an educational and scientific point of view, it is thought that it is of an importance to analyze Hesse's work, in which the contradictory elements existing between the official curriculum and the hidden curriculum draw attention, in terms of the analysis of child-specific values and existential images. The aim of this research is to analyze the existentialist images of the child self in Hermann Hesse's work named "Between the Wheels". The work has been analyzed with narrative analysis technique. From the findings obtained, two themes were reached: Under "Child Self", which is the first theme; Categories named "autonomy of the self," "undirected thinking," "free will" have been identified. Under "Existential Images", which is the second theme; Categories named "nature," "friendship" and "contradictions" have been obtained. The results of the research show that the official curriculum and Hidden Curriculum should provide children with the opportunity to learn by living in line with their interests and abilities and support them to be autonomous individuals in their decisions and actions. This research shows the importance of living together with the child self and the adult self in order for the adults around the children to establish a balanced and healthy communication with the children, and the importance of the life spent by the children with nature for the healthy evolution of the child self to the higher stages. (shrink)
This article reviews the common models of pious women's agency in the literature with respect to pious feminist perceptions in Turkey, and calls for a relational approach to subjectivity and autonomy. After critically assessing individualistic models of pious women's autonomy as well as the main theoretical tenets of Saba Mahmood's landmark study on the women's piety movement in Egypt, I argue that previous models cannot fully explain the second stage of pious subjectivity-formation in the pious feminist narratives in Turkey, which (...) combines habituation with informed choice. In the intersection of applied theory and ethnographic empirical research, my study posits the need for a relational reformulation of these common models that can account for self-constitutive engagement with multiple discursive traditions, and the importance of complex and interrelated webs of relationships. I suggest that Jennifer Nedelsky's relational self and relational autonomy and Kenneth Gergen's relational multi-being might provide a starting point for such an approach. (shrink)
Many philosophers take for granted the distinction between the first-person and third-person perspectives. They employ this distinction in a variety of philosophical debates including those concerning self-consciousness, phenomenal properties, subjectivity of phenomenal consciousness, and conceivability issues. This paper aims to explore the developmental root of the distinction in question. Through several analyses, the paper attempts to show that infants in the early childhood are exposed to cognitive, behavioral and experiential processes that are constitutive of the first-person perspective. The striking conclusion (...) that can be derived from the analyses is that the first-person perspective is not possessed inborn. Rather, it gradually develops through certain experiential processes and interaction with other human infants in the early childhood. This potentially implies that if conditions had been properly designed, infants would have possessed an “inter-subjective self” that lacks the first-person perspective as we traditionally know. The paper additionally hints that serious philosophical consequences occur if the above conclusion is true. (shrink)
Societies are composed of groups that interact. Symbiotic groups are those in which agents complement each other in resources that they have in excess. Symbiotic groups are useful especially when the resources in an environment are distributed unevenly, because they enable agents to trade resources easily. However, for trading to happen successfully, agents in symbiotic groups need to cooperate, i.e., they should be willing to donate resources when appropriate. Similarly, if some agents in a symbiotic group are defectors, they should (...) be identified by others and eliminated from the group for the well-being of the remaining agents. Accordingly, we first study Edmondsâ tag-based model of symbiotic groups to understand the lifespan of symbiotic groups (e.g., why some groups live shorter than others). Then, we enhance Edmondsâ model by adding the capability of reciprocal interactions to agents, thus achieving a hybrid model. We capture reciprocity in three different models and study their effects on the elimination of defectors in symbiotic groups. Our experimental results show that the groups that are built with the proposed hybrid model can eliminate more defectors and earlier than tag-based models. Further, the hybrid approach can generate symbiotic groups more effectively and efficiently. (shrink)
During the Covid-19 outbreak in March 2020, all Norwegian primary schools got closed down, and both pupils and teachers had to move the school home. This challenged the established teacher role and led to changes in teachers' teaching practices. The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of the teacher, concretized as the teacher's teaching practice in the time of homeschooling. In order to shed light on the teachers' teaching practice we take as our starting point interviews with (...) teachers and texts from the pupils in primary school collected during the period of home schooling. In light of this material, as well as Gert Biesta's distinction between ‘learning from’ and ‘being taught by’ we discuss how the teacher's role and teaching practice in the home school can be understood. (shrink)
This article aims to make a distinction among contemporary artworks that use algorithmic technologies. Departing from Science, Technology and Society (STS) studies, the focus is given to artworks that use algorithmic agencies, as assemblages of human and nonhuman entities. Making an ethno-methodological analysis of three artworks, The Pitiful Story of Deniz Yılmaz (2015–present) of Bager Akbay, Artificial Intelligence for Governance, the Kitty AI (2016) of Pınar Yoldaş and Plantoid (2015) of Primavera Di Filippi, the article examines paratactical use of algorithmic (...) agencies in contemporary artistic practice. Exploring, revealing and learning from the tactics used by platforms, corporations and institutions that control and govern, paratactical use of algorithmic agencies generates a self-reflexive perspective on such tactics of control. Paratactical works also explore absurdities and contingencies embedded in algorithmic technologies. They work within failures and errors, and perform subversive ways of thinking, acting and enacting. In conclusion, paratactical works deal with the reproduction, distribution and normalization of ignorance, extinction, degeneration, corruption and destruction. (shrink)
"Critical Approaches to International Relations: Philosophical Foundations and Current Debates explores the achievements of a wide variety of critical approaches in International Relations theory, discusses the barrage of criticism and theoretical openings they levied against the IR orthodoxy and suggests future potential of critical IR scholarship to improve not only our explanatory possibilities, but also our ethical and practical horizons. In line with this broad objective, the book examines a number of influential approaches within critical IR scholarship, including core strands (...) of critical IR theory such as Marxism, post-structuralism, Feminism, post-colonialism and green politics as well as some sub-school approaches such as Marxist theories of imperialism, dependency perspective, uneven and combine development and non-western IR theory. Contributors are: M. Kürşad Özekin, Engin Sune, Çağdaş Özeniş, Gözde Turan, Mine Nur Küçük, Neslihan Dikmen Alsancak, Zeynep Arıöz, Pınar Akgül, and Altuğ Günar"--. (shrink)
I bestræbelsen på at placere et gennemført forskningsprojekt undersøges om det kan knyttes an til den åndsvidenskabelige pædagogik, der i Tyskland og Nederlandene dominerede den akademiske pædagogik i den første to tredjedel af det 20. århundrede. Der var gode grunde til at denne akademiske disciplin blev udkonkurreret at hhv. en empirisk-analytisk og en kritisk-emancipatorisk tilgang, men udfordringen af at etablere en pædagogisk videnskab der hverken er teknisk eller normativ er fortsat aktuel. Den åndsvidenskabelige pædagogik fik sin egenart af, at den (...) søgte at manifestere sig på feltet mellem det man kan vide om barnet og det barnet kan blive til. I en kritisk gennemgang foreslås, at det er muligt at holde fast ved ønsket om en pædagogisk videnskab om og for praksis, når man forankrer den i pædagogikkens karakter af at være et projekt. Pædagogik bliver derved til en handlingsvidenskab, der er hjemsted for forskningsprojekter som det projekt der præsenteres i artiklens begyndelse. (shrink)
In this study a combination of computer tools for coupling and virtual screening is detailed, in 108 active molecules and 3620 decoys to find stabilizers for G quadruplex. To have more precise results, combinations of coupling programs with fifteen energy scoring functions were applied. The validation and evaluation of the metrics was done with the CompScore genetic algorithm. The results showed an increase in BEDROC and EF of 50% compared to other strategies, as well as reflecting early recognition of active (...) molecules. From these results it is possible to work with the molecules that showed a good early recognition and evaluate their effect as G4 stabilizers. This ensures more efficient and accurate results in the preclinical stage for the development of anticancer drugs. Keywords: Enrichment metrics; telomere; G quadruplex ; CompScore. References M. Porru, P. Zizza, M. Franceschin, C. Leonetti and A. Biroccio. «EMICORON: A multi-targeting G4 ligand with a promising preclinical profile» 2017. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects, 1861, 1362–1370. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00294-018-0836-6. K. Tomita. «How long does telomerase extend telomeres? Regulation of telomerase release and telomere length homeostasis». Current Genetics, 64, 1177–1181. 2018. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen. 2016.11.010. M. Jafri, S. Ansari, M. Alqahtani and J. Shay. «Roles of telomeres and telomerase in cancer, and advances in telomerase-targeted therapies. Genome Medicine., 2016. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020482. J. Huppert and S. Balasubramanian. «G-quadruplexes in promoters throughout the human genome». 35, 406–413. 2007. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2017.06.012. S. Joy, Vijayakumar, S. Choi and H. Sunhye. «Role of computer-aided drug design in modern drug discovery». Archives of Pharmacal Research. 2015. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12272-015-0640-5. S. Asamitsu, S. Obata, Z. Yu, T. Bando and H. Sugiyama. «Recent Progress of Targeted G-Quadruplex-Preferred Ligands Toward Cancer Therapy». Molecules, 24, 429. 2019. [En línea]. Available: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030429. R. Monsen and J. Trent. «Biochimie G-quadruplex virtual drug screening : A review». Biochimie, 152, 134–148. 2018. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1039/c9cc06748e. J. Beauvarlet, P. Bensadoun, E. Darbo, G. Labrunie, E. Richard, I. Draskovic and M. Djavaheri-mergny. «Modulation of the ATM / autophagy pathway by a G-quadruplex ligand tips the balance between senescence and apoptosis in cancer cells». 1–18. 2019. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkz095. .Z. Crees, J. Girard, Z. Rios, G. Botting, K. Harrington and C. Shearrow. « Oligonucleotides and G-quadruplex stabilizers: targeting telomeres and telomerase in cancer therapy».2014. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.2174/1381612820666140630100702. .M. Meier, A. Moya-torres, N. Krahn, M. Mcdougall, L. Orriss, E. Mcrae and T. Patel. «Structure and hydrodynamics of a DNA Gquadruplex with a cytosine bulge»., 1–13. 2018. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gky307. (shrink)
resumo O propósito deste artigo é o de discutir em linhas gerais a relação entre método e me t a f í s ica na filosof ia de Descartes. Pre t e ndemos fazê-lo me d ia nte a cont raposição das Meditações de filosofia primeira às Regras para a direção do espírito quanto a alguns temas em comum. Nosso objetivo principal é questio nar o papel desempenhado pela evid ê nc ia intelectual no cont exto epistemo l ó g (...) ico das Regras e no cont exto metafísico das Meditações. Retoma ndo, num prime i ro mo me nto, algumas int e r p retações sobre o assunto e discutindo, num segundo momento, a natureza da dúvida e a noção de evidênc ia nas Meditações, pro c u ramos concluir com a sugestão de que no sistema cartesia no tem lugar um conflito de ordem estrutural entre método e metafísica.palavras-chave método; metafísica; evidência; dúvida; idéia; existência. (shrink)
A compilation of all previously published writings on philosophy and the foundations of mathematics from the greatest of the generation of Cambridge scholars that included G.E. Moore, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Maynard Keynes.
This is a transcript of a conversation between P F Strawson and Gareth Evans in 1973, filmed for The Open University. Under the title 'Truth', Strawson and Evans discuss the question as to whether the distinction between genuinely fact-stating uses of language and other uses can be grounded on a theory of truth, especially a 'thin' notion of truth in the tradition of F P Ramsey.