Este trabajo presenta reflexiones sobre la enseñanza diaria de Educación Física en un Instituto Federal en el Estado de Río Grande del Sur. Revisamos construcciones teóricas de autores de la Sociología de la Educación, Sociología de la Juventud y Educación Física en la escuela. Los objetivos apuntan a tres aspectos orientadores de nuestro análisis: situar las formas de enseñar a un maestro de Educación Física, con base en cuestiones que involucran los jóvenes y género; describir cómo estos problemas pasan por (...) la enseñanza del maestro; y explicar la interseccionalidad en este proceso. Realizamos una investigación cualitativa con un instrumento metodológico de diario de campo, que contiene observaciones y registros sobre las clases, e informes del profesor. Los resultados indican que el debate sobre transexuales en el deporte con jóvenes estudiantes puede ser importante para romper los prejuicios que suelen sustentar los discursos sobre este tema. Consideramos que existen engendros, aproximaciones e interseccionalidades que implican la participación y envolvimiento de los estudiantes, basados en el conocimiento de los problemas de género en su juventud, así como su identidad, relaciones sociales y epistemológicas con el conocimiento desarrollado en educación Física. (shrink)
O objetivo do artigo consiste em analisar a experiência da angústia e do desespero, tomando como base a filosofia existencial de Sören Aabye Kierkegaard. Ao refletir sobre a angústia e o desespero, intentamos acentuar o caráter positivo de tais experiências. Através da angústia, o homem pode tomar reconhecimento que é um ser-capaz-de, e que diante de diversas possibilidades, pode escolher, exercitando sua liberdade. No tocante ao desespero, o homem pode perceber os graus de inautenticidade de sua condição existencial. A partir (...) desse dado, pode tomá-lo como ponto de partida para a construção de uma existência esclarecida e autêntica, realizando a síntese do finito e infinito, do temporal e do eterno, da possibilidade e necessidade. Para este texto, tomaremos como base as obras O conceito de angústia e A doença para a morte. Palavras-chave: Angústia. Desespero. Liberdade. Construção da existência. (shrink)
O presente trabalho visa refletir sobre a experiência vivenciada durante os Estágios Supervisionados em Filosofia III e IV, as dificuldades encontradas, as descobertas no contato direto com a sala de aula e os aprendizados proporcionados ao graduando, de fundamental importancia para a constituição de sua identidade profissional.
The word "truth" retains, in common use, traces of origins that link it to trust, troth, and truce, connoting ideas of fidelity, loyalty, and authenticity. The word has become, in contemporary philosophy, encased in a web of technicalities, but we know that a true image is a faithful portrait; a true friend a loyal one. In a novel or a poem, too, we have a feel for what is emotionally true, though we are not concerned with the actuality of events (...) and characters depicted. To have emotions is to care about certain things: we can wonder whether those things are really worth caring about. We can wonder whether our passions reflect who we are, and whether they constitute fitting responses to the vicissitudes of life. So there are two aspects to emotional truth: how well an emotion reflects the threats and promises of the world, and how well it reflects our own individual nature. That is the starting point of this book, which looks first at the analogies and disanalogies between strict propositional truth and a looser, "generic" sense of truth. As applied to emotions, generic truth is closer to those original meanings: as in a portrait's fidelity or friend's loyalty. Taken in this sense, the notion of emotional truth opens up large vistas on areas of life essential to our existence as social beings, and to our concerns with beauty, morality, love, death, sex, knowledge, desire, coherence, and happiness. Each of those topics illustrates some facet of the dominant theme of the book: the crucial but often ambivalent role of our emotions in grounding and yet also sometimes undermining our values. Emotions act, in holistic perspective, as ultimate arbiters of values where different and independently justified standards of value compete. (shrink)
This study aims to examine the ethical decision-making model proposed by Schwartz, where we consider the factors of non-rationality and aspects that affect ethical judgments of auditors to make the decision to blow the whistle. In this paper, we argue that the intention of whistleblowing depends on ethical awareness and ethical judgment as well as there is a mediation–moderation due to emotion and perceived moral intensity of auditors. Data were collected using an online survey with 162 external auditors who worked (...) on audit firms in Indonesia as well as 173 internal auditors working in the manufacturing and financial services. The result of multigroup analysis shows that emotion can mediate the relationship between EAW and EJW. The nature of this relationship is more complex and then tested by adding moderating variables using consistent partial least squares approach. We found that EMT and PMI can improve the relationship between ethical judgments and whistleblowing intentions. These findings indicate that internal auditors are more likely to blow the whistle than external auditors; and reporting wrongdoing internally and anonymously are the preferred way of professional accountants to blow the whistle in Indonesia. (shrink)
This work empirically tests the concept of the ‘whistleblowing triangle,’ which is modeled on the three factors encapsulated by the fraud triangle, in the Indonesian context. Anchored in the proposition of an original research framework on the whistleblowing triangle and derived hypotheses, this work aims to expand the body of knowledge on this topic by providing empirical evidence. The sample used is taken from audit firms affiliated with both the big 4 and non-big 4 companies operating in Indonesia. The results (...) of analysis using the PLS-PM method found a significant relationship between the components of the whistleblowing triangle and the intention of blowing the whistle. We found that financial incentives are the most significant predictor of auditors’ intention to blow the whistle in Indonesia. Other components, such as opportunity and rationalization, also play an important role in supporting auditors’ intention to blow the whistle. Our findings also suggest that related pressures are the top priority for audit firms in Indonesia to consider in increasing whistleblowing intention. We expand the previous literature on whistleblowing which has been derived from the components of the fraud triangle :28–56, 2016; Smaili and Arroyo in J Bus Ethics, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-017-3663-7, 2017) by adding empirical evidence. (shrink)
En el artículo se exponen las ideas principales de Boaventura de Sousa Santos, extrapoladas de sus libros más representativos. Una breve introducción a su reflexión política y a su crítica sociológica; vale decir, se interpreta la razón estratégica y globlal del telos de la Modernidad; a la vez que,..
In the by now well known talks he gave at Princeton, Saul Kripke claimed that “[t]heoretical identities … are generally identities involving two rigid designators and therefore are examples of the necessary a posteriori.” 253-355; A rigid designator is an expression that designates the same object in all possible worlds when it is used. So Kripke is claiming that ‘Water is H20’ and ‘Heat is the motion of molecules’ are generally identities involving expressions like ‘water’ and ‘the motion of molecules’ (...) which designate the same objects in all possible worlds. If the identity statement is true, both sides designate the same object rigidly, i.e., in all possible worlds, and therefore the statement is necessarily true. On the other hand, whether it is true is determined ultimately by appeal to experience. It follows that if true, the identity is necessary a posteriori. (shrink)
How should we understand the emotional rationality? This first part will explore two models of cognition and analogy strategies, test their intuition about the emotional desire. I distinguish between subjective and objective desire, then presents with a feeling from the "paradigm of drama" export semantics, here our emotional repertoire is acquired all the learned, and our emotions in the form of an object is fixed. It is pretty well in line with the general principles of rationality, especially the lowest reasonable (...) principles. Turned to the second part of this side of reasonable. I will inquire how emotional beliefs, desires, and behaviors contribute to the rationality. I will present a very general biological hypothesis: emotions by controlling highlights the characteristics of perception and reasoning, so that we remove the difficulties due in particular to lead to paralysis; they are being simulated by a simplified perception of information, thus limiting our practice and cognitive choice. How are we to understand emotional or axiological rationality? I pursue analogies with both the cognitive and the strategic models, testing them against intuitions about emotional desires. We distinguish two different classes of desires, the subjective and the objective, and propose that emotions have a semantics that derives from "paradigmatic scenarios", in terms of which our emotional repertoire is learned and the formal objects of our emotions fixed. This fits in well with emerging facts about how our emotional capacities develop, and it can also be squared with the general principles of rationality, particularly minimal rationality. In the second part, I return to the perspective of rationality. I ask how emotions contribute to the rationality of beliefs, desires, and behavior. I proffer a very general biological hypothesis: Emotions spare us the paralysis potentially induced by a particular predicament by controlling the salience of features of perception and reasoning; they temporarily mimic the informational encapsulation of perception and so circumscribe our practical and cognitive options. (shrink)
Do we love someone for their virtue, their beauty, or their moral or other qualities? Are love's characteristic desires altruistic or selfish? Are there duties of love? What do the sciences tell us about love? In this Very Short Introduction, Ronald de Sousa explores the different kinds of love, from affections to romantic love.
The word "truth" retains, in common use, traces of origins that link it to trust, truth, and truce, connoting ideas of fidelity, loyalty, and authenticity. The word has become, in contemporary philosophy, encased in a web of technicalities, but we know that a true image is a faithful portrait; a true friend a loyal one. In a novel or a poem, too, we have a feel for what is emotionally true, though we are not concerned with the actuality of events (...) and characters depicted. To have emotions is to care about certain things: we can wonder whether those things are really worth caring about. We can wonder whether our passions reflect who we are, and whether they constitute fitting responses to the vicissitudes of life. So there are two aspects to emotional truth: how well an emotion reflects the threats and promises of the world, and how well it reflects our own individual nature. That is the starting point of this book, which looks first at the analogies and disanalogies between strict propositional truth and a looser, "generic" sense of truth. As applied to emotions, generic truth is closer to those original meanings: as in a portrait's fidelity or friend's loyalty. Taken in this sense, the notion of emotional truth opens up large vistas on areas of life essential to our existence as social beings, and to our concerns with beauty, morality, love, death, sex, knowledge, desire, coherence, and happiness. Each of those topics illustrates some facet of the dominant theme of the book: the crucial but often ambivalent role of our emotions in grounding and yet also sometimes undermining our values. Emotions act, in holistic perspective, as ultimate arbiters of values where different and independently justified standards of value compete. (shrink)
Emotions can be the subject of moral judgments; they can also constitute the basis for moral judgments. The apparent circularity which arises if we accept both of these claims is the central topic of this paper: how can emotions be both judge and party in the moral court? The answer I offer regards all emotions as potentially relevant to ethics, rather than singling out a privileged set of moral emotions. It relies on taking a moderate position both on the question (...) of the naturalness of emotions and on that of their objectivity as revealers of value: emotions are neither simply natural nor socially constructed, and they apprehend objective values, but those values are multi-dimensional and relative to human realities. The "axiological" position I defend jettisons the usual foundations for ethical judgments, and grounds these judgments instead on a rationally informed reflective equilibrium of comprehensive emotional attitudes, tempered with a dose of irony. (shrink)
Neste artigo, tensiono a construção da África com base na própria construção do “outro” enquanto um desafio para as ciências sociais e humanas. A partir de uma reflexão sobre o próprio processo de formação da África, muitos termos e nacionalismos foram utilizados para a chegada a um denominador comum acerca daquilo que define o continente africano, bem como também daquilo que se esvai em diferenças de perspectiva, de regiões e de buscas por esta identidade. Assim, escolho como exemplo meu estudo (...) sobre a obra A Geração da Utopia enquanto um processo a partir do qual a dificuldade para a chegada a um entendimento sobre identidade pode revelar um desafio maior: entender como múltiplas identidades foram sendo construídas, em parte como herança de uma visão nacionalista sobre identidade, e de que maneira os escritores africanos, à sua maneira, representam-na dentro de contextos específicos. Palavras-chave: identidade; Angola; Pepetela; mestiçagem; nacionalismo; história. (shrink)
O artigo constitui-se de uma apresentação sucinta dos elementos principais do sistema ético de Max Scheler. Utilizando-se do método fenomenológico, Scheler afirma que a ética deve basear-se na experiência, pois o valor não é algo que se atribui, mas que é experimentado. O fenomenólogo alemão defende que o homem está rodeado por um cosmos de valores que não necessita ser produzido, apenas reconhecido através do perceber sentimental, possibilitando, inclusive, uma organização hierárquica dos valores. No entanto, este perceber se encontra afetado (...) pelo ressentimento, o que implica em uma negação dos valores através da inversão valorativa. (shrink)
O presente artigo apresenta uma análise baseada em pesquisa bibliográfica e documental e tem como objetivo apresentar a relação entre a laicidade e o direito à liberdade de consciência, diferenciando-a da liberdade religiosa. Apresenta uma retrospectiva de pensadores estrangeiros e nacionais que refletiram sobre o tema da laicidade e de fatos que conduziram à separação entre Igreja e Estado na França (considerada a pátria da laicidade) e no Brasil. Esclarece alguns conceitos básicos, inclusive o próprio conceito de laicidade, muitas vezes (...) erroneamente confundido com anticlericarismo, ateísmo ou perseguição religiosa por parte do Estado. Apresenta a gênese da laicidade no País e conclui relacionando a defesa da laicidade pelo Estado com a defesa do direito individual à liberdade de consciência, sempre levando em conta a legislação pertinente. Partimos da máxima de Lacordaire - Entre o forte e o fraco (...), é a liberdade que oprime e, a lei que liberta - e através de outras citações do mesmo autor e da análise dos documentos coletados, a ela retornamos. Palavras-chave : laicidade; liberdade de consciência; liberdade religiosa.This article presents an analysis based on bibliographic and documentary research and aims to show the relationship between secularity and freedom of conscience, differentiating it from religious freedom. The text shows an overview of national and foreign thinkers who have reflected on the issue of secularism and the events that have led do the separation of church and state in France (considered as the country of the secularism) and in Brazil. It also clarifies some basic concepts, including the concept of secularism, often wrongly taken as anticlericalism in the Country. This text presents the genesis of secularism and concludes by relating the defense of secularism by the state with in defense of individual rights to freedom of conscience, always taking into account the required legislation. Finally, the present text started from the following statement of Lacordaire - "Between the strong and the week (...), is the freedom which oppresses and the law that liberates" - it used other quotes by the same author, it analyzed some collected documents, and then it returned to the statement of Lacordaire. Key words: Secularity; freedom of conscience; religious freedom. (shrink)
Resumen: Este trabajo se propone revisar la tesis de la proliferación de alternativas, expuesta por Boaventura de Sousa Santos, a la luz de algunas críticas a la tesis de la proliferación de teorías, expuesta por Paul Feyerabend. Se defiende que, aunque no de modo explícito, hay una afinidad entre ambas tesis y, en consecuencia, las debilidades de la segunda afectan a la primera. No obstante, el objetivo básico consiste en mostrar cómo propuestas emergentes, como la ecología de los saberes, (...) antes que insistir en su carácter contraepistemológico, podrían beneficiarse de una discusión epistemológica amplia.: In this paper I review the thesis about the proliferation of alternatives by Boaventura de Sousa Santos, from some criticisms to the thesis of the proliferation of theories by Paul Feyerabend. I claim that, though not in explicit way, there is an affinity between them, therefore the weakness from the second one affects the first one. However, the point is to show how some emergent proposals, as the ecology of knowledges, could benefit from a full epistemological discussion, instead of insisting on its counter-epistemological nature. (shrink)
De Sousa's comprehensive two-part review of a diversity of contemporary approaches to the study of consciousness is highly welcome. He makes us aware of a proliferation of theoretical and empirical approaches targeting a common theme, but diverging in many ways. He skilfully accomplishes a classification of kinds of approach, identification of the main representatives, their contributions, and respective limitations. However, he does not show how the desired integration could be accomplished. Besides summarising De Sousa's efficient analytical work, I (...) make critical comments and briefly report my contribution for the integration project. (shrink)
The Philosophical search for Natural Kinds is motivated by the hope of finding ontological categories that are independent of our interests. Other requirements, of varying importance, are commonly made of kinds that claim to be natural. But no such categories are to be found. Virtually any kind can be termed 'natural' relative to some set of interests and epistemic priorities. Science determines those priorities at any particular stage of its progress, and what kinds are most 'natural' in that sense is (...) always a real and lively scientific question. The general philosophical problem of scientific realism is also real; but between the scientific and the metaphysical, the Problem of Natural Kinds' sits otiose. (shrink)
Taking literally the concept of emotional truth requires breaking the monopoly on truth of belief-like states. To this end, I look to perceptions for a model of non-propositional states that might be true or false, and to desires for a model of propositional attitudes the norm of which is other than the semantic satisfaction of their propositional object. Those models inspire a conception of generic truth, which can admit of degrees for analogue representations such as emotions; belief-like states, by contrast, (...) are digital representations. I argue that the gravest problem-objectivity-is not insurmountable. /// [Adam Morton] It is accuracy rather than truth itself that is valuable. Emotional truth is a dubious though attractive notion, but emotional accuracy is much easier to make sense of. My approach to accuracy goes via an account of what makes a story accurate. Stories can be accurate but not true, and emotions can be accurate whether or not they are true. The capacity for emotional accuracy, for emotions that fit a person's situation, is an aspect of emotional intelligence, which is as important an aspect of rational human agency as the intelligent formation of beliefs and desires. (shrink)
A partir de la definición de la globalización neoliberal como un localismo occidental globalizado, expresión de un nuevo tipo de imperialismo cultural, el objetivo principal de este artículo es el de llevar a cabo una exposición analítica de la propuesta de traducción intercultural e interpolítica d..
This paper is a research study of an interdisciplinary and exploratory kind drawing on a case study undertaken in elementary classrooms in socio-economically disadvantaged areas of Santiago de Chile. Having combined Linguistics for Education Studies and Corpus Linguistics approaches, the analysis of pragmalinguistic choices used in the introductory parts in a corpus of 50 lessons recorded in an elementary school setting there comes to be a key strategy for teachers' and learners' involvement in classroom interaction The pragmalinguistic strategies evidenced in (...) teachers' and learners' output have come to confirm the role of communicative strategies to promote participants' engagement in the teaching/learning process. In other words, teachers create an in-group relation, a solid sense of belonging and empathy among the participants in the teaching-learning context from the opening communicative stances in use to overcome less advantaged home and community cultural settings. The research findings also point to further studies to devise pedagogic tools addressing the specific contexts under scrutiny. Thus, a Teacher-Learner rapport is conveyed primarily through teachers' language choice, which is seen as the main force for learners' engagement in disadvantaged settings. (shrink)