Review of the book: Ushkalov, L. (2017). The catch of an unprotected bird: the life of Hryhorii Skovoroda. K .: Spirit and letter. -/- The review is devoted to the analysis of a new book by Leonid Ushkalov in which the life and work of Hryhorii Skovoroda are presented in the genre of a philosophical and poetic portrait on the background of Ukraine and Europe of the XVIII century.
Integration of ontologies begins with establishing mappings between their concept entries. We map categories from the largest manually-built ontology, Cyc, onto Wikipedia articles describing corresponding concepts. Our method draws both on Wikipedia’s rich but chaotic hyperlink structure and Cyc’s carefully defined taxonomic and common-sense knowledge. On 9,333 manual alignments by one person, we achieve an F-measure of 90%; on 100 alignments by six human subjects the average agreement of the method with the subject is close to their agreement with each (...) other. We cover 62.8% of Cyc categories relating to common-sense knowledge and discuss what further information might be added to Cyc given this substantial new alignment. (shrink)
The basic results of empirical research and trends of theoretical understanding of influence of emotions on weighting of decision aspects, the influence of emotional tone of events on risk-taking, the emotional significance influence on accessibility of thoughts and the influence of emotional priming on process of decision-making were considered. It was shown, that parallel emotional and cognitive information processing paths are functioning during the process of decision-making as a single mechanism. The important role of emotions in risky decision-making was substantiated.
Olena Bortnikova. Religious and political organizations as subjects of national processes in Ukraine In the article the different approaches to defining the essence of religious and political organizations as subjects of national processes and their role in the functioning and development of society. Attempted to characterize the basic methodological provisions for disclosure of the nature of religious and political actors as structural elements of ethnonational system, identifying different levels of accommodation in terms of social change.
У статті досліджено сучасний стан вітчизняного ринку праці та визначено актуальні проблеми його розвитку з урахуванням економічного та правового аспектів державного управління у сфері праці. Обґрунтовано необхідність удосконалення заходів у галузі регулювання зайнятості населення з метою підвищення рівня життя в державі на основі зростання кількості робочих місць та працюючих підприємств. Узагальнено особливості сучасного етапу розвитку українського ринку праці та визначено доцільність проведення більш активної політики держави та органів місцевого самоврядування у сфері галузевої, професійно-кваліфікаційної й територіальної структури цього ринку. Зроблено висновок (...) про необхідність удосконалення правового забезпечення інституційних та соціальних передумов розвитку ринку праці та зайнятості населення як на державному, так і на місцевому рівні. (shrink)
Based on the analysis of theoretical and philosophical orientation of philosophical and educational thought at the end of XIX - beginning of the twentieth century, established mechanisms for determining the socio-cultural and specific historical features of the formation of personality in the educational space of Modernity.
Olena Panych’s article «Scientific Atheism as a Cultural System» explores scientific atheism as a worldview and cultural system that were artificially constructed in the USSR in 1960s-80s. Panych argues that scientific atheism had its peculiar specific ethics, practices and discourse. Being essentially a propagandist paradigm aimed at negation of religion, scientific atheism also developed a positive program of the formation of integral worldview. The discourse of scientific atheism was focused on the construction of community that would be alternative to (...) the religious one. In its peculiar way, scientific atheism asserted general collectivist values of the Soviet epoch. (shrink)
Предметом дослідження у статті є концептуальні підходи до формування механізмів антикризової політики держави. Доведено, що в сучасній Україні антикризова політика має ґрунтуватися на використанні податкових механізмів і важелів.
The main purpose of the study is a comprehensive economic and legal analysis of the loan agreement in agriculture in the conditions of formation and development of elements of post-industrial economy in Ukraine. The research methodology is based on a systematic approach using the method of cognition from abstract to concrete and special methods of economic and statistical research, which helped to ensure the reliability of research results and validity of conclusions. It was found that the loan agreement in agriculture (...) is an economic and legal category that ensures the further development of agriculture in Ukraine in conditions of further integration of our economy to world market on competitive terms. It was determined that expanding the use of the loan agreement in agriculture is a necessary lever to increase production efficiency, formation and constant restoration of a competitive technological base in modern conditions and further development of the whole agro-industrial complex considering the formation of post-industrial economy. It is proved that the application of the mechanism of crediting of agriculture in Ukraine has a positive effect on the development of the agro-industrial sector in Ukraine. It is determined that the current level and availability of lending to the agro-industrial complex in Ukraine are insufficient for quality modernization and achieving a high level of efficiency of agricultural production. The main value of this study is that it analyzes the concept through the prism of two categories, namely: legal and economic. (shrink)
The article highlights processes that took place among Ukrainian community during pre-election campaign in the People's Republic of Poland in 1989. The events that, certainly, became a turning point in the history of the state and influenced on the set up of another approach on issues of national minorities in communist Poland are reconstructed. The importance of Ukrainian community candidate participation in parliamentary elections is determined, including the win of one of them. This success was achieved owing to the common (...) objective of different groups of society to overcome the communist regime in country. Those Ukrainians, who helped and supported their candidates, including Volodymyr Mokryy, invoked the Ukrainian community to support the opposition representatives as well. It should be noted that one of most significant challenges for them was struggle against anti-Ukrainian stereotypes. The latter were firmly engrained into Polish society consciousness. In its turn, communist propaganda throughout the period of pre-election campaign, tried to provoke a new wave of hatred to Ukrainians, reminding about the sources of conflicts in Ukrainian-Polish relationship. (shrink)
Development and strengthening of private pension funds market is impossible without a thorough analysis of its current state, identify unresolved problems in operation. Given the results of the analysis of investment of a fund can be identified difficulties in development funds: - negative impact of the crisis on the financial system as a whole, so that was undermined public confidence in all financial institutions; - reduce solvency population as rising prices, utility costs, and wages almost "frozen", save for retirement is (...) becoming increasingly difficult; - coagulation participation of employers in pension programs for their employees, because in times of crisis, many companies find themselves in dire financial straits and limited amounts of pension contributions; - negative signal to the scheme as slowed down compared to the pre-crisis period of growth by pension funds; - need to improve pension schemes and improving the investment of pension funds; - data reporting of private pension funds show a decrease yields of most funds. Private pension funds should be able to use options, but only to hedge risks on stocks, as most other assets, placing the premiums of private pension funds - a fixed income. Application options would allow private pension funds to hedge against decline in the market value of the shares. Of course, the use of options will decrease the yield of pension funds, but they will be no significant damage. (shrink)
Source: Author: Olena Znanetska In the current article the problem of foreign communicative competence of higher school students has been considered. The notion, the main point and the components of higher school students` foreign competence have been analyzed. The scientific works under the problem have been investigated. ]]>.
Actuality of theme. At the end of the XX century, the religious life of Ukraine has undergone significant transformations. With the collapse of the totalitarian regime and the gaining of independence by Ukraine, religious communities were in a new socio-political and socio-cultural environment for themselves. There was a significant increase in the role of religious institutions in the development of civil society.
In the article modern views on the nature and value matrix of civil society are generalized. It is considered the role of religious organizations in forming of civil society in modern Ukraine and also the value of their activity for the self-organization of civil public.
The purpose of the study is a theoretical substantiation and empirical study of the psychological content parameters of the relationship between perfectionism and feelings of loneliness in youth. A new view of modern reality with its constant changes and increased requirements for the functioning of the individual in society has been substantiated. It is noted that such a view provokes the mass formation and spread of perfectionism and loneliness. It is noted that every day more and more people, especially young (...) people, suffer from the imperfections of this world and the feeling of isolation from others. It has been established that socially conditioned perfectionism, concern for mistakes, doubts about one’s own actions and self-criticism have a positive significant connection with the feeling of loneliness in youth. However, rigid perfectionism and self-centered perfectionism are inversely related to feelings of loneliness. It was found that young men are largely prone to self-centered perfectionism. A pronounced high level of loneliness was observed in n=18 subjects. Attention has been drawn to the fact that doubts about one’s own actions and concern for mistakes inevitably provoke feelings of loneliness. Emphasis has been placed on important areas of actualization of empirical results in order to develop constructive perfectionism. It has been noted that the results obtained should be operationalized in educational and professional training of students-psychologists. (shrink)
The article provides a theoretical analysis of the study of the issue of introducing innovations into educational activities on the basis of foreign and domestic experience of postmodern education. The essence of the problem of introducing innovative technologies in the system of postmodern education in the countries of the world and in Ukraine is revealed. The role of the teacher's professional competence in the application of innovative techniques for organizing the educational process was emphasized. The essential features of postmodern tendencies (...) in foreign and domestic education and teaching practice are combined. In the context of professional postmodern education and to optimize innovative teaching with postmodern tendencies, pedagogical recommendations were submitted on the new conditions and requirements of innovative teaching. The goals of the article, as well as its scientific novelty, theoretical and practical significance for postmodern or innovative pedagogy are determined. It is substantiated that the development of innovative technologies in the field of training future specialists is carried out on the basis of a postmodern approach to the analysis of vocational education, which was integrated by means of personality-oriented, activity-based, professional-creative and psychological-pedagogical approaches at the systemic universal level. Considered professional requirements for educators-innovators. (shrink)
The proposed article provides an overview of European and North American states’ legislation, which regulates the procedure for pre-clinical research, clinical trials and state registration of medicinal products, as well as responsibility for its violation, analysis of the problems and prospects of adaptation of the national legislation to European legal space, particularly in the field of criminal and legal regulation of relations in the sphere of pre-clinical trials, clinical trials and state registration of medicine. The emphasis is put on the (...) matter that inclusion of Article 321-2 into the Criminal Code of Ukraine leads to a false concurrence with other provisions of the Code. The author proposes to introduce recent EU legislation (Acquis Communautaire) on legal regulation of clinical trials and circulation of medicine into the law of Ukraine, clarify terminology related to Fundamentals of Ukrainian Legislation on Health Protection and the Special Part of criminal law, introduce criminal liability for legal entities that will provide effective control over negative effects of research centers’ activity. It is suggested to develop legislative proposals to improve the provisions of the Criminal Code of Ukraine, which provide legal protection of relations arising in connection with pre-clinical research, clinical trials and state registration of medicinal products. (shrink)
Interdisciplinarity is one of the features of modern science, defined as blurring the boundaries of disciplines and overcoming their limitations or excessive specialization by borrowing methods from one discipline into another, integrating different theoretical assumptions, and using the same concepts and terms. Often, theoretical knowledge of one discipline and technological advances of another are combined within an interdisciplinary science, and new branches or disciplines may also emerge. Biosemiotics, a field that arose at the crossroads of biology, semiotics, linguistics, and philosophy, (...) enables scientists to borrow theoretical assumptions from semiotics and extend them to different biological theories. The latter applies especially to extended synthesis, wherein culture is viewed as one of the factors influencing evolution. In the present research, the semiotic system of Ukrainian folk ornament is analyzed through the theory of fractals, key features of which are recursion and self-similarity. As a result, an assumption is made about the fractal structure of culture and social life on a conceptual level. What follows is a discussion of how this assumption can contribute to the multilevel selection theory, one of the foundations of extended synthesis, which employs the concept of self-similarity at all levels of the biological hierarchy. (shrink)
The study of the place and role of religious education in the post-secular world is undoubtedly increasing. First of all, this is due to the loss of religion of its influence on modern society, the growth of globalization processes, and attempts to preserve national and cultural identity. At the same time, we are talking not only about the problems inherent in whole countries and peoples, but also about the right of an individual to his own worldview and moral choice - (...) freedom of conscience, and most importantly - the possibility of realizing this choice. (shrink)
In the article the author tries to analyze the vision of the path of spiritual formation in the philosophical and religious views of the Ukrainian Middle Ages and the early modernism representatives in the context of the doctrine of theosis. It is noted that the doctrine of deification is considered fundamental to the theology of holiness. Theosis, the idea of which is to renew the image and the likeness of God in a person, is the main goal of life from (...) the standpoint of the Eastern Church. After all, the combination of the Divine and human natures opens the way to God for a person. As a state of subjective experience of a human person, theosis is considered in hesychasm, which interprets it as synergy - an interacting combination of energies of man and God. The path to the development of knowledge about God is connected with the ascetic rejection from the worldly life, and the path to the union with Him is connected with the union of the Divine and human natures in a person. Followers of hesychasm believe that theosis is the practice of the subjective experience of a human person; synergy is the interacting combination of the energy of man and God. The main task of austerity is the attainment of divine grace. It dissolves the will of man in the process of a human being transformation. The doctrine of theosis had an impact on the formation of the theocratic idea in the culture of Kiev Rus, in which love of wisdom played an important role in human understanding themselves as the image of God. Analyzing the views of the Ukrainian Middle Ages and early modernism representatives on the path of spiritual development of man, the author concludes that they were characterized by the vision of deification as a person’s approach to God through self-exploration and moral improvement. Theosis is the final result on the path of spiritual growth for the representatives of the Middle Ages and early modernism philosophical conception, who attached great importance to gaining inner mystical experience and sought to experience spiritual ecstasy as the ultimate goal in the mystical path to deification. (shrink)
In the article the author tries to analyze the representation of philosophical and anthropological ideas in the works of fraternal schools in the XVI–XVII centuries. It is noted that man was considered in the unity of soul and body as a microcosm and one that was created in the image of God. Self-knowledge was interpreted as a way of liberation from the burdens of the surrounding world, dependence on earthly sensuality. In particular, Stefan Zizaniy had a rationalist vision of the (...) dogmas of orthodox Christianity. The work of Kyrylo Tranquillion-Stavrovetsky shows a neo-Platonist tradition associated with humanism. In accordance with the traditions of the Renaissance, the philosopher turns to the idea of double truth, considering wisdom from the standpoint of theology and practical philosophy of life. K. Tranquillion-Stavrovetsky, according to the Stoic doctrine, regarded man as a dual nature. But the philosopher also emphasized the unity of soul and body, because they are strongly interconnected. It is noteworthy that the scientist reveals the problem of soul and body from the Renaissance-humanistic moral-ethical and epistemological positions. Isaiah Kopynsky emphasizes that self-knowledge and cognition of the surrounding world does not occur through the study of nature and observation of natural phenomena, but, on the contrary, through immersion in your inner spiritual world through “smart deeds”. It contributes to the knowledge of the outside world, self-knowledge and knowledge of God. I. Kopynsky’s views are close to early Hesychast Byzantine theology. The anthropological views of the theologian are focused on the individual who takes an active part in the historical process. In his works, M. Smotrytsky also pays special attention to the transcendent nature of the human spirit, in particular, analyzing the question of the interaction of action and will. The author concludes that the philosophical and anthropological ideas of the fraternal schools were formed in the context of European philosophical culture and were a reflection of the cultural and historical features of the historical period we are studying. (shrink)
The article considers questions about the role and significance of art education in the context of ensuring sustainable development of society. The features of the development of art education in the postmodern era, its functions and specific features are analyzed. The interdependence of arts education and sustainable development are characterized. The exceptional importance for ensuring sustainable development of an appropriately oriented and updated arts education was emphasized. In particular, it seems possible to ensure a change in stereotypes, ways of thinking (...) and actions of people, the formation of appropriate motivation and public opinion in the context of applied nature through the influence of art. Ways to improve art education with the aim of ensuring sustainable development are proposed: integration of formal and non-formal art education, ensuring innovativeness, interdisciplinarity and multiculturalism of art education, creating an inclusive environment in higher educational institutions. We see prospects for further scientific research in the creation of a model for training specialists with certain properties and substantiation of the features of its implementation in real conditions of the educational process in higher education institutions of the artistic direction. (shrink)
Approaches to global ethics have drawn on a number of diverse theoretical traditions, such as Kantianism and utilitarianism. While emerging frameworks contribute to a growing awareness of and interest in ethics within a global society, the values that they prioritize are not adequate for realizing a just, equitable and fair system of global governance. This article considers the possibilities of an alternative ethic - a feminist ethic of care - and explores how it can bear on present circumstances, including global (...) inequity and injustice. This care ethic has been put forward as a viable normative approach to politics and policy. Little attention, however, has been paid to the potential of a care ethic within the globalization and ethics debate. This article illustrates how the values and corresponding principles of care, grounded in relationships and responsibilities, are essential to responding adequately to the current challenges of globalization. By examining the relevance of care in this context, the article seeks to broaden dominant ethical worldviews and contribute to the articulation of normative tools for examining globalization while at the same time avoiding the trappings of conventional universality - the abstract and a priori thinking typically associated with conceptions of global ethics. (shrink)
Стаття висвітлює важливий аспект різнобічної діяльності митрополита Андрея Шептицького - охорону природи Галичини. Автор доводить, що природоохоронна діяльність митрополита була спрямована на посилення процесів національного відродження в краї, мала неабияке значення для утвердження власної гідності галичан, вела до неухильного розширення їх духовного світогляду. У статті наведено ряд архівних документів, що засвідчують факти природоохоронної діяльності митрополита на теренах Галичини в 1930-1940 рр.
The article highlights the issues of nature protection in Halychyna region that have been arising since ancient times till1939. Inthe 20-30s of the XXth century the solution of this problem was considered in the search of separate valuable objects of nature, their expropriation from the sphere of economic usage and complete protection. In the hard interwar period, the Polish government, scientists and some land owners were doing their best to protect nature. This intense activity had a significant public basis, as (...) the main legislative basis of Poland of that time facilitated development and distribution of nature-protective activity in Halychyna region. Poland had a significant public legislative foundation for environmental protection and isolation of valuable natural areas/objects. First of all, since 1852 Halychyna had the valid Austrian law on forest conservation, according to which all forests, regardless of ownership form, had to be supervised by the State Forest Administration. In 1900 the Austrian Ministry of Agriculture issued the Circular concerning conservation of natural tracts and old trees. Later on, in 1927 the President of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth issued the Decision on the protection of forests that were not owned by the state; in1934 anew public law about monuments of nature was adopted in Halychyna, which greatly simplified and facilitated the procedure of conserving valuable natural objects in the country. In addition, Poland had a number of other valid laws on nature usage with the elements of environmental protection. In the 1920-1930s, nature conservation and isolation of national parks in Halychyna were performed by both the government authorities of Poland and numerous Polish academic-social entities, such as the State Council for Nature Conservation of Poland, Polish Committee for Nature Protection in Lviv city, the Polish League for Nature Protection, Department of Reserves of the Research Institute of State Forests, Nature Conservation Commission of the State Geological Institute. Apart from that, Poland also had various public nature protection societies of local history and natural sciences, such as the Copernicus Society of Naturalists, Society of Tree-Lovers, Society of Planting Local Hylads, Zoological and Botanical Society, Society for Animal Protection, 'Stowarzyszenia c.k. straznikow lasowych i dozorcow skladow', 'Straz Lesna w Kosowie', "Akademickiego kola Przyrodnikow wszechnicy Lwowskiej' and others. A number of protected state reserves have been created. In addition to the public ones, there were a lot of community nature reserves, which were bought by the Polish scientific-cultural societies and organizations, as well as private reserves, created on private lands by some land owners. Thus, in Halychyna region the issue of nature conservation was developing very actively in those years, yet under the auspices of the Austrian environmental organizations. Correspondingly, the new protected objects became Austrian or Polish state property. No Ukrainian natural reserves existed, and no national societies for nature protection. Therefore, the problem of nature protection in the 1920-1930s in the society turned from the purely ecological problem into the ecological-national one. Ukrainian patriots, uniting around their spiritual leader - the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, started a broad nature protection activity in Halychyna, focusing at conserving and multiplying the natural resources. First of all, they founded the Permanent Commission for Nature Conservation at the Taras Shevchenko Scientific Society, which was carrying out an active nature conservation activity in the given region. (shrink)
The question as to whether the Vedas have an author is the topic of vivid polemics in Indian philosophy. The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the classical Sāṁkhya view on the authorship of the Vedas. The research is based chiefly on the commentaries to the Sāṁkhyakārikā definition of authoritative verbal testimony given by the classical Sāṁkhya writers, for these fragments provide the main evidence (both direct and indirect) for the reconstruction of this view. The textual analysis presented in (...) this paper leads to the following conclusion. According to most classical Sāṁkhya commentaries, the Vedas have no author. Two commentators state directly that the Vedas have no author, and four commentators allude to the authorlessness of the Vedas. Only one commentator seems to hold the opposite view, stating that all the authoritative utterances are based on perception or inference of imperceptible objects by authoritative persons, from which it follows that the Vedas too have an author or authors. (shrink)
In the article, referring to the method of rational reconstruction described by R. Rorty, an analysis of some works of J. Locke has been made in order to identify new prospects in John Locke's philosophy researches. As a result, it’s been demonstrated the presence of silence as an argument and a manifestation of respect J. Locke’s research of realms of cognition, political philosophy and philosophy of education. This is not covered in modern John Locke's philosophy researches. The authors emphasize that (...) J. Locke, although not directly exploring silence as an argument, however, describes the argument ad ignorantiam, the wording of which in the work «An Essay Concerning Human Understanding» and his understanding of tacit consent in the work «Two Treatises of Government» are related to silence as an argument and a manifestation of respect. The position that silence as an argument is present in all four arguments (argumentum ad verecundiam, argumentum ad ignorantiam, argumentum ad hominem, argumentum ad judicium) described by J. Locke is substantiated. Additionally, the argument ad ignorantiam can be considered both as an argument from silence (ex silentio argument) and as a kind of argument to silence. Considered arguments can serve as an argument to silence for the proponent and/or the third party, that is, anyone who is not directly involved in the dispute. Basing on J. Locke's explanation of the characteristic feature of tacit consent, that is, the absence of the expressed consent/disagreement, the possibility of distinguishing the indirect connection between tacit consent and the argument ad ignorantiam is demonstrated, since both tacit consent and the argument ad ignorantiam in J. Locke's works rely on the absence of expressed statements on the consent or disagreement of the opponent. It is established that the ideas of the education of children described by J. Locke also correlate with silence as an argument and a manifestation of respect. Applying the classification of the types of respect proposed by S. Hudson and complemented by R. Dillon to the use of the term «respect» to the various texts of J. Locke, it is substantiated that described by him respect covered almost all kinds of this classification. (shrink)
У статті розглянуто специфіку мовчання як аргументу та риторичної фігури в комунікативній практиці людини. На підставі аналізу теоретичних положень сучасних розробок у царинах логіки, риторики, теорії аргументації підкреслено варіативність феномена мовчання як аргументу і риторичної фігури. На прикладі фрагменту про жінку в Євангелії від Івана, яку спіймали на перелюбі, продемонстровано, що мовчання Ісуса як риторична фігура, реалізуючи аргументативну функцію, руйнує цілі фарисеїв та книжників. На прикладі процедури весільних церемоній християнської традиції продемонстровано обов’язковість використання мовчання як аргументу в міркуваннях її учасників. (...) Мовчання у процесі реалізації ним аргументативної функції в стратегії дій як окремих індивідів, так і соціальних груп може розглядатись як сильний аргумент, адже він виступає невід’ємною складовою формування висновку про обґрунтованість укладення шлюбу. Базуючись на ролі, яку мовчання відіграє для кожної сторони ритуалу весільної церемонії у християнській традиції, наголошено на тому, що мовчання як аргумент виступає необхідною підставою в обґрунтуванні легітимності шлюбу або невизнання його легітимності у весільних церемоніях. (shrink)
The article attempts to provide a practical analysis of the psychological basis for the incentives of personality motivation in education managers. In particular, it highlights the results of an empirical study of motivational techniques for normative and value attitudes of education managers in terms of management. It justifies the opinion that leaders of the organizations with strong cooperation between staff and administration and united by a common desire for success, are dominated by the category “hope for success”. And the leaders (...) of such organizations where subordinates are in constant fear of dismissal and under sharp criticism regardless of their work quality, are dominated by the “fear of failure”. It emphasizes the idea that education managers should try to develop “hope for success”. This applies to both men and women, regardless of their work experience. It points out the need to practice methods of overcoming “blame and criticism caused by failure to succeed”. This is especially true for women with over 5 years work experience. It is also worth creating a sense of work efficiency with a positive hope and to overcome manifestations of immorality and injustice to subordinates. Considerable attention in scientific research is paid to the importance of the spiritual component in the personality of modern managers, which requires further study. (shrink)
Based on analysis of program documents and performances of the leading actors of Social Democratic Party of Germany, this article examines economic views and conceptions of social-democrats during the period of occupation between 1945 and 1949. The article analyzes the background of these economic concepts starting from the times of Nazi regime in Germany when SDP leaders were living in exile, and describes their evolution between 1945 and 1945 during the negotiations of three post-war Party Congresses. The article substantiates how (...) two main approaches in regard of economic rehabilitation and further development of post-war Germany were formed by the leading politicians and economic experts of SDP: the first approach based on planning economy and total nationalization of enterprises, and the second one based on regulation of market economy and partial nationalization of enterprises. The article analyzes Social Democrats' participation in formation of a new representative constitutive body called Economic Council, which consisted of Germans exclusively and was created for final solving of current economic problems, as well as their work in this body. The attitude of SDP towards main economic measures of that times such as realization of Marshall Plan in Western Germany and the Monetary Reform of 1948 is described. The article indicates why the opinions of leading SDP politicians in regard of major economic measures were ambiguous, and explains that it happened because the composition of a newborn post-war SDP was heterogeneous, and because those measures were initiated and controlled by occupying states. (shrink)
The dynamics of life and environment destruction in the east of Ukraine is rapidly increasing. This article analyzes the main factors of contamination and destruction of the environment as a result of the military operations in eastern Ukraine. There were held the calculations of areas destroyed by fire, analyzed the dynamics of fires in the east of Ukraine and compared with the previous years, there were analyzed the soils in the Krasnolymanskyi region and water form Siverskyi Donets River. It was (...) found that the military operations have devastating impact on all of the environment objects without exception. For a complete evaluation of the scope of environment destruction and pollution, it is necessary to conduct environmental monitoring, to develop an action plan on restoration of the environment. (shrink)
For the sake of developing a discussion on the problem of defining “freedom of conscience,” let us start by saying that, at first glance, there is no such problem at the surface. At least, when you have the opportunity to familiarize yourself with this topic in the textbooks on religious studies, where very often only the presence of this democratic institution in our society and the legal guarantees of its existence, or the political principles on which it is based, are (...) given. Meanwhile, the periodical and the scientific press have shown that in many cases the exercise of freedom of conscience in our country is far from what the law requires, as well as from the political demands that justify it. (shrink)
Стаття присвячена проблемі осмислення впливу музики на буття людини. Сучасні реалії вимагають переглянути чимало аспектів впливу музичного мистецтва, кожен з них має свою специфіку, наділений відповідними функціями. У результаті відбувається оновлення музичної етики, естетики, психології, філософії. Застосовуючи інтегральний підхід визначається чітка система координат, за якою можливий подальший детальний розгляд теми: наводяться фундаментальні лінії сприйняття музики, які описують різні боки буття людини й способи взаємодії з музикою в кожному з наведених вимірів. Також розглядається вплив і створення музики з позиції рівнів свідомості (...) інтегральної постметафізики, надається об’ємна цілісна картина, яка відкриває для нас нові грані поставленого питання і стимулює подальші дослідження. (shrink)