Results for 'Nick Cheney'

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  1.  17
    The Surprising Creativity of Digital Evolution: A Collection of Anecdotes From the Evolutionary Computation and Artificial Life Research Communities.Joel Lehman, Jeff Clune, Dusan Misevic, Christoph Adami, Julie Beaulieu, Peter Bentley, Bernard J., Belson Samuel, Bryson Guillaume, M. David, Nick Cheney, Antoine Cully, Stephane Donciuex, Fred Dyer, Ellefsen C., Feldt Kai Olav, Fischer Robert, Forrest Stephan, Frénoy Stephanie, Gagneé Antoine, Goff Christian, Grabowski Leni Le, M. Laura, Babak Hodjat, Laurent Keller, Carole Knibbe, Peter Krcah, Richard Lenski, Lipson E., MacCurdy Hod, Maestre Robert, Miikkulainen Carlos, Mitri Risto, Moriarty Sara, E. David, Jean-Baptiste Mouret, Anh Nguyen, Charles Ofria, Marc Parizeau, David Parsons, Robert Pennock, Punch T., F. William, Thomas Ray, Schoenauer S., Shulte Marc, Sims Eric, Stanley Karl, O. Kenneth, Fran\C. Cois Taddei, Danesh Tarapore, Simon Thibault, Westley Weimer, Richard Watson & Jason Yosinksi - 2018 - CoRR.
    Biological evolution provides a creative fount of complex and subtle adaptations, often surprising the scientists who discover them. However, because evolution is an algorithmic process that transcends the substrate in which it occurs, evolution’s creativity is not limited to nature. Indeed, many researchers in the field of digital evolution have observed their evolving algorithms and organisms subverting their intentions, exposing unrecognized bugs in their code, producing unexpected adaptations, or exhibiting outcomes uncannily convergent with ones in nature. Such stories routinely reveal (...)
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  2. Superintelligence: paths, dangers, strategies.Nick Bostrom (ed.) - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    The human brain has some capabilities that the brains of other animals lack. It is to these distinctive capabilities that our species owes its dominant position. Other animals have stronger muscles or sharper claws, but we have cleverer brains. If machine brains one day come to surpass human brains in general intelligence, then this new superintelligence could become very powerful. As the fate of the gorillas now depends more on us humans than on the gorillas themselves, so the fate of (...)
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  3. Are We Living in a Computer Simulation?Nick Bostrom - 2003 - Philosophical Quarterly 53 (211):243-255.
    I argue that at least one of the following propositions is true: the human species is very likely to become extinct before reaching a ’posthuman’ stage; any posthuman civilization is extremely unlikely to run a significant number of simulations of its evolutionary history ; we are almost certainly living in a computer simulation. It follows that the belief that there is a significant chance that we shall one day become posthumans who run ancestor-simulations is false, unless we are currently living (...)
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  4. Existential risks: analyzing human extinction scenarios and related hazards.Nick Bostrom - 2002 - J Evol Technol 9 (1).
    Because of accelerating technological progress, humankind may be rapidly approaching a critical phase in its career. In addition to well-known threats such as nuclear holocaust, the propects of radically transforming technologies like nanotech systems and machine intelligence present us with unprecedented opportunities and risks. Our future, and whether we will have a future at all, may well be determined by how we deal with these challenges. In the case of radically transforming technologies, a better understanding of the transition dynamics from (...)
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  5. Human Enhancement.Nick Bostrom & Julian Savulescu (eds.) - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    To what extent should we use technological advances to try to make better human beings? Leading philosophers debate the possibility of enhancing human cognition, mood, personality, and physical performance, and controlling aging. Would this take us beyond the bounds of human nature? These are questions that need to be answered now.
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  6. .Nick Bostrom & Julian Savulescu - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
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  7.  56
    The Metaphysics of Beauty.Nick Zangwill - 2001 - Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
    In chapters ranging from "The Beautiful, the Dainty, and the Dumpy" to "Skin-deep or In the Eye of the Beholder?" Nick Zangwill investigates the nature of beauty as we conceive it, and as it is in itself. The notion of beauty is currently attracting increased interest, particularly in philosophical aesthetics and in discussions of our experiences and judgments about art. In The Metaphysics of Beauty, Zangwill argues that it is essential to beauty that it depends on the ordinary features (...)
  8.  69
    Whose Hermeneutical Marginalization?Nick Clanchy - 2023 - Episteme 20 (3):813-832.
    According to Miranda Fricker, being hindered from rendering something significant about oneself intelligible to someone constitutes a hermeneutical injustice only if it results from the hermeneutical marginalization of some group to which one belongs. A major problem for Fricker’s picture is that it cannot properly account for the paradigm case of hermeneutical injustice Fricker herself takes from Ian McEwan’s novel Enduring Love. In order to account properly for this case, I argue that being hindered from rendering something significant about oneself (...)
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  9.  68
    Tell Us What You Really Think: A think aloud protocol analysis of the verbal cognitive reflection test.Nick Byrd, Brianna Joseph, Gabriela Gongora & Miroslav Sirota - 2023 - Journal of Intelligence 11 (4).
    The standard interpretation of cognitive reflection tests assumes that correct responses are reflective and lured responses are unreflective. However, prior process-tracing of mathematical reflection tests has cast doubt on this interpretation. In two studies (N = 201), we deployed a validated think-aloud protocol in-person and online to test how this assumption is satisfied by the new, validated, less familiar, and less mathematical verbal Cognitive Reflection Test (vCRT). Importantly, thinking aloud did not disrupt test performance compared to a control group. Moreover, (...)
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  10. A history of transhumanist thought.Nick Bostrom - 2005 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 14 (1):1-25.
    The human desire to acquire new capacities is as ancient as our species itself. We have always sought to expand the boundaries of our existence, be it socially, geographically, or mentally. There is a tendency in at least some individuals always to search for a way around every obstacle and limitation to human life and happiness.
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  11.  74
    Agents of change: temporal flow and feeling oneself act.Nick Young - 2022 - Philosophical Studies 179 (8):2619-2637.
    Here, I put forward a new account of how experience gives rise to the belief that time passes. While there is considerable disagreement amongst metaphysicians as to whether time really does pass, it has struck many as a default, ‘common sense’ way of thinking about the world. A popular way of explaining how such a belief arises is to say that it seems perceptually as though time passes. Here I outline some difficulties for this approach, and propose instead that the (...)
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  12.  26
    The Fable of the Dragon Tyrant.Nick Bostrom - 2005 - Philosophy Now 89:6-9.
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  13.  27
    Self-Locating Belief in Big Worlds: Cosmology’s Missing Link to Observation.Nick Bostrom - 2002 - Journal of Philosophy 99 (12):607-623.
    Current cosmological theories say that the world is so big that all possible observations are in fact made. But then, how can such theories be tested? What could count as negative evidence? To answer that, we need to consider observation selection effects.
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  14. Trivial Truths and the Aim of Inquiry.NicK Treanor - 2012 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 89 (3):552-559.
    A pervasive and influential argument appeals to trivial truths to demonstrate that the aim of inquiry is not the acquisition of truth. But the argument fails, for it neglects to distinguish between the complexity of the sentence used to express a truth and the complexity of the truth expressed by a sentence.
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  15. Normativity and the Metaphysics of Mind.Nick Zangwill - 2010 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (1):1–19.
    I consider the metaphysical consequences of the view that propositional attitudes have essential normative properties. I argue that realism should take a weak rather than a strong form. I argue that expressivism cannot get off the ground. And I argue that eliminativism is self-refuting.
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  16.  44
    The case for eliminativism about words.Nick Tasker - 2022 - Synthese 200 (5):1-23.
    Words are ubiquitous and familiar, and the concept of a word features both in common-sense ways of understanding the world, and in more theoretical discourse. Nonetheless, it has been repeatedly argued that there is no such thing as words. In this paper, I will set out a range of arguments for eliminativism about words, and indicate the most promising responses. I begin by considering an eliminativist argument based on the alleged mind-dependency of words, before turning to two challenges arising from (...)
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  17. Love: gloriously amoral and arational.Nick Zangwill - 2013 - Philosophical Explorations 16 (3):298 - 314.
    I argue that an evaluational conception of love collides with the way we value love. That way allows that love has causes, but not reasons, and it recognizes and celebrates a love that refuses to justify itself. Love has unjustified selectivity, due to its arbitrary causes. That imposes a non-tradability norm. A love for reasons, rational love or evaluational love would be propositional, and it therefore allows that the people we love are tradable commodities. A moralized conception of love is (...)
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  18.  18
    Hereditarily Structurally Complete Intermediate Logics: Citkin’s Theorem Via Duality.Nick Bezhanishvili & Tommaso Moraschini - 2023 - Studia Logica 111 (2):147-186.
    A deductive system is said to be structurally complete if its admissible rules are derivable. In addition, it is called hereditarily structurally complete if all its extensions are structurally complete. Citkin (1978) proved that an intermediate logic is hereditarily structurally complete if and only if the variety of Heyting algebras associated with it omits five finite algebras. Despite its importance in the theory of admissible rules, a direct proof of Citkin’s theorem is not widely accessible. In this paper we offer (...)
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  19.  9
    Haeckel's embryos: images, evolution, and fraud.Nick Hopwood - 2015 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Icons of knowledge -- Two small embryos in spirits of wine -- Like flies on the Parlon ceiling -- Drawing and Darwinism -- Illustrating the magic word -- Professors and progress -- Visual strategies -- Schematics, forgery, and the so-called educated -- Imperial grids -- Setting standards -- Forbidden fruit -- Creative copying -- Trials and tributes -- Scandal for the people -- A hundred Haeckels -- The textbook illustration -- Iconoclasm -- The shock of the copy.
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  20.  80
    Semantic Theories, Linguistic Essences, and Knowledge of Meaning.Nick Haverkamp & Miguel Hoeltje - 2021 - Synthese 199 (5-6):14459-14490.
    This paper argues, first, that the information problem poses a foundational challenge to mainstream semantics. It proposes, second, to address this problem by drawing on notions from Kit Fine’s essentialist framework. More specifically, it claims that the information problem can be avoided by strengthening standard truth theories, employing an operator expressing the notion of a relative constitutive semantic requirement. As a result, the paper proposes to construe semantic theories as theories of semantic requirements, and semantic knowledge as knowledge of such (...)
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  21.  35
    Phenomenology, Structuralism and History.Nick Crossley - 2004 - Theoria 51 (103):88-121.
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  22.  19
    Animal Concepts: Content and Discontent.Cecilia Heyes Nick Chater - 1994 - Mind and Language 9 (3):209-246.
  23.  46
    Ethics of automated vehicles: breaking traffic rules for road safety.Nick Reed, Tania Leiman, Paula Palade, Marieke Martens & Leon Kester - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):777-789.
    In this paper, we explore and describe what is needed to allow connected and automated vehicles to break traffic rules in order to minimise road safety risk and to operate with appropriate transparency. Reviewing current traffic rules with particular reference to two driving situations, we illustrate why current traffic rules are not suitable for CAVs and why making new traffic rules specifically for CAVs would be inappropriate. In defining an alternative approach to achieving safe CAV driving behaviours, we describe the (...)
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  24.  38
    Belief and rational indeterminacy.Nick Leonard - 2021 - Synthese 199 (5-6):13523-13542.
    This paper is about an anti-expertise paradox that arises because of self-referential sentences like: = I do not believe that is true. The first aim is to motivate, develop, and defend a novel view of epistemic rationality according to which there can be genuine rational indeterminacy, i.e., it can be indeterminate which doxastic states an agent is rationally permitted or required to have. The second aim is to show how this view can provide a solution to this paradox while also (...)
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  25.  14
    Promises and all of the people who rely on them.Nick Leonard - 2021 - Journal of Social Philosophy 54 (1):114-129.
    Journal of Social Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  26.  14
    Shareholders and employees: the impact of redundancies on key stakeholders.Nick Collett - 2004 - Business Ethics 13 (2-3):117-126.
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  27. Moral epistemology and the Because Constraint.Nick Zangwill - 2006 - In James Lawrence Dreier (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Moral Theory. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 263--281.
  28. The Future of Human Evolution.Nick Bostrom - unknown
    Evolutionary development is sometimes thought of as exhibiting an inexorable trend towards higher, more complex, and normatively worthwhile forms of life. This paper explores some dystopian scenarios where freewheeling evolutionary developments, while continuing to produce complex and intelligent forms of organization, lead to the gradual elimination of all forms of being that we care about. We then consider how such catastrophic outcomes could be avoided and argue that under certain conditions the only possible remedy would be a globally coordinated policy (...)
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  29.  10
    The effect of context change on conditioned defensive burying in rats.Fernando G. Oberdieck & Carl D. Cheney - 1982 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 19 (5):295-297.
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  30.  93
    Hume, taste, and teleology.Nick Zangwill - 1994 - Philosophical Papers 23 (1):1-18.
  31.  70
    The imaginary fundamentalists: The unshocking truth about Bayesian cognitive science.Nick Chater, Noah Goodman, Thomas L. Griffiths, Charles Kemp, Mike Oaksford & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (4):194-196.
    If Bayesian Fundamentalism existed, Jones & Love's (J&L's) arguments would provide a necessary corrective. But it does not. Bayesian cognitive science is deeply concerned with characterizing algorithms and representations, and, ultimately, implementations in neural circuits; it pays close attention to environmental structure and the constraints of behavioral data, when available; and it rigorously compares multiple models, both within and across papers. J&L's recommendation of Bayesian Enlightenment corresponds to past, present, and, we hope, future practice in Bayesian cognitive science.
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  32.  3
    Bi-intermediate logics of trees and co-trees.Nick Bezhanishvili, Miguel Martins & Tommaso Moraschini - forthcoming - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic.
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  33. A citation-based ranking of the business ethics scholarly journals.Nick Bontis & Alexander Serenko - 2009 - International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics 4 (4):390-399.
    The purpose of this investigation is to develop a ranking of academic business ethics journals. For this, a revealed preference approach, also known as a citation impact method, was employed. The citation data were generated by using Google Scholar; h-index, g-index and hc-index were utilised to obtain a ranking. It was observed that the scores of these three indices correlated almost perfectly. This study also demonstrates that business ethics is a well-established discipline that should have its own set of recognised (...)
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  34.  79
    What is a singleton.Nick Bostrom - 2006 - Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations 5 (2):48-54.
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  35. Disagreement about Evidence-based Policy.Nick Cowen & Nancy Cartwright - forthcoming - In Maria Baghramian, J. Adam Carter & Rach Cosker-Rowland (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Disagreement. Routledge.
    Evidence based-policy (EBP) is a popular research paradigm in the applied social sciences and within government agencies. Informally, EBP represents an explicit commitment to applying scientific methods to public affairs, in contrast to ideologically-driven or merely intuitive “common-sense” approaches to public policy. More specifically, the EBP paradigm places great weight on the results of experimental research designs, especially randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and systematic literature reviews that place evidential weight on experimental results. One hope is that such research designs and (...)
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  36. Quietism.Nick Zangwill - 1992 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 17 (1):160-176.
    Metaphysics-—the enquiry into the constitution of reality-seems like the very crown of philosophy. What could be more exciting, more important, and more substantive than the pursuit of such a discipline? The majority of philosophers have been content to assume that metaphysics is a viable enterprise; they have held various metaphysical views and engaged in metaphysical arguments. But there has always been a small but persistent maverick minority of philosophers who have cast aspersions on the whole undertaking. Metaphysics, they tell us, (...)
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  37. Why quantize gravity (or any other field for that matter)?Nick Huggett & Craig Callender - 2001 - Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2001 (3):S382-.
    The quantum gravity program seeks a theory that handles quantum matter fields and gravity consistently. But is such a theory really required and must it involve quantizing the gravitational field? We give reasons for a positive answer to the first question, but dispute a widespread contention that it is inconsistent for the gravitational field to be classical while matter is quantum. In particular, we show how a popular argument (Eppley and Hannah 1997) falls short of a no-go theorem, and discuss (...)
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  38. Consistency and evidence.Nick Hughes - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 169 (2):333-338.
    Williamson (2000) appeals to considerations about when it is natural to say that a hypothesis is consistent with one’s evidence in order to motivate the claim that all and only knowledge is evidence. It is argued here that the relevant considerations do not support this claim, and in fact conflict with it.
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  39.  16
    The Cārvākas as Mysterians.Nick Leonard - 2023 - Philosophy East and West 73 (1):104-125.
    Abstract:This is a discussion of how the Cārvākas viewed the relationship between the mind and the body. Whereas they have traditionally been interpreted as Emergentists, the aim here is to show that we can do better by reading them as being Mysterians.
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  40.  5
    Basic Speech Acts.Nick Fotion & Douglas Seanor - 2003 - Philosophical Inquiry 25 (1-2):229-243.
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  41.  2
    33. Kleiner beitrag zur charakteristik von Bentley’s dialektik.Gustav Nick - 1882 - Philologus: Zeitschrift für Antike Literatur Und Ihre Rezeption 41 (1-4):545-546.
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  42.  7
    XIII. Kritisches Und Exegetisches zu Ovids Fasten.Gustav Nick - 1882 - Philologus: Zeitschrift für Antike Literatur Und Ihre Rezeption 41 (1-4):445-464.
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  43.  10
    A Comparative Analysis of Female-Male Communication Style as a Function of Organizational Level.Nick Nykodym, James R. Wilcox & Karen M. Cowan - 1990 - Communications 15 (3):291-310.
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  44.  8
    Organizational Communication Theory: Interpersonal and Non-interpersonal Perspectives.Nick Nykodym - 1988 - Communications 14 (2):7-18.
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  45.  7
    The Inherent Logic in the Idea of the Multiverse.Nick Overduin - 2021 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 58 (1):197-219.
    The idea of the multiverse, likely difficult to prove in traditional scientific ways, may be bolstered by two arguments from the field of logic. This article, contextualized by the metaphorical, non-logical approaches to the multiverse and situating itself within the history of astronomy, explicates these two arguments from logic. The first argument relates to the implicit illogical vanity in the assumption that our presently-known universe is special. In other words, it may be somewhat logical to embrace the history of deanthropomorphism (...)
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  46.  12
    The entwinement of reason and violence.Nick Smith - 1994 - Cogito 8 (3):241-248.
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  47.  49
    Nietzsche’s Perspectivism and Problems of Self-Refutation.Nick Trakakis - 2006 - International Philosophical Quarterly 46 (1):91-110.
    Nietzsche’s perspectivism has aroused the perplexity of many a recent commentator, not least because of the doctrine’s apparent self-refuting character. If, as Nietzsche holds, there are no facts but only interpretations, then how are we to understand this claim itself? Nietzsche’s perspectivism must be construed either as a fact or as one further interpretation—but in the former case the doctrine is clearly self-refuting, while in the latter case any reasons or arguments one may have in support of one’s perspective are (...)
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  48.  23
    Promises and all of the people who rely on them.Nick Leonard - 2021 - Journal of Social Philosophy 54 (1):114-129.
    Journal of Social Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  49.  31
    Introduction: Shifting Attention.Nick Seaver, Tero Karppi & Rebecca Jablonsky - 2022 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 47 (2):235-242.
    In recent years, attention has become a matter of increasing public concern. New digital technologies have transformed human attention materially and discursively, reorganizing perceptual practices and inciting debates about them. The essays in this special issue emerged from a set of panels focused on attention at the 4S conference in New Orleans in 2019. They are all, in various ways, concerned with shifts among attention’s many meanings: between payment and care, instinct and agency, or vulnerability and power. Drawing on Science (...)
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  50.  12
    Introduction.Nick Groom & Charlie Blake - 1996 - Angelaki 1 (2):5 – 12.
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