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  1.  50
    The bacteriophage, its role in immunology: how Macfarlane Burnet’s phage research shaped his scientific style.Neeraja Sankaran - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (4):367-375.
    The Australian scientist Frank Macfarlane Burnet—winner of the Nobel Prize in 1960 for his contributions to the understanding of immunological tolerance—is perhaps best recognized as one of the formulators of the clonal selection theory of antibody production, widely regarded as the ‘central dogma’ of modern immunology. His work in studies in animal virology, particularly the influenza virus, and rickettsial diseases is also well known. Somewhat less known and publicized is Burnet’s research on bacteriophages, which he conducted in the first decade (...)
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  2.  19
    When viruses were not in style: Parallels in the histories of chicken sarcoma viruses and bacteriophages.Neeraja Sankaran - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 48:189-199.
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  3.  64
    Mutant Bacteriophages, Frank Macfarlane Burnet, and the Changing Nature of "Genespeak" in the 1930s.Neeraja Sankaran - 2010 - Journal of the History of Biology 43 (3):571 - 599.
    In 1936, Frank Macfarlane Burnet published a paper entitled "Induced lysogenicity and the mutation of bacteriophage within lysogenic bacteria," in which he demonstrated that the introduction of a specific bacteriophage into a bacterial strain consistently and repeatedly imparted a specific property – namely the resistance to a different phage – to the bacterial strain that was originally susceptible to lysis by that second phage. Burnet's explanation for this change was that the first phage was causing a mutation in the bacterium (...)
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  4.  34
    The bacteriophage, its role in immunology: how Macfarlane Burnet’s phage research shaped his scientific style.Neeraja Sankaran - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (4):367-375.
  5.  26
    How Seeing Became Knowing: The Role of the Electron Microscope in Shaping the Modern Definition of Viruses.Neeraja Sankaran & Ton Helvoort - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (1):125-160.
    This paper examines the vital role played by electron microscopy toward the modern definition of viruses, as formulated in the late 1950s. Before the 1930s viruses could neither be visualized by available technologies nor grown in artificial media. As such they were usually identified by their ability to cause diseases in their hosts and defined in such negative terms as “ultramicroscopic” or invisible infectious agents that could not be cultivated outside living cells. The invention of the electron microscope, with magnification (...)
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  6.  26
    How Seeing Became Knowing: The Role of the Electron Microscope in Shaping the Modern Definition of Viruses.Ton van Helvoort & Neeraja Sankaran - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (1):125-160.
    This paper examines the vital role played by electron microscopy toward the modern definition of viruses, as formulated in the late 1950s. Before the 1930s viruses could neither be visualized by available technologies nor grown in artificial media. As such they were usually identified by their ability to cause diseases in their hosts and defined in such negative terms as “ultramicroscopic” or invisible infectious agents that could not be cultivated outside living cells. The invention of the electron microscope, with magnification (...)
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  7.  19
    Mutant Bacteriophages, Frank Macfarlane Burnet, and the Changing Nature of “Genespeak” in the 1930s.Neeraja Sankaran - 2010 - Journal of the History of Biology 43 (3):571-599.
    In 1936, Frank Macfarlane Burnet published a paper entitled “Induced lysogenicity and the mutation of bacteriophage within lysogenic bacteria,” in which he demonstrated that the introduction of a specific bacteriophage into a bacterial strain consistently and repeatedly imparted a specific property – namely the resistance to a different phage – to the bacterial strain that was originally susceptible to lysis by that second phage. Burnet’s explanation for this change was that the first phage was causing a mutation in the bacterium (...)
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  8.  7
    Scholarship in the Time of COVID-19: An Introduction to the IsisCB Special Issue on Pandemics.Neeraja Sankaran & Stephen P. Weldon - 2023 - Isis 114 (S1):1-5.
  9.  14
    DNA translated: Friedrich Miescher's discovery of nuclein in its original context.Kersten Hall & Neeraja Sankaran - 2021 - British Journal for the History of Science 54 (1):99-107.
    In 1871, the Swiss physiological chemist Friedrich Miescher published the results of a detailed chemical analysis of pus cells, in which he showed that the nuclei of these cells contained a hitherto unknown phosphorus-rich chemical which he named ‘nuclein’ for its specific localisation. Published in German, ‘Ueber Die Chemische Zusammensetzung Der Eiterzellen’, [On the Chemical Composition of Pus Cells]Medicinisch-Chemische Untersuchungen(1871) 4: 441–60, was the first publication to describe DNA, and yet remains relatively obscure. We therefore undertook a translation of the (...)
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  10.  16
    Far from depleted….Neeraja Sankaran - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Science 48 (1):171-174.
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  11.  16
    On the historical significance of Beijerinck and his contagium vivum fluidum for modern virology.Neeraja Sankaran - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (3):41.
    This paper considers the foundational role of the contagium vivum fluidum—first proposed by the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck in 1898—in the history of virology, particularly in shaping the modern virus concept, defined in the 1950s. Investigating the cause of mosaic disease of tobacco, previously shown to be an invisible and filterable entity, Beijerinck concluded that it was neither particulate like the bacteria implicated in certain infectious diseases, nor soluble like the toxins and enzymes responsible for symptoms in others. He offered (...)
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  12.  31
    Pluripotencjalna historia immunologii. Przegląd.Neeraja Sankaran - 2012 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 3 (1).
    [Przekład] W artykule dokonano przeglądu historiografii immunologii od 1999 roku, co w pewnym stopniu jest odpowiedzią na stanowisko takich historyków jak Thomas Söderqvist, którzy twierdzili, że to pole badawcze nie było wówczas dość rozwinięte (Söderqvist i Stillwell). Najpierw wskazano przeszłe i teraźniejsze problemy, które historiografia ma ze zdefiniowaniem immunologii, a następnie skomentowano ostatnie studia nad pojęciem immunologicznego „ja”. W dalszym toku przeglądu przeanalizowano i oceniono nowe publikacje poświęcone zróżnicowanym zagadnieniom immunologii oraz niektóre charakterystyczne oskarżenia formułowane wobec niedostatku pewnych dziedzin historii, (...)
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  13.  9
    A neighbour’s eye view of a science in motion. [REVIEW]Neeraja Sankaran - 2024 - Metascience 33 (1):81-84.
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  14.  19
    A lfred I. T auber, Immunity: the Evolution of an Idea, Oxford University Press, 2017, xx + 303 pp., $72.21. [REVIEW]Neeraja Sankaran - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (2):32.
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  15.  37
    Anthony R. Rees. The Antibody Molecule: From Antitoxins to Therapeutic Antibodies. xvi + 364 pp., figs., illus., tables, index. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. £44.99. [REVIEW]Neeraja Sankaran - 2016 - Isis 107 (4):889-890.
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  16.  12
    Lawrence M. Principe, The Secrets of Alchemy. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2013. Pp. v+281. ISBN 978-0-226-68295-2. £16.00. [REVIEW]Neeraja Sankaran - 2014 - British Journal for the History of Science 47 (2):372-374.
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  17.  25
    Miguel García-Sancho, Biology, Computing, and the History of Molecular Sequencing: From Proteins to DNA, 1945–2000. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. Pp. xiii+242. ISBN 978-0-230-25032-1. £55.00. [REVIEW]Neeraja Sankaran - 2013 - British Journal for the History of Science 46 (3):543-544.
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  18.  19
    Phillip. R. Sloan and Brandon Fogel , Creating a Physical Biology: The Three-Man Paper and Early Molecular Biology. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2011. Pp. ix + 319. ISBN 978-0-226-76783-3. £22.50. [REVIEW]Neeraja Sankaran - 2012 - British Journal for the History of Science 45 (4):694-695.
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  19.  21
    Richard McKay, Patient Zero and the Making of the AIDS Epidemic. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2017. Pp. 400. ISBN 978-0-2260-6400-0. $35.00. [REVIEW]Neeraja Sankaran - 2018 - British Journal for the History of Science 51 (3):536-538.
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  20.  8
    David Cantor and Edmund Ramsden , Stress, Shock, and Adaptation in the Twentieth Century. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2014. Pp. vii + 367. ISBN: 978-1580464765. $125.00. [REVIEW]Neeraja Sankaran - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Science 48 (4):709-710.
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