Results for 'Natural Theology'

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  1. Negative Natural Theology and the Sinlessness, Incarnation, and Resurrection of Jesus.Robert Greg Cavin & Carlos A. Colombetti - 2014 - Philosophia Christi 16 (2):409-418.
    We respond to Swinburne’s reply to our critique of his argument for the Resurrection by defending the relevance of our counterexamples to his claim that God does not permit grand deception. We reaffirm and clarify our charge that Swinburne ignores two crucial items of Negative Natural Theology (NNT)—that God has an exceptionally weak tendency to raise the dead and that even people with exemplary public records sometimes sin. We show, accordingly, that our total evidence makes it highly probable (...)
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  2. Natural Theology.William Paley - 1802 - In Elizabeth Schmidt Radcliffe, Richard McCarty, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Late Modern Philosophy: Essential Readings with Commentary. Blackwell.
  3. A Natural History of Natural Theology: The Cognitive Science of Theology and Philosophy of Religion.Helen De Cruz & Johan De Smedt - 2015 - MIT Press.
    [from the publisher's website] Questions about the existence and attributes of God form the subject matter of natural theology, which seeks to gain knowledge of the divine by relying on reason and experience of the world. Arguments in natural theology rely largely on intuitions and inferences that seem natural to us, occurring spontaneously—at the sight of a beautiful landscape, perhaps, or in wonderment at the complexity of the cosmos—even to a nonphilosopher. In this book, Helen (...)
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  4. Natural Theology and Religious Belief.Max Baker-Hytch - forthcoming - In Jonathan Fuqua, Tyler Dalton McNabb & John Greco (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Religious Epistemology. Cambridge, UK:
    It is no exaggeration to say that there has been an explosion of activity in the field of philosophical enquiry that is known as natural theology. Having been smothered in the early part of the twentieth century due to the dominance of the anti-metaphysical doctrine of logical positivism, natural theology began to make a comeback in the late 1950s as logical positivism collapsed and analytic philosophers took a newfound interest in metaphysical topics such as possibility and (...)
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  5.  48
    A Perspective on Natural Theology From Continental Philosophy.Avoidance of Natural Theology - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up.
  6.  35
    Postmodernism and Natural Theology.of Natural Theology - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up.
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  7. Natural Theology, Evidence, and Epistemic Humility.Trent Dougherty & Brandon Rickabaugh - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9 (2):19-42.
    One not infrequently hears rumors that the robust practice of natural theology reeks of epistemic pride. Paul Moser’s is a paradigm of such contempt. In this paper we defend the robust practice of natural theology from the charge of epistemic pride. In taking an essentially Thomistic approach, we argue that the evidence of natural theology should be understood as a species of God’s general self-revelation. Thus, an honest assessment of that evidence need not be (...)
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  8. The Enduring Appeal of Natural Theological Arguments.Helen De Cruz - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 9 (2):145-153.
    Natural theology is the branch of theology and philosophy that attempts to gain knowledge of God through non-revealed sources. In a narrower sense, natural theology is the discipline that presents rational arguments for the existence of God. Given that these arguments rarely directly persuade those who are not convinced by their conclusions, why do they enjoy an enduring appeal? This article examines two reasons for the continuing popularity of natural theological arguments: (i) they appeal (...)
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  9.  37
    Natural Theology and the Plurality of Worlds: Observations on the Brewster-Whewell Debate.John Hedley Brooke - 1977 - Annals of Science 34 (3):221-286.
    Summary The object of this study is to analyse certain aspects of the debate between David Brewster and William Whewell concerning the probability of extra-terrestrial life, in order to illustrate the nature, constitution and condition of natural theology in the decades immediately preceding the publication in 1859 of Charles Darwin's Origin of species. The argument is directed against a stylised picture of natural theology which has been drawn from a backward projection of the Darwinian antithesis between (...)
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  10.  19
    William Whewell, Natural Theology and the Philosophy of Science in Mid Nineteenth Century Britain.Richard R. Yeo - 1979 - Annals of Science 36 (5):493-516.
    (1979). William Whewell, natural theology and the philosophy of science in mid nineteenth century Britain. Annals of Science: Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 493-516.
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  11.  27
    Natural Theology in Evolution: A Review of Critiques and Changes. [REVIEW]Rope Kojonen - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9 (2):83-117.
    The purpose of this article is to provide a broad overview and analysis of the evolution of natural theology in response to influential critiques raised against it. I identify eight main lines of critique against natural theology, and analyze how the defenders of different types of natural theology differ in their responses to these critiques, leading into several very different forms of natural theology. Based on the amount and quality of discussion that (...)
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  12.  7
    The Natural Theology of Nicholas Bonetus.Garrett Smith - 2021 - Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 4:642-667.
    This contribution investigates the first treatise on natural theology intended as such by its author. Nicholas Bonetus is the author of this treatise. The article examines Bonetus' life, works, and commitment to Scotism before surveying Duns Scotus' views on natural theology. Scotus is shown to have been optimistic regarding whether some doctrines now regarded to be strictly theological, such as the Trinity, can be proven by pure reason. Bonetus followed in Scotus' footsteps. The article surveys Bonetus' (...)
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  13.  22
    Natural Theology and the Evidence for God.Paul K. Moser - 2012 - Philosophia Christi 14 (2):305-311.
    This essay replies to the responses of Harold Netland, Charles Taliaferro, and Kate Waidler to my symposium paper, “Gethsemane Epistemology.” It contends that a God worthy of worship would not need the arguments of traditional natural theology, and that such arguments would not lead to such a God in the way desired by God. In addition, it explains why Paul’s position in Romans 1 offers no support to the arguments of traditional natural theology.
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  14. Natural Theology and the Uses of Argument.John M. DePoe & Timothy J. McGrew - 2013 - Philosophia Christi 15 (2):299-309.
    Arguments in natural theology have recently increased in their number and level of sophistication. However, there has not been much analysis of the ways in which these arguments should be evaluated as good, taken collectively or individually. After providing an overview of some proposed goals and good-making criteria for arguments in natural theology, we provide an analysis that stands as a corrective to some of the ill-formed standards that are currently in circulation. Specifically, our analysis focuses (...)
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  15.  33
    Natural Theology and Literature.Guy Bennett-Hunter - 2013 - In Russell Re Manning John Hedley Brooke & Fraser Watts (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford University Press.
    In this chapter, I hope to show, by referring to two specific literary examples, that works of literature can demonstrate the possibility of Natural Theology and can prompt their readers’ thinking along Natural Theological lines by allowing them to have experiences which mirror the structure of those dealt with by Natural Theology.
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  16.  26
    A Natural Theology for Our Time.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1967 - Philosophical Review 78 (1):129-131.
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  17. Natural Theology in St. Thomas's Early Doctrine of Truth.Michael M. Waddell - 2004 - Sapientia 59 (215):5-21.
    The role of natural theology in St. Thomas Aquinas's early doctrine of (transcendental) trut, especially in question one of Aquinas's "Disputed Questions on Truth (De veritate).
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  18. Natural Theology.Graham Oppy - 2007 - In Deane-Peter Baker (ed.), Alvin Plantinga: Contemporary Philosophy in Focus. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 15-47.
    This paper is a careful examination of the various approaches that Alvin Plantinga has taken towards natural theology over the course of his academic career (from *God and Other Minds* to *Warranted Christian Belief*). In his earliest works, Plantinga has a very clear and strict conception of the project of natural theology, and he argues very clearly (and correctly) that that project fails. In his middle works, Plantinga has a tolerably clear and slightly less strict conception (...)
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  19.  2
    Turning Points in Natural Theology From Bacon to Darwin: The Way of the Argument From Design.Stuart Peterfreund - 2012 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    The last three decades have witnessed a heated debate of the merits of intelligent design (ID) as a way to understand a number of observable natural phenomena. The present dispute has its roots in a much older discussion: that of natural theology, which has always had as its goal the discernment of design(s) attributable to God in the natural world. Despite its ongoing relevance, natural theology does not have a coherent scholarly history. Turning Points (...)
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  20.  22
    Natural Theology: A Recent History.Olli-Pekka Vainio - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9 (2):1-18.
    This article tells the story of Christian natural theology from the late 18th century to our own time by locating the key moments and thinkers, who have shaped how natural theology has been practiced in the past and how it is now being re-assessed and developed. I will summarize certain key elements that unite all forms of natural theology and assess briefly two basic criticisms of natural theology.
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  21. Simplicity and Natural Theology.Paul Draper - 2016 - In Michael Bergmann & Jeffrey E. Brower (eds.), Reason and Faith: Themes From Swinburne. Oxford, UK: pp. 48-63.
    My project is to examine and critically discuss the role of simplicity in Swinburne’s probabilistic natural theology. After describing that role and the details of his theory of simplicity, I challenge Swinburne’s view that the criterion of simplicity is a fundamental criterion for evaluating causal explanations, proposing instead that what is right about that criterion can be derived from a more fundamental criterion of “coherence.” I close by exploring the implications of my proposal for Swinburne’s natural (...). (shrink)
     
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  22.  35
    The Uses of Natural Theology in Seventeenth-Century England.Scott Mandelbrote - 2007 - Science in Context 20 (3):451-480.
    This essay describes two styles of natural theology that emerged in England out of a debate over the correct interpretation of divine evidences in nature during the seventeenth century. The first style was exemplified in the work of John Wilkins and Robert Boyle. It stressed the lawful operation of the universe under a providential order. The second, embodied in the writings of the Cambridge Platonists, was more open to evidence for the wondrousness of nature provided by the marvelous (...)
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  23.  59
    Natural Theology in the Middle Ages.Alexander W. Hall - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up. pp. 350--57.
    The development of natural theology in the Middle Ages was driven by the rebirth experienced by Western Europe beginning in the 1000s owing to the emergence of stable monarchies and reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula. This expansion gave scholars access to the vast libraries of scientific and philosophical literature held in Arabic cultural centres – libraries that contained Aristotelian works on natural, ethical, and metaphysical sciences, which had for centuries been lost to the Latin West. The new (...)
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  24.  1
    The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology.Russell Re Manning (ed.) - 2013 - Oxford University Press UK.
    The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology is the first collection to consider the full breadth of natural theology from both historical and contemporary perspectives and to bring together leading scholars to offer accessible high-level accounts of the major themes. The volume embodies and develops the recent revival of interest in natural theology as a topic of serious critical engagement. Frequently misunderstood or polemicized, natural theology is an under-studied yet persistent and pervasive presence (...)
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  25.  31
    Natural Theology: The Biological Sciences.Michael Ruse - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up. pp. 397.
    This chapter demonstrates the significance of the biological sciences in natural theology. It does so by considering three major topics: the argument from design, the problem of evil, and the place of humans in the cosmic scheme of things. In the light of modern biology, specifically modern Darwinian evolutionary theory, there is little support for definitive proofs of the nature and existence of the Christian God. However, notwithstanding arguments to the contrary, there is nothing in modern Darwinian evolutionary (...)
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  26.  51
    Natural Theology and the Eastern Orthodox Tradition.Christopher C. Knight - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up. pp. 213.
    This chapter examines Eastern Orthodox perspectives on natural theology. The discussions cover the classical roots Orthodox understanding of knowledge of God; worship and eschatology; creation and the limits of natural theology; panentheism and the structure of theophany; and science and theology in Orthodoxy.
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  27.  30
    God and Goodness: A Natural Theological Perspective.Mark Wynn - 1999 - Routledge.
    God and Goodness takes the experience of value as a starting point for natural theology. Mark Wynn argues that theism offers our best understanding of the goodness of the world, especially its beauty and openness to the development of richer and more complex material forms. We also see that the world's goodness calls for a moral response: commitment to the goodness of the world represents a natural extension of the trust to which we aspire in our dealings (...)
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  28.  98
    Natural Theology and Miracles: In Defense of Spectator Evidence.Steven Merle Duncan - manuscript
    I mostly agree with most of what Paul Moser has said in his books in the Philosophy of Religion. The views he has defended are a needed corrective to the evidentialist paradigm in the philosophy of religion. At the same time, his development of his central ideas has resulted in views that are, somewhat idiosyncratic and extreme. In this essay I hope to present a different articulation of those ideas, also defensible from within a Christian perspective, that preserves their central (...)
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  29.  8
    The Natural Theology of Beauty, and the Glory of Love.Peter Forrest - forthcoming - Sophia:1-17.
    In this paper, I present a piece of natural theology, whose pro tanto conclusion is the existence of god-the-artist, that is a lower case “g” god, a creator who creates for the sake of beauty, but who is not worthy of worship, a god who can be admired but should not be loved. I then consider some only partially successful responses to this dismal conclusion. Finally, I show to reconcile the idea of a god motivated by love of (...)
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  30.  9
    What is Natural Theology?Peter Harrison - 2022 - Zygon 57 (1):114-140.
    Zygon®, Volume 57, Issue 1, Page 114-140, March 2022.
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  31.  22
    Natural Theology in Eastern Religions.Iessica Frazier - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up. pp. 166.
    This chapter examines natural theology perspectives from Eastern religions. It begins by exploring the possibility of a broader definition of ‘natural theology’ that encompasses the various forms it takes outside the Abrahamic religions. The chapter then considers the ways in which Eastern natural theologies can offer answers to Western questions, by focusing on Hindu approaches to the causal argument. Hindu conceptions of the divine provide a glimpse of what the options would be if the West (...)
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  32.  22
    Natural Theology In an Ecological Mode.Mark Wynn - 1999 - Faith and Philosophy 16 (1):27-42.
    The paper considers the possibility of an alliance between natural theologians and environmental ethicists in so far as both uphold the goodness of the natural world. Specifically, it examines whether the work of Holmes Rolston III can contribute towards the natural theologian’s treatment of two issues: the nature and extent of the world’s goodness, and the reasons why we may fail to register its goodness fully. The paper argues that the holism and non-anthropocentrism of Rolston’s work throw (...)
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  33.  1
    Ramified Natural Theology in Science and Religion: Moving Forward From Natural Theology.Rodney Holder - 2020 - Routledge.
    This book offers a rationale for a new 'ramified natural theology' that is in dialogue with both science and historical-critical study of the Bible. Traditionally, knowledge of God has been seen to come from two sources, nature and revelation. However, a rigid separation between these sources cannot be maintained, since what purports to be revelation cannot be accepted without qualification: rational argument is needed to infer both the existence of God from nature and the particular truth claims of (...)
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  34.  4
    A Christian Natural Theology: Based on the Thought of Alfred North Whitehead.John B. Cobb - 1965 - Philadelphia: Westminster Press.
  35. Natural Theology, Logic, Ethics, History of Philosophy.Cardinal Mercier - 2013 - Editiones Scholasticae.
    Cardinal Mercier’s Manual of Modern Scholastic Philosophy is a standard work, prepared at the Higher Institute of Philosophy, Louvain, mainly for the use of clerical students in Catholic Seminaries. Though undoubtedly elementary, it contains a clear, simple, and methodological exposition of the principles and problems of every department of philosophy, and its appeal is not to any particular class, but broadly human and universal. Volume II contains sections on natural theology, logic, ethics and outlines of the history of (...)
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  36.  67
    Natural Theology, Its “Dwindling Probabilities” and “Lack of Rapport”.Richard Swinburne - 2004 - Faith and Philosophy 21 (4):533 - 546.
    This paper comments on the other papers in this special issue of ’Faith and Philosophy’ on natural theology. It claims that most people today need both bare natural theology (to show that there is a God) and ramified natural theology (to establish detailed doctrinal claims), and that Christian tradition has generally claimed that cogent arguments of natural theology (of both kinds) are available. Plantinga’s "dwindling probabilities" objection against ramified natural theology (...)
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  37.  44
    Natural Theology and Epistemic Justification.Sebastian Rehnman - 2010 - Heythrop Journal 51 (6):1017-1022.
    First it is argued that the linkage of natural theology to epistemology is invalid historically, epistemologically and metaphysically. Second it is argued that knowledge claims about the ultimate cause of everything should be evaluated not in terms of justified true belief but in terms of the intellectual virtue of wisdom.
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  38. Natural Theology, Religious Experience, and the Reference of 'God'.Mark Owen Webb - 1991 - Dissertation, Syracuse University
    Even if an argument from religious experience can show that the subjects of religious experience are in contact with something which can justifiedly be named 'God', this does not settle the matter because, 'God' has a use other than its use as a proper name, in which use the term had descriptive content. To be of interest to Natural Theology, the argument from religious experience must show that the object of religious experience has the properties associated with the (...)
     
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  39. The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology.William Lane Craig & J. P. Moreland (eds.) - 2009 - Wiley-Blackwell.
  40. Natural Theology in the Institutions de Physique.Stephen Harrop - forthcoming - In The Bloomsbury Companion to Du Châtelet. Bloomsbury.
    The second chapter of Émilie du Châtelet's work Institutions de Physique focuses on natural theology -- that is, on questions of the rational demonstrability of the existence and nature of God. This chapter has three parts. The first examines du Châtelet's relation to three of her possible influences on the subject: Leibniz, Wolff, and Locke. The second examines her cosmological argument, and argues that though it bears marked resemblances to similar arguments offered by her three predecessors, it contains (...)
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  41.  65
    Protestant Perspectives on Natural Theology.Russell Re Manning - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up.
    This chapter examines the simultaneous rejection and endorsement of natural theology within Protestantism, focusing on two contentious issues representing the tensions within Protestant perspectives on natural theology. Firstly, it considers the historical theological question of the attitude to natural theology amongst the Reformers and the post-Reformation Protestant Orthodoxy. The chapter engages with the established consensus that the increasingly positive evaluation of the possibility and value of natural theology within Protestant Orthodoxy represents a (...)
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  42. Natural Theology and the Sciences.J. R. Topham - 2010 - In Peter Harrison (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Science and Religion. Cambridge University Press. pp. 59--79.
     
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  43.  28
    Natural Theology and the Mind Sciences.Fraser Watts - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up. pp. 475.
    This chapter, which discusses how the mind sciences can be used in natural theology, identifies two aspects of human mental functioning to consider from a theological point of view. First, there is the theological significance of the general capacity for advanced mental functioning found in humans. Second, there is the theological significance of particular human capacities such as religion.
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  44.  2
    Ramified Natural Theology in the Context of Interdenominational Debate.Travis Dumsday - 2013 - Philosophia Christi 15 (2):329-335.
    “Ramified natural theology” can be defined as natural theology employed in the service not of general theism but of some particular theistic tradition. Examples of ramified natural theology in the Christian tradition include Anselm’s philosophical arguments for the incarnation, Pascal’s use of biblical prophecy to defend the deity of Christ, the use of contemporary miracle reports to substantiate the efficacy of prayer to Christ, and so forth. In the Christian context we normally think of (...)
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  45.  13
    A Natural Theology for Our Time. [REVIEW]J. B. R. - 1968 - Review of Metaphysics 22 (1):146-146.
    Based on the 1964 Morse Lectures delivered at the Union Theological Seminary, this brief volume provides the best introduction to Hartshorne's defense of natural theology and the distinctive themes that he has developed in exploring religious and theological matters. Once again he calls for throwing off the intellectual chains in which the Aristotelian, so-called Platonic and neo-Platonic influences have confined theological discussion and for repudiating the claims of Hume and Kant concerning natural theology. Whether discussing the (...)
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  46. Early Lutheranism and Natural Theology.Juuso Loikkanen - 2015 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 37 (2):173-186.
    Natural theology can be defined as an attempt of proving the existence of God through the observation of the natural world and the use of reason, without appealing to divine revelation. Many theologians seem to think that early Lutheranism completely rejected the possibility of natural theology, based largely on the view of Luther himself that the human nature has been totally corrupted by sin and can only learn to know God through faith. It was, however, (...)
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  47. Natural Theology: The Metaphysics of God.J. F. ANDERSON - 1962
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  48.  21
    Natural Theology in the Patristic Period.Wayne Hankey - 2013 - In J. H. Brooke, F. Watts & R. R. Manning (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford Up. pp. 38.
    This chapter considers the different forms of natural theology in the Patristic Period, first examining the Stoic Middle Platonism of Philo Judaeus and Josephus. In Philo – uniting Plato's and Moses' genesis, and thus connecting God, the cosmos, and the human in the opposite way to the one taken by Lucretius in his De Rerum Natura – we encounter most of the forms natural theology took in the period. We find not only that there is no (...)
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  49.  42
    Preparation for Natural Theology: With Kant’s Notes and the Danzig Rational Theology Transcript.Courtney Fugate, John Hymers, Johann August Eberhard & Immanuel Kant - 2016 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    Designed as a textbook for use in courses on natural theology and used by Immanuel Kant as the basis for his Lectures on The Philosophical Doctrine of Religion, Johan August Eberhard's Preparation for Natural Theology (1781) is now available in English for the first time. -/- With a strong focus on the various intellectual debates and historically significant texts in late renaissance and early modern theology, Preparation for Natural Theology influenced the way Kant (...)
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  50.  3
    Muslim Natural Theology Fights Back.Richard Shumack - 2016 - Philosophia Christi 18 (1):207-219.
    Richard Swinburne and Robert Larmer have offered different natural theological arguments for preferring Christian belief over Muslim belief. This paper argues that both arguments are vulnerable to real and imagined Muslim objections and that, while both can be bolstered against such objections, Larmer’s argument from miracle has much better prospects. Swinburne’s probabilistic argument suffers the lack of a strong natural theological argument for the Christian model of divine–human interaction. The argument from miracle, however, can be formulated robustly enough (...)
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