Results for 'Nathaniel Ashby'

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  1.  28
    Conscious and unconscious thought in risky choice: testing the capacity principle and the appropriate weighting principle of unconscious thought theory.Nathaniel Ashby - 2011 - Frontiers in Psychology 2.
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  2.  7
    The impact of experience on decisions based on pre-choice samples and the face-or-cue hypothesis.Ido Erev, Ofir Yakobi, Nathaniel J. S. Ashby & Nick Chater - 2022 - Theory and Decision 92 (3-4):583-598.
    The growing literature on how people learn to make decisions based on experience focuses on two types of paradigms. In one paradigm, people are faced with a choice, and must retrospectively consult past experience of similar choices to decide what to do. In the other paradigm, people are faced with a choice, and then have the opportunity prospectively to gather new experiences that might help them make that choice. The current paper examines the joint impact of both retrospective and prospective (...)
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  3. An introduction to cybernetics.William Ross Ashby - 1956 - London: Chapman & Hall.
    2015 Reprint of 1956 Printing. Full facsimile of the original edition. Not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. Cybernetics is here defined as "the science of control and communication, in the animal and the machine"-in a word, as the art of steersmanship; and this book will interest all who are interested in cybernetics, communication theory and methods for regulation and control. W. Ross Ashby (1903-1972) was an English psychiatrist and a pioneer in cybernetics, the study of complex systems. His two (...)
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  4.  74
    An introduction to cybernetics.W. Ross Ashby - 1956 - New York,: J. Wiley.
    We must, therefore, make a study of mechanism; but some introduction is advisable, for cybernetics treats the subject from a new, and therefore unusual, ...
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  5.  24
    “The Danger of Words”: Language Games in Bioethics.Michael A. Ashby - 2023 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 20 (1):1-5.
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  6.  20
    A neuropsychological theory of multiple systems in category learning.F. Gregory Ashby, Leola A. Alfonso-Reese, And U. Turken & Elliott M. Waldron - 1998 - Psychological Review 105 (3):442-481.
  7.  20
    An Important Inscription relating to the Social War.Thomas Ashby - 1909 - The Classical Review 23 (05):158-159.
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  8.  22
    The Power of Knowledge, Responses to Change, and the Gymnastics of Causation.Michael A. Ashby & Bronwen Morrell - 2018 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 15 (1):1-4.
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  9.  52
    The influence of depression symptoms on exploratory decision-making.Nathaniel J. Blanco, A. Ross Otto, W. Todd Maddox, Christopher G. Beevers & Bradley C. Love - 2013 - Cognition 129 (3):563-568.
  10. Predicting and Preferring.Nathaniel Sharadin - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    The use of machine learning, or “artificial intelligence” (AI) in medicine is widespread and growing. In this paper, I focus on a specific proposed clinical application of AI: using models to predict incapacitated patients’ treatment preferences. Drawing on results from machine learning, I argue this proposal faces a special moral problem. Machine learning researchers owe us assurance on this front before experimental research can proceed. In my conclusion I connect this concern to broader issues in AI safety.
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  11. A Partial Defense of Permissivism.Nathaniel Sharadin - 2015 - Ratio 28 (2):57-71.
    Permissivism is the view that sometimes an agent's total evidential state entails both that she is epistemically permitted to believe that P and that she is epistemically permitted to believe that Q, where P and Q are contradictories. Uniqueness is the denial of Permissivism. Permissivism has recently come under attack on several fronts. If these attacks are successful, then we may be forced to accept an unwelcome asymmetry between epistemic and practical rationality. In this essay I clarify the debate by (...)
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  12.  17
    A neurobiological theory of automaticity in perceptual categorization.F. Gregory Ashby, John M. Ennis & Brian J. Spiering - 2007 - Psychological Review 114 (3):632-656.
  13.  13
    Deriving exact predictions from the cascade model.F. Gregory Ashby - 1982 - Psychological Review 89 (5):599-607.
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  14. The deformation of plastically non-homogeneous materials.M. F. Ashby - 1970 - Philosophical Magazine 21 (170):399-424.
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  15. Design for a Brain.W. Ross Ashby - 1953 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 4 (14):169-173.
     
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  16.  51
    Diffraction contrast from spherically symmetrical coherency strains.M. F. Ashby & L. M. Brown - 1963 - Philosophical Magazine 8 (91):1083-1103.
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  17.  96
    Epistemic Instrumentalism Explained.Nathaniel P. Sharadin - 2023 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    Do epistemic requirements vary along with facts about what promotes agents' well-being? Epistemic instrumentalists say 'yes', and thereby earn a lot of contempt. This contempt is a mistake on two counts. First, it is incorrectly based: the reasons typically given for it are misguided. Second, it fails to distinguish between first- and second-order epistemic instrumentalism; and, it happens, only the former is contemptible. -/- In this book, Nathaniel P. Sharadin argues for rejecting epistemic instrumentalism as a first-order view not (...)
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  18.  15
    Euclid and His Twentieth Century Rivals: Diagrams in the Logic of Euclidean Geometry.Nathaniel Miller - 2007 - Center for the Study of Language and Inf.
    Twentieth-century developments in logic and mathematics have led many people to view Euclid’s proofs as inherently informal, especially due to the use of diagrams in proofs. In _Euclid and His Twentieth-Century Rivals_, Nathaniel Miller discusses the history of diagrams in Euclidean Geometry, develops a formal system for working with them, and concludes that they can indeed be used rigorously. Miller also introduces a diagrammatic computer proof system, based on this formal system. This volume will be of interest to mathematicians, (...)
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  19.  80
    Cortical and basal ganglia contributions to habit learning and automaticity.F. Gregory Ashby, Benjamin O. Turner & Jon C. Horvitz - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (5):208.
  20. Decision rules in the perception and categorization of multidimensional stimuli.Fg Ashby & Re Gott - 1987 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 25 (5):333-333.
     
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  21.  81
    The effect of word predictability on reading time is logarithmic.Nathaniel J. Smith & Roger Levy - 2013 - Cognition 128 (3):302-319.
  22.  11
    Toward a unified theory of similarity and recognition.F. Gregory Ashby & Nancy A. Perrin - 1988 - Psychological Review 95 (1):124-150.
  23.  29
    Fusion Philosophy and Epistemic Injustice.Ashby Butnor - 2024 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 51 (1):16-31.
    I use the concept of epistemic injustice to think through the practice and methodology of comparative, or “fusion,” philosophy. I make two related claims: 1) the philosophical ethnocentrism displayed by academic departments in the U.S. is a case of epistemic injustice, primarily willful ignorance, that ought to be rectified; 2) the corrective to this problem, namely, fusion philosophy, is itself epistemically problematic in its tendency toward ontological expansiveness, that is, an unjustified claim to all traditions as one’s own. In the (...)
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  24.  30
    On diffraction contrast from inclusions.M. F. Ashby & L. M. Brown - 1963 - Philosophical Magazine 8 (94):1649-1676.
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  25. Induction, prediction, and decision-making in cybernetic systems.W. Ross Ashby - 1963 - In Henry Ely Kyburg & Ernest Nagel (eds.), Induction: some current issues. Middletown, Conn.,: Wesleyan University Press. pp. 55--66.
  26.  3
    Nancy Crick, assistance to die and palliative care.Michael Ashby - 2002 - Monash Bioethics Review 21 (3):12-14.
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  27. Principles of the Self-Organizing Dynamic System.W. Ross Ashby - 1947 - Journal of General Psychology 37:125--128.
     
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  28. Schroeder on the Wrong Kind of Reasons Problem for Attitudes.Nathaniel Sharadin - 2013 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 7 (3):1-8.
    Mark Schroeder has recently offered a solution to the problem of distinguishing between the so-called " right " and " wrong " kinds of reasons for attitudes like belief and admiration. Schroeder tries out two different strategies for making his solution work: the alethic strategy and the background-facts strategy. In this paper I argue that neither of Schroeder's two strategies will do the trick. We are still left with the problem of distinguishing the right from the wrong kinds of reasons.
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  29. Triangulation, untranslatability, and reconciliation.Nathaniel Goldberg - 2009 - Philosophia 37 (2):261-280.
    Donald Davidson used triangulation to do everything from explicate psychological and semantic externalism, to attack relativism and skepticism, to propose conditions necessary for thought and talk. At one point Davidson tried to bring order to these remarks by identifying three kinds of triangulation, each operative in a different situation. Here I take seriously Davidson’s talk of triangular situations and extend it. I start by describing Davidson’s situations. Next I establish the surprising result that considerations from one situation entail the possibility (...)
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  30. A response-time theory of separability and integrality in speeded classification.Fg Ashby & Wt Maddox - 1991 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (6):497-497.
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  31.  17
    Recovering Aquinas's Common-Good-Oriented Right of Rebellion.Nathaniel A. Moats - 2023 - Nova et Vetera 21 (1):175-215.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Recovering Aquinas's Common-Good-Oriented Right of RebellionNathaniel A. MoatsIntroductionAs recent events have woefully displayed, armed rebellion is not a topic of merely theoretical interest.1 While theory seemingly has very little impact on the citizens participating in armed rebellions, theory still remains of paramount importance, providing crucial criteria to evaluate, restrain, apply, and respond to such force. Criteria such as legitimate authority, just cause, right intention, necessity, proportionality, and likelihood of (...)
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  32.  93
    Morality First?Nathaniel Sharadin - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-13.
    The Morality First strategy for developing AI systems that can represent and respond to human values aims to first develop systems that can represent and respond to moral values. I argue that Morality First and other X-First views are unmotivated. Moreover, according to some widely accepted philosophical views about value, these strategies are positively distorting. The natural alternative, according to which no domain of value comes “first” introduces a new set of challenges and highlights an important but otherwise obscured problem (...)
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  33.  89
    Color adjectives and radical contextualism.Nathaniel Hansen - 2011 - Linguistics and Philosophy 34 (3):201 - 221.
    Radical contextualists have observed that the content of what is said by the utterance of a sentence is shaped in far-reaching ways by the context of utterance. And they have argued that the ways in which the content of what is said is shaped by context cannot be explained by semantic theory. A striking number of the examples that radical contextualists use to support their view involve sentences containing color adjectives ("red", "green", etc.). In this paper, I show how the (...)
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  34.  31
    A neuropsychological theory of positive affect and its influence on cognition.F. Gregory Ashby, Alice M. Isen & And U. Turken - 1999 - Psychological Review 106 (3):529-550.
  35.  58
    Epistemic feelings, metacognition, and the Lima problem.Nathaniel Greely - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):6803-6825.
    Epistemic feelings like tip-of-the-tongue experiences, feelings of knowing, and feelings of confidence tell us when a memory can be recalled and when a judgment was correct. Thus, they appear to be a form of metacognition, but a curious one: they tell us about content we cannot access, and the information is supplied by a feeling. Evaluativism is the claim that epistemic feelings are components of a distinct, primitive metacognitive mechanism that operates on its own set of inputs. These inputs are (...)
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  36. The Principle of Charity.Nathaniel Goldberg - 2004 - Dialogue 43 (4):671-683.
    RésuméLa parution récente du troisième recueil d'articles de Donald Davidson, lequel devrait être suivi de deux autres, incite à examiner les thèmes qui traversent tousses travaux. Parmices thèmes se trouve leprincipe de charité. Considerant tout le parti que Davidson a tiré du PC, je me propose d'en faire un examen attentif. Dans la première partie, j'examine diverses formulations du PC par Davidson. Dans la seconde partie, je montre que la formulation qu'exigent ses travaux d'epistémologie est intenable étant donné ce qu'il (...)
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  37.  19
    A Lost Idyll of Connection?Michael Ashby - 2021 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 18 (4):537-540.
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  38.  25
    “To corecte in any part or alle”: Some Problems in the Transmission of the Middle English La Belle Dame sans Mercy.Ashby Kinch - 2006 - Mediaeval Studies 68 (1):333-350.
  39.  14
    Attentional mechanisms drive systematic exploration in young children.Nathaniel J. Blanco & Vladimir M. Sloutsky - 2020 - Cognition 202 (C):104327.
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  40.  20
    A hippocratic oath for the academic profession.Eric Ashby - 1968 - Minerva 7 (1-2):64-66.
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  41.  15
    Between Usual and Crisis Phases of a Public Health Emergency: The Mediating Role of Contingency Measures.David Alfandre, Virginia Ashby Sharpe, Cynthia Geppert, Mary Beth Foglia, Kenneth Berkowitz, Barbara Chanko & Toby Schonfeld - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (8):4-16.
    Much of the sustained attention on pandemic preparedness has focused on the ethical justification for plans for the “crisis” phase of a surge when, despite augmentation efforts, the demand for life...
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  42.  11
    The future of the nineteenth century idea of a university.Eric Ashby - 1967 - Minerva 6 (1):3-17.
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  43.  79
    Nothing but the Evidential Considerations?Nathaniel P. Sharadin - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (2):343-361.
    A number of philosophers have claimed that non-evidential considerations cannot play a role in doxastic deliberation as motivating reasons to believe a proposition. This claim, interesting in its own right, naturally lends itself to use in a range of arguments for a wide array of substantive philosophical theses. I argue, by way of a counterexample, that the claim to which all these arguments appeal is false. I then consider, and reply to, seven objections to my counterexample. Finally, as a way (...)
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  44.  35
    Flaws in advance directives that request withdrawing assisted feeding in late-stage dementia may cause premature or prolonged dying.Nathaniel Hinerman, Karl E. Steinberg & Stanley A. Terman - 2022 - BMC Medical Ethics 23 (1):1-26.
    BackgroundThe terminal illness of late-stage Alzheimer’s and related dementias is progressively cruel, burdensome, and can last years if caregivers assist oral feeding and hydrating. Options to avoid prolonged dying are limited since advanced dementia patients cannot qualify for Medical Aid in Dying. Physicians and judges can insist on clear and convincing evidence that the patient wants to die—which many advance directives cannot provide. Proxies/agents’ substituted judgment may not be concordant with patients’ requests. While advance directives can be patients’ last resort (...)
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  45.  25
    Geography, Race and the Malleability of Man: Karl von Baer and the Problem of Academic Particularism in the Russian Human Sciences.Nathaniel Knight - 2017 - Centaurus 59 (1-2):97-121.
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  46.  23
    The Price of Twin Earth.Brandon James Ashby - 2020 - Philosophical Quarterly 70 (281):689-710.
    Liberals about perceptual contents claim that perceptual experiences can represent kinds and specific, familiar individuals as such; they also claim that the representation of an individual or kind as such by a perceptual experience will be reflected in the phenomenal character of that experience. Conservatives always deny the latter and sometimes also the former claim. I argue that neither liberals nor conservatives have adequately appreciated how the content internalism/externalism debate bears on their views. I show that perceptual content internalism entails (...)
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  47. Do principles of reason have objective but indeterminate validity?Nathaniel Jason Goldberg - 2004 - Kant Studien 95 (4):405-425.
    Reason is precariously positioned in the Critique of Pure Reason. The Transcendental Analytic leaves no entry for reason in the cognitive process, and the Transcendental Dialectic restricts reason to noncognitive roles. Yet, in the Appendix to the Transcendental Dialectic, Kant contends that the ideas of reason can be used in empirical investigation and eventually knowledge acquisition. Given what Kant has said, how is this possible? Kant attempts to answer this in A663–A666/B691–B694 in the Appendix, where he argues that principles of (...)
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  48.  10
    XI—Entailment and Modality.R. W. Ashby - 1963 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 63 (1):203-216.
    R. W. Ashby; XI—Entailment and Modality, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Volume 63, Issue 1, 1 June 1963, Pages 203–216, https://doi.org/10.1093/aristo.
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  49.  29
    What Kind of Non-Realism is Fictionalism?Nathaniel Gan - 2024 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 11.
    Fictionalists about a kind of disputed entity aim to give a face-value interpretation of our discourse about those entities without affirming their existence. The fictionalist’s commitment to non-realism leaves open three options regarding their ontological position: they may deny the existence of the disputed entities (anti-realism), remain agnostic regarding their existence (agnosticism), or deny that there are ontological facts of the matter (ontological anti-realism). This paper outlines a method of adjudicating between these options and argues that fictionalists may be expected (...)
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  50.  29
    Signposts in a Familiar Land?: A Second Look at Lingering Bioethical Concerns.Michael A. Ashby & Leigh E. Rich - 2012 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (2):119-124.
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