O profissional de enfermagem figura entre os primeiros que presta os primeiros cuidados as mulheres vítimas de agressões sexuais, necessitando, dessa forma, de competência e sensibilidade para cuidar no âmbito clínico, garantindo a preservação de vestígios da violência e salvaguardar os direitos das vítimas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi evidenciar estudos na literatura científica nacional que enfoquem a assistência de enfermagem em situações de violência sexual contra mulher. Estudo de revisão integrativa de literatura com abordagem quanti-qualitativa, realizada no período (...) de fevereiro a março de 2021. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de busca de estudos bibliográficos disponíveis nas base de dados SciELO, Google Acadêmico e BVS. Foram levantados 24 artigos e após aplicação de critérios de elegibilidade, 11 artigos foram utilizados para análise. O cuidar em enfermagem à mulher vítima de violência sexual leva à compreensão de que a assistência destes profissionais estão centradas, em sua maior parte, no cuidado técnico. Mesmo sendo um dos principais profissionais que cuidam deste tipo de violência, urge a necessidade de um cuidar mais humanizado. Torna-se imprescindível maior atenção a formação permanente e continuada destes profissionais para uma assistência mais efetiva às mulheres vítimas de violência sexual no Brasil. (shrink)
The purpose of study is to explore some new manifestations of the concepts of subjectlessnes and "death of the subject", different from those considered by postmodernism and structuralism, what is its scientific novelty. Among them, quite common is the assessment of some religions as subjectless, especially Islam, supposedly built on the absolute obedience of man to God, where there is no personal active principle. Arguments refuting this point of view are given. Particular attention is drawn to the manifestations of subjectlessnes (...) in the virtual space, where a person loses the features of the integrity of a real subject and acquires new features, breaking up into many avatars that exclude him from cognitive and evaluative discourse. In order to show the features of such virtual non-subjectivity, the author conducts a comparative analysis of the concepts of "knowledge" and "information" and shows that in the latter the "death of the subject" occurs. As a result, it was found that the concept of "subjectlessness" operates not only in literature and art, as postmodernism has shown, but also in other areas of social life and consciousness, including culture, religion, education, and even virtual reality. (shrink)
Struggles for gender justice by women's movements have sought to give legal recognition to gender equality at both national and international levels. However, such society-wide goals may have little resonance in the lives of individual men and women in contexts where a culture of individual rights is weak or missing and the stress is on the moral economy of kinship and community. While empowerment captures the myriad ways in which intended and unintended changes can enhance the ability of individual women (...) to exercise greater control over their own lives, it does not necessarily lead to their engagement in collective struggles for gender justice. This paper argues that ideas about citizenship, as both legal status and potential for action, can help bridge this gulf between institutional and individual change. It draws on empirical research from Afghanistan and Bangladesh to explore the extent to which efforts to empower women by development organisations have also encompassed discourses of citizenship which allow them to articulate, and act on, their vision for a just society. (shrink)
The article describes the main centrist matrix of the study of man: cosmocentrism, theocentrism, anthropocentrism, ratiocentrism, sociocentrism. Their strengths and weaknesses, as well as the limits of applicability, are analyzed. Some ways of overcoming centrist thinking, which is an exclusive, divisive strategy in culture and thinking, are explored. The article substantiates the importance of an inclusive, connective strategy in culture and anthropology, which allows us to find new dimensions of human essence.
Despite a strong sensitization to the corruption problem and a large body of interdisciplinary research, scientists have only rarely investigated which motivational, volitional, emotional, and cognitive components make decision makers in companies act corruptly. Thus, we examined how their interrelation leads to corruption by proposing an action model. We tested the model using a business simulation game with students as participants. Results of the PLS structural equation modeling showed that both an attitude and subjective norm favoring corruption led to a (...) desire to act corruptly. Given high perceived behavioral control, this desire was transformed into an intention that finally resulted in corrupt action. Components related to general private and professional goals did not allow for any prediction. Based on these results, we discuss preventative measures and methods for combating intra- and inter-organizational corruption. (shrink)
We argue that strong moral objections to widespread implementation of uterine transplantation persist despite recent live births following the procedure. These objections relate not only to the serious medical risk to which live donors are currently subject but also to the strength of pronatalistic and biologistic social forces. We explore medical risk in light of various factors and treat questions relating uterine transplantation to gestational surrogacy.
The present study aimed to investigate academic dishonesty among college students in Indonesia, as well as exploring various aspects of morality that may affect academic dishonesty. This study drew upon data obtained from an online survey of 574 students from diploma, undergraduate, and postgraduate levels of study in Indonesia. The data revealed a high prevalence of academic dishonesty in Indonesian college students and indicated that the level of academic dishonesty is affected by gender, college origin, and study level. Regressions confirmed (...) that higher academic dishonesty is associated with lower moral integrity and higher level of moral disengagement, as expected, but not with moral foundations. We also present detailed examinations on the three forms of academic dishonesty and discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. (shrink)
Bd. I/1. Marquard Freher -- Bd. 1/2. Janus Gruter -- Bd. II. David Pareus, Johann Philipp Pareus und Daniel Pareus -- Bd. III. Jacobus Micyllus, Johannes Posthius, Johannes Opsopoeus und Abraham Scultetus.
Der zweite Band des "Corpus Paracelsisticum" erschließt das weitläufige Oeuvre von Michael Toxites und Gerhard Dorn, wirkmächtige Gründergestalten des oberrheinischen Paracelsismus. Von da aus fällt der Blick quer über die Konfessionsgrenzen auf andere kulturelle Zentren in Bayern, Sachsen, Schlesien, Böhmen und am Niederrhein. Mit Verfassern wie G. Fedro, M. Ambrosius, L. Span, B. Flöter, G. Etschenreutter, B. Scultetus, P. Perna, Th. Zwinger und J. Albrecht eröffnet sich ein epochaler, äußerst weitläufiger Diskurszusammenhang. Der Band wird neben dem weiterführenden Kommentar begleitet von (...) einer ausführlichen Einleitung und erschlossen durch mehrere Register sowie wissenschaftshistorische Zusammenfassungen zu jedem Autorcorpus. (shrink)
Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is the mathematical and conceptual framework for contemporary elementary particle physics. In a rather informal sense QFT is the extension of quantum mechanics (QM), dealing with particles, over to fields, i.e. systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom. (See the entry on quantum mechanics.) In the last few years QFT has become a more widely discussed topic in philosophy of science, with questions ranging from methodology and semantics to ontology. QFT taken seriously in its (...) metaphysical implications seems to give a picture of the world which is at variance with central classical conceptions of particles and fields, and even with some features of QM. -/- The following sketches how QFT describes fundamental physics and what the status of QFT is among other theories of physics. Since there is a strong emphasis on those aspects of the theory that are particularly important for interpretive inquiries, it does not replace an introduction to QFT as such. One main group of target readers are philosophers who want to get a first impression of some issues that may be of interest for their own work, another target group are physicists who are interested in a philosophical view upon QFT. (shrink)
We study the algebraic implications of the non-independence property and variants thereof on infinite fields, motivated by the conjecture that all such fields which are neither real closed nor separably closed admit a henselian valuation. Our results mainly focus on Hahn fields and build up on Will Johnson’s “The canonical topology on dp-minimal fields” :1850007, 2018).
Advocates of the New Mechanicism in philosophy of science argue that scientific explanation often consists in describing mechanisms responsible for natural phenomena. Despite its successes, one might think that this approach does not square with the ontological strictures of quantum mechanics. New Mechanists suppose that mechanisms are composed of objects with definite properties, which are interconnected via local causal interactions. Quantum mechanics calls these suppositions into question. Since mechanisms are hierarchical it appears that even macroscopic mechanisms must supervene on a (...) set of “objects” that behave non-classically. In this paper we argue, in part by appeal to the theory of quantum decoherence, that the universal validity of quantum mechanics does not undermine neo-mechanistic ontological and explanatory claims as they occur within in classical domains. Additionally, we argue that by relaxation of certain classical assumptions, mechanistic explanatory strategies can sometimes be carried over into the quantum domain. (shrink)
In 1638, the Jesuit, poet, preacher, and historianJohannes Bisselius published the first volume of his seasonal poem Deliciae Veris, Pleasures of Spring. The subtly composed, stylistically unique cycle is presented here for the first time in a modern edition with a German translation and insightful commentary, including an introduction to each poem.".
Quantum field theory provides the framework for many fundamental theories in modern physics, and over the last few years there has been growing interest in its historical and philosophical foundations. This anthology on the foundations of QFT brings together 15 essays by well-known researchers in physics, the philosophy of physics, and analytic philosophy.Many of these essays were first presented as papers at the conference?Ontological Aspects of Quantum Field Theory?, held at the Zentrum fr interdisziplinre Forschung, Bielefeld, Germany. The essays contain (...) cutting-edge work on ontological aspects of QFT, including: the role of measurement and experimental evidence, corpuscular versus field-theoretic interpretations of QFT, the interpretation of gauge symmetry, and localization.This book is ideally suited to anyone with an interest in the foundations of quantum physics, including physicists, philosophers and historians of physics, as well as general readers interested in philosophy or science. (shrink)
Agent-based models derive the behavior of artificial socio-economic entities computationally from the actions of a large number of agents. One objection is that highly idealized ABMs fail to represent the real world in any reasonable sense. Another objection is that they at best show how observed patterns may have come about, because simulations are easy to produce and there is no evidence that this is really what happens. Moreover, different models may well yield the same result. I will rebut these (...) objections by focusing on an often neglected, but crucial function of ABMs. Building on Gelfert’s account of the exploratory uses of scientific models I show that, in the absence of an accepted underlying theory, successful ABMs lend inductive support to assumptions concerning certain structural feutures of the behavioral rules employed. One core step towards this goal is what I call multiple-model robustness analysis. (shrink)
We propose a new masking technique for masking word stimuli. Drawing on the phenomena of metacontrast and paracontrast, we alternately presented two prime displays of the same word with the background color in one display matching the font color in the other display and vice versa. The sequence of twenty alterations was sandwich-masked by structure masks. Using this masking technique, we conducted evaluative priming experiments with positive and negative target and prime words. Significant priming effects were found – for primes (...) and targets drawn from the same as well as from different word sets. Priming effects were independent of prime discrimination performance in direct tests and they were still significant after the sample was restricted to those participants who showed random responding in the direct test. (shrink)
I argue that algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT) permits an undisturbed view of the right ontology for fundamental physics, whereas standard (or Lagrangian) QFT offers different mutually incompatible ontologies.My claim does not depend on the mathematical inconsistency of standard QFT but on the fact that AQFT has the same concerns as ontology, namely categorical parsimony and a clearly structured hierarchy of entities.
Large changes of financial market prices without exogenous causes deviate significantly from the Gaussian behavior of random variables. This indicates that financial markets should be treated as complex systems, for which nonlinear interactions of its subunits/agents are crucial. I focus on how the complex systems perspective impacts the notion of explanations in economics. The mechanistic model seems to fit the bill, but problems surface on closer scrutiny. One characteristic of complex systems is that their behavior is surprisingly independent from microscopic (...) details. Thus, mechanistic explanations in the microreductionist manner seem unavailable. Despite these conflicts, I defend a modified structural mechanistic approach. (shrink)
Dieses Buch liefert dem Leser eine aktuelle und fundierte Einführung in die Philosophie der Quantenphysik. Obwohl sich die Quantentheorie durch spektakuläre empirische Erfolge auszeichnet, wird bis heute kontrovers diskutiert, wie sie zu verstehen ist. In diesem Werk geben die Autoren einen Überblick über die zahlreichen philosophischen Herausforderungen: Verletzen Quantenobjekte das Prinzip der Kausalität? Sind gleichartige Teilchen ununterscheidbar und daher keine Individuen? Behalten Quantenobjekte in der zeitlichen Entwicklung ihre Identität? Wie verhält sich ein zusammengesetztes Quantensystem zu seinen Teilen? Diese Fragen werden (...) im Rahmen verschiedener Deutungsansätze der Quantentheorie diskutiert. Ein Ausblick in die Quantenfeldtheorie verschärft das Hauptproblem der Nichtlokalität. Philosophie der Quantenphysik richtet sich an Philosophen mit Interesse für Physik, macht Physiker mit den philosophischen Fragen ihres Faches vertraut und liefert Anregungen für den gymnasialen Physik-Unterricht. Das Buch schließt damit eine Lücke zwischen populären Einführungen und spezialisierten Monografien zur Philosophie der Quantenphysik. In der vorliegenden zweiten Auflage wurde das Kapitel zu Verschränkung und Nicht-Lokalität deutlich erweitert und jedes Kapitel mit Übungsaufgaben und Musterlösungen ergänzt. (shrink)
The lexicographic power ΔΓ of chains Δ and Γ is, roughly, the Cartesian power Πγ∈Γ Δ, totally ordered lexicographically from the left. Here the focus is on certain powers in which either Δ = R or Γ = R, with emphasis on when two such powers are isomorphic and on when ΔΓ is 2-homogeneous. The main results are: (1) For a countably infinite ordinal α, Rα* +α ≃ Rα. (2) RR ≄ RQ. (3) For Δ a countable ordinal ≥ 2. (...) ΔR, with its smallest element deleted, is 2-homogeneous. (shrink)
To investigate whether making performance predictions affects prospective memory processing, we asked one group of participants to predict their performance in a PM task embedded in an ongoing task and compared their performance with a control group that made no predictions. A third group gave not only PM predictions but also ongoing-task predictions. Exclusive PM predictions resulted in slower ongoing-task responding both in a nonfocal and in a focal PM task. Only in the nonfocal task was the additional slowing accompanied (...) by improved PM performance. Even in the nonfocal task, however, was the correlation between ongoing-task speed and PM performance reduced after predictions, suggesting that the slowing was not completely functional for PM. Prediction-induced changes could be avoided by asking participants to additionally predict their performance in the ongoing task. In sum, the present findings substantiate a role of metamemory for attention-allocation strategies of PM. (shrink)
We extend the characterization of extremal valued fields given in  to the missing case of valued fields of mixed characteristic with perfect residue field. This leads to a complete characterization of the tame valued fields that are extremal. The key to the proof is a model theoretic result about tame valued fields in mixed characteristic. Further, we prove that in an extremal valued field of finitep-degree, the images of all additive polynomials have the optimal approximation property. This fact can (...) be used to improve the axiom system that is suggested in  for the elementary theory of Laurent series fields over finite fields. Finally we give examples that demonstrate the problems we are facing when we try to characterize the extremal valued fields with imperfect residue fields. To this end, we describe several ways of constructing extremal valued fields; in particular, we show that in every ℵ1saturated valued field the valuation is a composition of extremal valuations of rank 1. (shrink)
In [F.-V. Kuhlmann, S. Kuhlmann, S. Shelah, Exponentiation in power series fields, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 125 3177–3183] it was shown that fields of generalized power series cannot admit an exponential function. In this paper, we construct fields of generalized power series with bounded support which admit an exponential. We give a natural definition of an exponential, which makes these fields into models of real exponentiation. The method allows us to construct for every κ regular uncountable cardinal, 2κ (...) pairwise non-isomorphic models of real exponentiation , but all isomorphic as ordered fields. Indeed, the 2κ exponentials constructed have pairwise distinct growth rates. This method relies on constructing lexicographic chains with many automorphisms. (shrink)
In recent debates mechanisms are often discussed in the context of ‘complex systems’ which are understood as having a complicated compositional structure. I want to draw the attention to another, radically different kind of complex system, in fact one that many scientists regard as the only genuine kind of complex system. Instead of being compositionally complex these systems rather exhibit highly non-trivial dynamical patterns on the basis of structurally simple arrangements of large numbers of non-linearly interacting constituents. The characteristic dynamical (...) patterns in what I call “dynamically complex systems” arise from the interaction of the system’s parts largely irrespective of many properties of these parts. Dynamically complex systems can exhibit surprising statistical characteristics, the robustness of which calls for an explanation in terms of underlying generating mechanisms. However, I want to argue, dynamically complex systems are not sufficiently covered by the available conceptions of mechanisms. I will explore how the notion of a mechanism has to be modified to accommodate this case. Moreover, I will show under which conditions the widespread, if not inflationary talk about mechanisms in complex systems stretches the notion of mechanisms beyond its reasonable limits and is no longer legitimate. (shrink)