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Aeschylus' imagery has for some time now been discussed as a feature of his dramatic technique which does more than merely adorn his work. Lebeck, for example, has described how images articulate the Oresteia: The images of the Oresteia are not isolated units which can be examined separately. Each one is part of a larger whole: a system of kindred imagery. They are connected to one another by verbal similarity rather than verbal duplication. Formulaic repetition is rare, except in the (...) cases of single ‘key’ words; it is replaced by associative or reminiscent repetition. Such repetition may evoke several different passages, yet correspond exactly to none. Each occurrence adds a new element to those with which it is associated. Often this expansion will be a blend of two images previously separate, preserving features reminiscent of both. In this way the different systems of imagery are intricately interwoven. The significance of a recurrent image unfolds in successive stages, keeping time with the action of the drama. (shrink)
This article examines the defence of the immaculate conception of Mary in the works of the Franciscan Marquard von Lindau, principally the Dekalogerklärung, one of the five most widely transmitted vernacular works in pre-Reformation Germany. It establishes that Marquard’s justification rests on a set of pertinent Qur’ānic and related Islamic texts that he has collected together from the Pugio fidei, an anti-Jewish treatise in Hebrew and Latin by the Spanish Dominican Ramón Martí. Marquard’s explicit preference for the Islamic doctrine over (...) the Dominican position, itself perfectly orthodox, regarding the issue displays an unprecedented receptivity towards Islamic theology, which is indicative of a more widespread renewed intellectual engagement with Islam and its doctrines outside the confines of religious polemics on the part of a series of notable mendicants in the period 1300-1450, including Riccoldo da Monte di Croce, Nicholas of Lyra and Robert Holcot. The evidence for the transmission and reception of Islamic theology in the period from the fall of Acre to the fall of Constantinople displays not intellectual stagnation, but the existence of a widened mental space in the period after the demise of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in which aspects of Islam both could and had to be evaluated in original and surprisingly often non-polemical ways. (shrink)
When Barthes starts to conceptualize his courses at the Collège de France, he envisions a methodology which he actually considers to be an ‘anti-method’, that is to say, an ‘unscientific’ method which goes against the grain of traditional education. He pursues the method of his seminars at the École Pratique des Hautes Etudes, especially the seminar that ended up with the publication of A Lover's Discourse. In the conclusion to the seminar, Barthes turns to Nietzsche to ground this ‘anti-method’ and (...) to substantiate his claim that literature is a vital dimension of his research and teaching. In the introductory session of Comment vivre ensemble, Barthes labels this ‘anti-method’ – once more with the help of Nietzsche – ‘paideia’. This article aims to scrutinize the scope, the potentialities and the risks of this Greek word to Barthes's theory and ideas on life, criticism and literature. (shrink)