Results for 'Model Of Rationality'

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  1. A Broomean Model of Rationality and Reasoning.Franz Dietrich, Antonios Staras & Robert Sugden - 2019 - Journal of Philosophy 116 (11):585-614.
    John Broome has developed an account of rationality and reasoning which gives philosophical foundations for choice theory and the psychology of rational agents. We formalize his account into a model that differs from ordinary choice-theoretic models through focusing on psychology and the reasoning process. Within that model, we ask Broome’s central question of whether reasoning can make us more rational: whether it allows us to acquire transitive preferences, consistent beliefs, non-akratic intentions, and so on. We identify three (...)
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  2.  29
    Normative Models of Rational Agency: The Theoretical Disutility of Certain Approaches.Dov Gabbay & John Woods - 2003 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 11 (6):597-613.
    Much of cognitive science seeks to provide principled descriptions of various kinds and aspects of rational behaviour, especially in beings like us or AI simulacra of beings like us. For the most part, these investigators presuppose an unarticulated common sense appreciation of the rationality that such behaviour consists in. On those occasions when they undertake to bring the relevant norms to the surface and to give an account of that to which they owe their legitimacy, these investigators tend to (...)
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  3.  1
    Rational Models of Cognition.M. Oaksford & N. Chater (eds.) - 1998 - Oxford University Press UK.
    This book explores a new approach to understanding the human mind - rational analysis - that regards thinking as a facility adapted to the structure of the world. This approach is most closely associated with the work of John R Anderson, who published the original book on rational analysis in 1990. Since then, a great deal of work has been carried out in a number of laboratories around the world, and the aim of this book is to bring this work (...)
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  4.  7
    Rationality in Science, Religion, and Everyday Life a Critical Evaluation of Four Models of Rationality.Mikael Stenmark - 1995 - Springer.
    Mikael Stenmark examines four models of rationality and argues for a discussion of rationality that takes into account the function and aim of such human practices as science and religion.
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  5.  33
    Models of Rationality and the Psychology of Reasoning: From is to Ought, and Back.Crupi Vincenzo & Vittorio Girotto - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    Diagnoses of rationality often arise from the experimental investigation of human reasoning. We suggest that such diagnoses can be disputed on various grounds and provide a classification. We then argue that much fruitful research done with classical experimental paradigms was triggered by normative concerns and yet fostered insight in properly psychological terms. Our examples include the selection task, the conjunction fallacy, and so-called pseudodiagnosticity. We conclude that normative considerations retain a constructive role in the psychology of reasoning, contrary to (...)
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  6.  13
    Editors' Review and Introduction: Models of Rational Proof in Criminal Law.Henry Prakken, Floris Bex & Anne Ruth Mackor - 2020 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (4):1053-1067.
    Decisions concerning proof of facts in criminal law must be rational because of what is at stake, but the decision‐making process must also be cognitively feasible because of cognitive limitations, and it must obey the relevant legal–procedural constraints. In this topic three approaches to rational reasoning about evidence in criminal law are compared in light of these demands: arguments, probabilities, and scenarios. This is done in six case studies in which different authors analyze a manslaughter case from different theoretical perspectives, (...)
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  7.  47
    Consensus Through Respect: A Model of Rational Group Decision-Making.Carl Wagner - 1978 - Philosophical Studies 34 (4):335 - 349.
  8.  33
    A New Model of Rational Choice.Howard Margolis - 1981 - Ethics 91 (2):265-279.
  9. Models of Rationality.Z. van Straaten - 1990 - South African Journal of Philosophy 9 (1):18-23.
     
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  10. Models of Rationality and the History of Science.James Robert Brown - 1981 - Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)
    Thinkers as diverse as Kuhn and Salmon agree that should an account of scientific rationality not square with actual scientific practice, then this should be considered as a reductio ad absurdum of the proposed norms and not be taken as evidence that the history of science is in large measure irrational. While many are willing to accept the need to do justice to the history of science as a constraint on the acceptability of any candidate theory of scientific method, (...)
     
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  11.  18
    Models of Rationality in Physics.Jan Such - 1984 - Dialectics and Humanism 11 (2/3):329-337.
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  12.  14
    Models of Rational Decision: Formal Criteria and Norms.Assistant Florin Popa - forthcoming - Cogito.
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  13.  31
    Models of Ecological Rationality: The Recognition Heuristic.Daniel G. Goldstein & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2002 - Psychological Review 109 (1):75-90.
    [Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 109 of Psychological Review. Due to circumstances that were beyond the control of the authors, the studies reported in "Models of Ecological Rationality: The Recognition Heuristic," by Daniel G. Goldstein and Gerd Gigerenzer overlap with studies reported in "The Recognition Heuristic: How Ignorance Makes Us Smart," by the same authors and with studies reported in "Inference From Ignorance: The Recognition Heuristic". In addition, Figure 3 in the Psychological Review (...)
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  14. Leibniz's Models of Rational Decision.Markku Roinila - 2008 - In Marcelo Dascal (ed.), Leibniz: What Kind of Rationalist? Springer. pp. 357-370.
    Leibniz frequently argued that reasons are to be weighed against each other as in a pair of scales, as Professor Marcelo Dascal has shown in his article "The Balance of Reason." In this kind of weighing it is not necessary to reach demonstrative certainty – one need only judge whether the reasons weigh more on behalf of one or the other option However, a different kind of account about rational decision-making can be found in some of Leibniz's writings. In his (...)
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  15. The Classical Model of Science: A Millennia-Old Model of Scientific Rationality.Willem R. de Jong & Arianna Betti - 2010 - Synthese 174 (2):185-203.
    Throughout more than two millennia philosophers adhered massively to ideal standards of scientific rationality going back ultimately to Aristotle’s Analytica posteriora . These standards got progressively shaped by and adapted to new scientific needs and tendencies. Nevertheless, a core of conditions capturing the fundamentals of what a proper science should look like remained remarkably constant all along. Call this cluster of conditions the Classical Model of Science . In this paper we will do two things. First of all, (...)
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  16. Models of Man, Social and Rational: Mathematical Essays on Rational Human Behavior in a Social Setting.Ernest Adams - 1962 - Journal of Philosophy 59 (7):177-182.
  17.  21
    Sociology and Models of Rational Behavior.Klemens Szaniawski - 1974 - Dialectics and Humanism 1 (2):133-144.
  18. A Reason-Based Theory of Rational Choice.Franz Dietrich & Christian List - 2013 - Noûs 47 (1):104-134.
    There is a surprising disconnect between formal rational choice theory and philosophical work on reasons. The one is silent on the role of reasons in rational choices, the other rarely engages with the formal models of decision problems used by social scientists. To bridge this gap, we propose a new, reason-based theory of rational choice. At its core is an account of preference formation, according to which an agent’s preferences are determined by his or her motivating reasons, together with a (...)
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  19.  2
    The Rational Choice Controversy: Economic Models of Politics Reconsidered.Jeffrey Friedman (ed.) - 1996 - Yale University Press.
    _Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory_, a book written by Donald Green and Ian Shapiro and published in 1994, excited much controversy among political scientists and promoted a dialogue among them that was printed in a double issue of the journal Critical Review in 1995. This new book reproduces thirteen essays from the journal written by senior scholars in the field, along with an introduction by the editor of the journal, Jeffrey Friedman, and a rejoinder to the essays by Green and (...)
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  20.  16
    Probabilistic Models of Cognitive Development: Towards a Rational Constructivist Approach to the Study of Learning and Development.Fei Xu & Thomas L. Griffiths - 2011 - Cognition 120 (3):299-301.
  21. Spontaneity and Contingency: Kant’s Two Models of Rational Self-Determination.Markus Kohl - 2020 - In Manja Kisner & Jörg Noller (eds.), The Concept of Will in Classical German Philosophy: Between Ethics, Politics, and Metaphysics. Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter. pp. 29-48.
    I argue that Kant acknowledges two models of spontaneous self-determination that rational beings are capable of. The first model involves absolute unconditional necessity and excludes any form of contingency. The second model involves (albeit not as a matter of definition) a form of contingency which entails alternative possibilities for determining oneself. The first model would be exhibited by a divine being; the second model is exhibited by human beings. Human beings do, however, partake in the divine (...)
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  22.  45
    Rational Models of Conditioning.Nick Chater - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):204-205.
    Mitchell et al. argue that conditioning phenomena may be better explained by high-level, rational processes, rather than by non-cognitive associative mechanisms. This commentary argues that this viewpoint is compatible with neuroscientific data, may extend to nonhuman animals, and casts computational models of reinforcement learning in a new light.
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  23. The Model of Principles. The quest for rationality in the implementation of conflicting principles. [REVIEW]C. Smith - 2002 - Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy 2:110-115.
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  24.  15
    The Dynamics of Rational Deliberation.Brian Skyrms - 1990 - Harvard University Press.
    Brian Skyrms constructs a theory of "dynamic deliberation" and uses it to investigate rational decision-making in cases of strategic interaction. This illuminating book will be of great interest to all those in many disciplines who use decision theory and game theory to study human behavior and thought. Skyrms begins by discussing the Bayesian theory of individual rational decision and the classical theory of games, which at first glance seem antithetical in the criteria used for determining action. In his effort to (...)
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  25.  45
    Reasoning the Fast and Frugal Way: Models of Bounded Rationality.Gerd Gigerenzer & Daniel G. Goldstein - 1996 - Psychological Review 103 (4):650-669.
    Humans and animals make inferences about the world under limited time and knowledge. In contrast, many models of rational inference treat the mind as a Laplacean Demon, equipped with unlimited time, knowledge, and computational might. Following H. Simon's notion of satisficing, the authors have proposed a family of algorithms based on a simple psychological mechanism: one-reason decision making. These fast and frugal algorithms violate fundamental tenets of classical rationality: They neither look up nor integrate all information. By computer simulation, (...)
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  26.  44
    Ancient Models of Mind: Studies in Human and Divine Rationality.Andrea Nightingale & David Sedley (eds.) - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    How does God think? How, ideally, does a human mind function? Must a gap remain between these two paradigms of rationality? Such questions exercised the greatest ancient philosophers, including those featured in this book: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics and Plotinus. This volume encompasses a series of studies by leading scholars, revisiting key moments of ancient philosophy and highlighting the theme of human and divine rationality in both moral and cognitive psychology. It is a tribute to Professor A. (...)
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  27. The Relationship of Scientific Explanation to Models of Rationality.Eugenie Gatens-Robinson - 1983 - Dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
    This work contrasts the formalist approach to defining explanation in science, exemplified in the Deductive-Nomenological Model of Carl G. Hempel, with the contextualist approach of Thomas Kuhn. It is argued that both of these attempts to define the explanatory processes of science are inadequate. A connection is made between the view of rationality upon which each view is based and the way that it defines explanation. It is argued that a process of thought, which scientific explanation represents, is (...)
     
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  28.  27
    Psychological Versus Economic Models of Bounded Rationality.Don Ross - 2014 - Journal of Economic Methodology 21 (4):411-427.
    That the rationality of individual people is ‘bounded’ – that is, finite in scope and representational reach, and constrained by the opportunity cost of time – cannot reasonably be controversial as an empirical matter. In this context, the paper addresses the question as to why, if economics is an empirical science, economists introduce bounds on the rationality of agents in their models only grudgingly and partially. The answer defended in the paper is that most economists are interested primarily (...)
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  29.  81
    Constrained Maximization Reconsidered — an Elaboration and Critique of Gauthier's Modelling of Rational Cooperation in a Single Prisoner's Dilemma.Maarten Franssen - 1994 - Synthese 101 (2):249 - 272.
    Gauthier's argument for constrained maximization, presented inMorals by Agreement, is perfected by taking into account the possibility of accidental exploitation and discussing the limitations on the values of the parameters which measure the translucency of the actors. Gauthier's argument is nevertheless shown to be defective concerning the rationality of constrained maximization as a strategic choice. It can be argued that it applies only to a single actor entering a population of individuals who are themselves not rational actors but simple (...)
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  30. Ancient Models of Mind: Studies in Human and Divine Rationality. Edited by Andrea Nightingale and David Sedley. [REVIEW]Tamer Nawar - 2012 - Ancient Philosophy 32 (2):461-467.
  31. Mikael Stenmark, Rationality in Science, Religion and Everyday Life: A Critical Evaluation of Four Models of Rationality[REVIEW]Michael H. Barnes - 1997 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 42 (3):190-192.
  32. Alternative Models of Scientific Rationality: Theorisation in Classical Indian Sciences.Virendra Shekhawat - 1988 - Diogenes 36 (144):32-51.
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  33.  69
    Relativism and the Reticulational Model of Scientific Rationality.Gerald Doppelt - 1986 - Synthese 69 (2):225 - 252.
  34.  13
    "Models of Ecological Rationality: The Recognition Heuristic": Clarification on Goldstein and Gigerenzer.Daniel G. Goldstein & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2002 - Psychological Review 109 (4):645-645.
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  35.  14
    The Classical Model of Science: A Millennia-Old Model of Scientific Rationality.Willem Jong & Arianna Betti - 2010 - Synthese 174 (2):185-203.
  36. Hubert L. Dreyfus and Stuart E. Dreyfus.Model Of Rationality - 1978 - In A. Hooker, J. J. Leach & E. F. McClennen (eds.), Foundations and Applications of Decision Theory. D. Reidel. pp. 115.
  37.  34
    Pathologies of Rational Choice Theory: A Critique of Applications on Political Science, Donald P. Green and Ian Shapiro. Yale University Press, 1994, Xi + 239 Pages.The Rational Choice Controversy: Economic Models of Politics Reconsidered. Jeffrey Friedman . Yale University Press, 1996, Xi + 307 Pages. [REVIEW]Michael Laver - 1999 - Economics and Philosophy 15 (1):136.
  38.  16
    Ancient Models of Mind: Studies in Human and Divine Rationality. Edited by Andrea Nightingale and David Sedley . Pp. Ix, 250, Cambridge University Press, 2010, £55.00/$95.00. [REVIEW]Robin Waterfield - 2014 - Heythrop Journal 55 (1):136-137.
  39.  9
    Ancient Models of Mind: Studies in Human and Divine Rationality.George S. Pappas - 2012 - Philosophical Inquiry 36 (1-2):71-76.
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    Ancient Models of Mind: Studies in Human and Divine Rationality[REVIEW]George S. Pappas - 2012 - Philosophical Inquiry 36 (1-2):71-76.
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    The Assumptions on Knowledge and Resources in Models of Rationality.Pei Wang - 2011 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 3 (01):193-218.
  42.  75
    Rational Fundamentalism? An Explanatory Model of Fundamentalist Beliefs.Michael Baurmann - 2007 - Episteme 4 (2):150-166.
    Abstract The article sketches a theoretical model which explains how it is possible that fundamentalist beliefs can emerge as a result of an individual rational adaptation to the context of special living conditions. The model is based on the insight that most of our knowledge is acquired by trusting the testimony of some kind of authority. If a social group is characterized by a high degree of mistrust towards the outer society or other groups, then the members of (...)
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  43.  11
    Inadequacies in the Decision Analysis Model of Rationality.Hubert L. Dreyfus & Stuart E. Dreyfus - 1978 - In A. Hooker, J. J. Leach & E. F. McClennen (eds.), Foundations and Applications of Decision Theory. D. Reidel. pp. 115--124.
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  44. Resource‐Rational Models of Human Goal Pursuit.Ben Prystawski, Florian Mohnert, Mateo Tošić & Falk Lieder - forthcoming - Wiley: Topics in Cognitive Science.
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  45. Semi-Rational Models of Conditioning: The Case of Trial Order.Nathaniel D. Daw, Aaron C. Courville & Dayan & Peter - 2008 - In Nick Chater & Mike Oaksford (eds.), The Probabilistic Mind: Prospects for Bayesian Cognitive Science. Oxford University Press.
     
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  46.  1
    A Rational Model of People’s Inferences About Others’ Preferences Based on Response Times.Vael Gates, Frederick Callaway, Mark K. Ho & Thomas L. Griffiths - 2021 - Cognition 217:104885.
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  47.  7
    Notes on Iterated Rationality Models of Scalar Implicatures.Danny Fox & Roni Katzir - 2022 - Journal of Semantics 38 (4):571-600.
    In the linguistics literature, the derivation of scalar implicatures has often been handled in a relatively modular way, using computations that are sensitive to logical relations among alternatives such as entailment but are blind to other notions such as the probabilities that participants in a conversation might associate with these alternatives. In recent years, a family of models that we refer to as iterated rationality models have offered an interestingly different perspective on such alternative-sensitive processes in terms of multiple (...)
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    Repairing the Reticulated Model of Scientific Rationality.David Resnik - 1994 - Erkenntnis 40 (3):343 - 355.
    InScience and Values (1984) and other, more recent, works, e.g. (1987a, 1987b, 1989a, 1989b, 1990), Larry Laudan proposes a theory of scientific debate he dubs the reticulated model of scientific rationality (Laudan, 1984, pp. 50–66). The model stands in sharp contrast to hierarchical approaches to rationality exemplified by Popper (1959), Hempel (1965), and Reichenbach (1938), as well as the conventionalist views of rationality defended by Carnap (1950), Popper (1959), Kuhn (1962), and Lakatos (1978). Ironically, the (...)
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  49.  1
    Resource‐Rational Models of Human Goal Pursuit.Ben Prystawski, Florian Mohnert, Mateo Tošić & Falk Lieder - forthcoming - Topics in Cognitive Science.
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  50.  1
    Rational Herds: Economic Models of Social Learning.Christophe P. Chamley - 2003 - Cambridge University Press.
    Penguins jumping off a cliff, economic forecasters and financial advisors speculating against a currency, and farmers using traditional methods in India are all practising social learning. Such learning from the behavior of others may and does lead to herds, crashes, and booms. These issues have become, over the last ten years, an exciting field of research in theoretical and applied economics, finance, and in other social sciences. This book provides both an informal introduction and in-depth insights into the subject. Each (...)
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