Tight sandstone gas is widespread in the middle and lower Permian Shan 1 and He 8 Members in the northwestern Ordos Basin. We have studied the diagenesis by means of many petrographic techniques and determined its important influence on reservoir quality. The quantitative characterization of porosity evolution is important when analyzing reservoir consolidation. We found that reservoir rock types are mainly sublitharenite, quartz arenite, and litharenite in the deltaic facies through petrological and mineralogical analyses. Metamorphic rock, followed by volcanic rock, (...) dominates the lithic fragment types. In the early diagenetic stage, the reservoirs mainly underwent intensive compaction, hydrolysis, and alteration of volcanic debris. Sandstones in the middle diagenesis stage were characterized by quartz overgrowth, volcanic debris dissolution, cementation, and calcite and kaolinite replacement. Based on the formula from Beard and Weyl, we calculated that the original porosity of tight gas sandstones was 38.61%. The porosity loss during compaction was 26.64%; by cementation, it was 11.46%; and carbonate, siliceous, and authigenic clay cements accounted for 1.31%, 3.61%, and 6.44% loss in porosity, respectively. Dissolution was relatively weak, with an average increase in porosity of 4.86%, whereas the present porosity is 7.47%. We observed that the pore types in the study area are composed of intragranular dissolution pores and kaolinite intercrystalline pores, followed by residual primary pores and intergranular dissolution pores. However, microcracks were not common. Based on the results of the rate-controlled mercury intrusion, the pore diameters in different samples are similar but there were clear differences in the throat diameters. Nuclear magnetic resonance results indicate that the cutoff value is 13 ms with the movable fluid mainly distributed in larger pores. As the pressure increased, fluid in the larger pores was discharged in large quantities but there was no discharge of nonmovable fluid in the small pores. We conclude that intensive diagenetic transformation was the main cause of reservoir consolidation and multistage cementation resulted in a complicated pore-throat network and reduced reservoir permeability. (shrink)
A major controversy in the study of the "Analects" has been over the relation between two central concepts, ren (humanity, human excellence) and li (rites, rituals of propriety). Confucius seems to have said inconsistent things about this relation. Some passages appear to suggest that ren is more fundamental than li, while others seem to imply the contrary. It is therefore not surprising that there have been different interpretations and characterizations of this relation. Using the analogy of language grammar and mastery (...) of a language, it is proposed here that we should understand li as a cultural grammar and ren as the mastery of a culture. In this account, society cultivates its members through li toward the goal of ren, and persons of ren manifest their human excellence through their practice of li. (shrink)
_From Shamanism to Ritual Regulations and Humaneness_ offers an account of the origins and nature of a uniquely Chinese way of thinking that, carried through Confucian tradition, continues to define the character of Chinese culture and society.
Drawing upon conservation of resources theory, we develop and test a theoretical model that specifies how and when employee humor toward leaders affects leader abusive supervision. We propose that employee humor is negatively associated with leader abusive supervision via leader relational energy. Furthermore, the negative indirect relationship between employee humor and leader abusive supervision via leader relational energy is stronger for female leaders than for male leaders. An experiment and a multi-wave, multi-source field study provide substantial support for our hypotheses. (...) Our findings contribute to the abusive supervision literature by identifying employee humor as a safe and effective bottom-up approach to prevent leader abusive supervision. (shrink)
The Chinese Aesthetic Tradition touches on all areas of artistic activity, including poetry, painting, calligraphy, architecture, and the "art of living." Right government, the ideal human being, and the path to spiritual transcendence all come under the provenance of aesthetic thought. According to Li this was the case from early Confucian explanations of poetry as that which gives expression to intent, through Zhuangzi’s artistic depictions of the ideal personality who discerns the natural way of things and lives according to it, (...) to Chan Buddhist-inspired notions that nature and words can come together to yield insight and enlightenment. In this enduring and stimulating work, Li demonstrates conclusively the fundamental role of aesthetics in the development of the cultural and psychological structures in Chinese culture that define "humanity.". (shrink)
This paper is expected to introduce a novel memductor-based chaotic system. The local dynamical entities, such as the basic dynamical behavior, the divergence, the stability of equilibrium set, and the Lyapunov exponent, are all investigated analytically and numerically to reveal the dynamic characteristics of the new memductor-based chaotic system as the system parameters and the initial state of memristor change. Subsequently, an active control method is derived to study the synchronous stability of the novel memductor-based chaotic system through making the (...) synchronization error system asymptotically stable at the origin. Further to these, a memductor-based chaotic circuit is designed, realized, and applied to construct a new memductor-based secure communication circuit by employing the basic electronic components and memristor. Furthermore, the design principle of the memductor-based chaotic circuit is thoroughly analyzed and the concept of “the memductor-based chaotic circuit defect quantification index” is proposed for the first time to verify whether the chaotic output is consistent with the mathematical model. A good qualitative agreement is shown between the simulations and the experimental validation results. (shrink)
Li Zehou stands among the most influential Chinese philosophers in the post-Mao era. His notion of subjectality is of paramount importance for current developments in contemporary Chinese philosophy. It belongs to the central concepts in Li's theoretical framework, around which his entire philosophical system is constructed. With his elaboration of this concept, Li expanded the problem of the self in post-revolutionary modernism. The present article analyzes the theoretical bases of this concept, exposes its importance in the scope of contemporary Chinese (...) theory and shows why and how it represents a call for a new humanism. Through a multidimensional comparative perspective, the author also explains why the human subject, which is based upon Li's notion of subjectality, has the potential not only to transform modern alienation into a real “human condition,” that is, into spiritually fulfilled society of autonomous individuals but also to fill up the prevailing “vacuum of values.”. (shrink)
Harmony is a concept essential to Confucianism and to the way of life of past and present people in East Asia. Integrating methods of textual exegesis, historical investigation, comparative analysis, and philosophical argumentation, this book presents a comprehensive treatment of the Confucian philosophy of harmony. The book traces the roots of the concept to antiquity, examines its subsequent development, and explicates its theoretical and practical significance for the contemporary world. It argues that, contrary to a common view in the West, (...) Confucian harmony is not mere agreement but has to be achieved and maintained with creative tension. Under the influence of a Weberian reading of Confucianism as "adjustment" to a world with an underlying fixed cosmic order, Confucian harmony has been systematically misinterpreted in the West as presupposing an invariable grand scheme of things that pre-exists in the world to which humanity has to conform. The book shows that Confucian harmony is a dynamic, generative process, which seeks to balance and reconcile differences and conflicts through creativity. Illuminating one of the most important concepts in Chinese philosophy and intellectual history, this book is of interest to students of Chinese studies, history and philosophy in general and eastern philosophy in particular. (shrink)
It is proposed here that the Confucian li, norms of appropriate behavior, be understood as part of the dynamic process of moral self-cultivation. Within this framework li are multidimensional, as they have different functions at different stages in the cultivation process. This novel interpretation refocuses the issue regarding the flexibility of li, a topic that is still being debated by scholars. The significance of this proposal is not restricted to a new understanding of li. Key features of the various stages (...) of moral development in Confucian thought are also articulated. This account presents the picture of a Confucian paradigmatic person as critically self-aware and ethically sensitive. (shrink)
This volume of new essays is the first English-language anthology devoted to Chinese metaphysics. The essays explore the key themes of Chinese philosophy, from pre-Qin to modern times, starting with important concepts such as yin-yang and qi and taking the reader through the major periods in Chinese thought - from the Classical period, through Chinese Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism, into the twentieth-century philosophy of Xiong Shili. They explore the major traditions within Chinese philosophy, including Daoism and Mohism, and a broad range (...) of metaphysical topics, including monism, theories of individuation, and the relationship between reality and falsehood. The volume will be a valuable resource for upper-level students and scholars of metaphysics, Chinese philosophy, or comparative philosophy, and with its rich insights into the ethical, social and political dimensions of Chinese society, it will also interest students of Asian studies and Chinese intellectual history. (shrink)
Li Zehou is perhaps best known among Western audiences for his work on aesthetics. This is mainly due to the fact that translations of his writings available in English are mostly limited to his aesthetics.1 The content of A Response to Michael Sandel and Other Matters differs greatly from these previous translations. Published in Chinese in 2014, it is one of Li’s most recent books, and in it he discusses several main points of the systematic philosophical outlook he has developed (...) over recent decades, and places them in relation to Western liberalism. A Response thus aims far beyond responding to Michael Sandel’s views on justice and morality as presented in the... (shrink)
Library information science (LIS) should develop its foundation in terms of a philosophy of information (PI). This seems a rather harmless suggestion. Where else could information science look for its conceptual foundations if not in PI? However, accepting this proposal means moving away from one of the few solid alternatives currently available in the field, namely, providing LIS with a foundation in terms of social epistemology (SE). This is no trivial move, so some reasonable reluctance is to be expected. To (...) overcome it, the proposal needs to be more than just acceptable; it must be convincing. In Floridi (2002a), I have articulated some of the reasons why I believe that PI can fulfill the foundationalist needs better than SE can. I won’t rehearse them here. I find them compelling, but I am ready to change my mind if counterarguments become available. Rather, in this contribution, I wish to clarify some aspects of my proposal (Floridi, 2002a) in favor of the interpretation of LIS as applied PI. I won’t try to show you that I am right in suggesting that PI may provide a foundation for LIS better than SE. My more modest goal is to remove some ambiguities and possible misunderstandings that might prevent the correct evaluation of my position, so that disagreement can become more constructive. (shrink)
The rise of China, along with problems of governance in democratic countries, has reinvigorated the theory of political meritocracy. But what is the theory of political meritocracy and how can it set standards for evaluating political progress? To help answer these questions, this volume gathers a series of commissioned research papers from an interdisciplinary group of leading philosophers, historians and social scientists. The result is the first book in decades to examine the rise of political meritocracy and what it will (...) mean for political developments in China and the rest of the world. Despite its limitations, meritocracy has contributed much to human flourishing in East Asia and beyond and will continue to do so in the future. This book is essential reading for those who wish to further the debate and perhaps even help to implement desirable forms of political change. (shrink)
This book offers a critical introduction of Li Zhou’s ethics. Li, who is among the most influential contemporary Chinese philosophers, takes Chinese ethics as a basis for his elaborations on Western ideas, aiming to develop a new global ethics.
Employee resilience is of great significance for organizations to resist pressures, overcome crises, and achieve sustainable development. However, existing research has largely failed to explore its situational triggers. Drawing on social information processing theory and social exchange theory, a cross-level study was conducted to theorize the underlying mechanisms through which authentic leadership facilitates employee resilience. Based on a two-wave time-lagged design, the data were obtained from 85 team leaders and 417 employees in China. The results of the cross-level model showed (...) that authentic leadership was positively related to employee resilience. Perceived insider status and error management climate both played a partial mediating role in linking authentic leadership and employee resilience. Error management climate positively moderated the relationship between perceived insider status and employee resilience. This paper not only contributes to revealing the cross-level effect of authentic leadership on employee resilience but also provides some managerial practices. (shrink)
In this paper, we study the synchronization of a class of multiple neural networks with delay and directed disconnected switching topology based on state observer via impulsive coupling control. The coupling topology is connected sequentially, and the controller adjusts the state value through event-triggering strategies. Different from the related works on MNNs, its state in this paper is assumed to be unmeasurable, and the time delay is also unmeasurable. Therefore, the observer does not contain the time-delay term. The impulsive switching (...) controller and observer controller adjust the system through the observed value. By constructing the corresponding augmented matrix, the system can finally achieve quasi-synchronization. Through derivation, we give the sufficient conditions ensuring quasi-synchronization via the event-triggered impulse control mechanism. In addition, numerical simulation examples are given to test our results of the theorem. (shrink)