Results for 'Mike Nair-Collins'

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Michael Nair-Collins
Florida State University
  1. Death, Brain Death, and the Limits of Science: Why the Whole-Brain Concept of Death Is a Flawed Public Policy.Mike Nair-Collins - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (3):667-683.
    Legally defining “death” in terms of brain death unacceptably obscures a value judgment that not all reasonable people would accept. This is disingenuous, and it results in serious moral flaws in the medical practices surrounding organ donation. Public policy that relies on the whole-brain concept of death is therefore morally flawed and in need of revision.
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  2.  4
    Frequent Preservation of Neurologic Function in Brain Death and Brainstem Death Entails False-Positive Misdiagnosis and Cerebral Perfusion.Michael Nair-Collins & Ari R. Joffe - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (3):255-268.
    Some patients who have been diagnosed as “dead by neurologic criteria” continue to exhibit certain brain functions, most commonly, neuroendocrine functions. This preservation of neurologic function after the diagnosis of “brain death” or “brainstem death” is an ongoing source of controversy and concern in the medical, bioethics, and legal literatures. Most obviously, if some brain function persists, then it is not the case that all functions of the entire brain have ceased and hence, declaring such a patient to be “dead” (...)
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  3.  25
    Abandoning the dead donor rule? A national survey of public views on death and organ donation.Michael Nair-Collins, Sydney R. Green & Angelina R. Sutin - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (4):297-302.
  4.  28
    Do the ‘brain dead’ merely appear to be alive?Michael Nair-Collins & Franklin G. Miller - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (11):747-753.
    The established view regarding ‘brain death’ in medicine and medical ethics is that patients determined to be dead by neurological criteria are dead in terms of a biological conception of death, not a philosophical conception of personhood, a social construction or a legal fiction. Although such individuals show apparent signs of being alive, in reality they are dead, though this reality is masked by the intervention of medical technology. In this article, we argue that an appeal to the distinction between (...)
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  5.  20
    Taking Science Seriously in the Debate on Death and Organ Transplantation.Michael Nair-Collins - 2015 - Hastings Center Report 45 (6):38-48.
    The concept of death and its relationship to organ transplantation continue to be sources of debate and confusion among academics, clinicians, and the public. Recently, an international group of scholars and clinicians, in collaboration with the World Health Organization, met in the first phase of an effort to develop international guidelines for determination of death. The goal of this first phase was to focus on the biology of death and the dying process while bracketing legal, ethical, cultural, and religious perspectives. (...)
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  6.  56
    A Biological Theory of Death: Characterization, Justification, and Implications.Michael Nair-Collins - 2018 - Diametros 55:27-43.
    John P. Lizza has long been a major figure in the scholarly literature on criteria for death. His searching and penetrating critiques of the dominant biological paradigm, and his defense of a theory of death of the person as a psychophysical entity, have both significantly advanced the literature. In this special issue, Lizza reinforces his critiques of a strictly biological approach. In my commentary, I take up Lizza’s challenge regarding a biological concept of death. He is certainly right to point (...)
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  7.  10
    Abortion, Brain Death, and Coercion.Michael Nair-Collins - 2023 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 20 (3):359-365.
    A “universalist” policy on brain death holds that brain death is death, and neurologic criteria for death determination are rightly applied to all, without exemptions or opt outs. This essay argues that advocates of a universalist brain death policy defend the same sort of coercive control of end-of-life decision-making as “pro-life” advocates seek to achieve for reproductive decision-making, and both are grounded in an illiberal political philosophy. Those who recognize the serious flaws of this kind of public policy with respect (...)
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  8.  90
    Brain Death, Paternalism, and the Language of “Death”.Michael Nair-Collins - 2013 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 23 (1):53-104.
    The controversy over brain death and the dead donor rule continues unabated, with some of the same key points and positions starting to see repetition in the literature. One might wonder whether some of the participants are talking past each other, not all debating the same issue, even though they are using the same words (e.g., “death”). One reason for this is the complexity of the debate: It’s not merely about the nature of human life and death. Interwoven into this (...)
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  9.  66
    Can the Brain-Dead Be Harmed or Wronged?: On the Moral Status of Brain Death and its Implications for Organ Transplantation.Michael Nair-Collins - 2017 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 27 (4):525-559.
    The dead donor rule, which requires that organ donors not be killed by the process of organ procurement, is thought to protect vulnerable patients from exploitation and from being harmed through organ procurement. In current practice, the majority of transplantable organs are retrieved from patients who are declared dead by neurological criteria, or "brain-dead." Because brain death is considered to be sufficient for death, it is thought that brain-dead donors are neither harmed nor wronged by organ removal.In this essay I (...)
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  10.  22
    Representation in Biological Systems: Teleofunction, Etiology, and Structural Preservation.Michael Nair-Collins - 2013 - In Liz Swan (ed.), Origins of Mind. pp. 161--185.
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  11. Representation in biological systems : teleofunction, etiology, and structural preservation.Michael Nair-Collins - 2012 - In Liz Stillwaggon Swan (ed.), Origins of mind. Springer.
     
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  12.  9
    Is heart transplantation after circulatory death compatible with the dead donor rule?Michael Nair-Collins & Franklin G. Miller - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (5):319-320.
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  13.  18
    Clinical and ethical perspectives on brain death.Michael Nair-Collins - 2015 - Medicolegal and Bioethics 5:69-80.
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  14.  42
    Laying Futility to Rest.Michael Nair-Collins - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (5):554-583.
    In this essay I examine the formal structure of the concept of futility, enabling identification of the appropriate roles played by patient, professional, and society. I argue that the concept of futility does not justify unilateral decisions to forego life-sustaining medical treatment over patient or legitimate surrogate objection, even when futility is determined by a process or subject to ethics committee review. Furthermore, I argue for a limited positive ethical obligation on the part of health care professionals to assist patients (...)
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  15.  13
    Commentary: False Positives in the Diagnosis of Brain Death.Michael Nair-Collins & Franklin G. Miller - 2019 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 28 (4):648-656.
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  16.  32
    Moral Evaluations of Organ Transplantation Influence Judgments of Death and Causation.Michael Nair-Collins & Mary A. Gerend - 2015 - Neuroethics 8 (3):283-297.
    Two experiments investigated whether moral evaluations of organ transplantation influence judgments of death and causation. Participants’ beliefs about whether an unconscious organ donor was dead and whether organ removal caused death in a hypothetical vignette varied depending on the moral valence of the vignette. Those who were randomly assigned to the good condition were more likely to believe that the donor was dead prior to organ removal and that organ removal did not cause death. Furthermore, attitudes toward euthanasia and organ (...)
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  17.  17
    The Public's Right to Accurate and Transparent Information about Brain Death and Organ Transplantation.Michael Nair-Collins - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (S4):43-45.
    The organ transplantation enterprise is morally flawed. “Brain‐dead” donors are the primary source of solid vital organs, and the transplantation enterprise emphasizes that such donors are dead before organs are removed—or in other words that the dead donor rule is followed. However, individuals meeting standard diagnostic criteria for brain death—unresponsiveness, brainstem areflexia, and apnea—are still living, from a physiological perspective. Therefore, removing vital organs from a heart‐beating, mechanically ventilated donor is lethal. But neither donors nor surrogates nor the public in (...)
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  18. Organismal Superposition and Death.Michael Nair-Collins - 2024 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 67 (1):22-30.
    ABSTRACT:Organismal superposition holds that the same individual both is and is not an organism, as a consequence of organismal pluralism. When coupled with the assumption that death is the cessation of an organism, this entails that there is no unique answer as to whether brain death is biological death. This essay argues that concerns about organismal pluralism and superposition do not undermine a theory of biological death, nor entail any metaphysical indeterminacy about the biological vital status of a brain-dead individual.
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  19.  25
    Medical Futility and Involuntary Passive Euthanasia.Michael Nair-Collins - 2018 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 60 (3):415-422.
    Conflicts surrounding the provision of life-sustaining treatment create difficult ethical and interpersonal challenges for providers, patients, and families or other surrogates alike. These conflicts implicate a constellation of ethical concepts, including distributive justice, harms and wrongs to patients, fiduciary obligations to patients, standards for surrogate decision-making, and medical futility. Recently, several critical care societies published a policy statement on conflicts at the end of life, and advocated for a new concept, “potentially inappropriate treatment”. They argued that in some circumstances, after (...)
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  20.  9
    Responsibility for Poor Health Status of Lower Income People Must Account for Morally Blameworthy Decisions Made by Employers Who Exploit Them.Michael Nair-Collins - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (10):17-19.
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  21.  4
    Response to Commentaries: Frequent Preservation of Neurologic Function in Brain Death and Brainstem Death Entails False-Positive Misdiagnosis and Cerebral Perfusion.Ari R. Joffe & Michael Nair-Collins - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 15 (1).
    We thank the authors of commentaries for their thoughtful discussion of our target article. Here we briefly summarize the points made in the target article (Nair-Collins and Joffe 2023). Then we em...
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  22.  7
    There Is Only One Sphere of Morality.Michael Nair-Collins - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (12):51-53.
    Physicians participate in several kinds of activities in their professional lives. Clinical care is the core function of the physician. Medical education is overwhelmingly oriented toward this func...
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  23.  9
    An unquestioned assumption in the debate on the dead donor rule.Michael Nair-Collins - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (12):872-873.
    Frank Miller and I recently argued that the common assertion that ‘brain dead’ patients merely appear to be alive, though in reality are dead, is false.1 This assertion relies on an inaccurate and overly simplistic understanding of the role of medical technology in the physiology of a ‘brain dead’ patient. In response, Symons and Chua endorsed our conclusions regarding the vital status of the ventilated ‘brain dead’ patient, and then pursued the question: what does this imply if we are to (...)
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  24.  10
    Expanding the Social Status of "Corpse" to the Severely Comatose: Henry Beecher and the Harvard Brain Death Committee.Michael Nair-Collins - 2022 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 65 (1):41-58.
  25.  7
    From the Slaughterhouse to the Laboratory Bench: On the Ethics of Using Slaughtered Animals for Biomedical Research.Michael Nair-Collins - 2021 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 64 (2):173-188.
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  26.  33
    It Is Time to Abandon the Dogma That Brain Death Is Biological Death.Franklin G. Miller, Michael Nair-Collins & Robert D. Truog - 2021 - Hastings Center Report 51 (4):18-21.
    Drawing on a recent case report of a pregnant, brain‐dead woman who gave birth to a healthy child after over seven months of intensive care treatment, this essay rejects the established doctrine in medicine that brain death constitutes the biological death of the human being. The essay describes three policy options with respect to determination of death and vital organ transplantation in the case of patients who are irreversibly comatose but remain biologically alive.
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  27. Trading zones and interactional expertise.Harry Collins, Robert Evans & Mike Gorman - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 38 (4):657-666.
    The phrase ‘trading zone’ is often used to denote any kind of interdisciplinary partnership in which two or more perspectives are combined and a new, shared language develops. In this paper we distinguish between different types of trading zone by asking whether the collaboration is co-operative or coerced and whether the end-state is a heterogeneous or homogeneous culture. In so doing, we find that the voluntary development of a new language community—what we call an inter-language trading zone—represents only one of (...)
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  28. Reevaluating the Dead Donor Rule.Mike Collins - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (2):1-26.
    The dead donor rule justifies current practice in organ procurement for transplantation and states that organ donors must be dead prior to donation. The majority of organ donors are diagnosed as having suffered brain death and hence are declared dead by neurological criteria. However, a significant amount of unrest in both the philosophical and the medical literature has surfaced since this practice began forty years ago. I argue that, first, declaring death by neurological criteria is both unreliable and unjustified but (...)
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  29. The Nature and Implementation of Representation in Biological Systems.Mike Collins - 2009 - Dissertation, City University of New York
    I defend a theory of mental representation that satisfies naturalistic constraints. Briefly, we begin by distinguishing (i) what makes something a representation from (ii) given that a thing is a representation, what determines what it represents. Representations are states of biological organisms, so we should expect a unified theoretical framework for explaining both what it is to be a representation as well as what it is to be a heart or a kidney. I follow Millikan in explaining (i) in terms (...)
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  30. Evolving artificial minds and brains.Alex Vereschagin, Mike Collins & Pete Mandik - 2007 - In Drew Khlentzos & Andrea Schalley (eds.), Mental States Volume 1: Evolution, function, nature. John Benjamins.
    We explicate representational content by addressing how representations that ex- plain intelligent behavior might be acquired through processes of Darwinian evo- lution. We present the results of computer simulations of evolved neural network controllers and discuss the similarity of the simulations to real-world examples of neural network control of animal behavior. We argue that focusing on the simplest cases of evolved intelligent behavior, in both simulated and real organisms, reveals that evolved representations must carry information about the creature’s environ- ments (...)
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  31. Consent for organ retrieval cannot be presumed.Mike Collins - 2009 - HEC Forum 21 (1):71-106.
  32.  37
    Acknowledgment of external reviewers for 1998.John Brown, Randall Collins, Frank Dobbin, Mike Donaldson, Mustafa Emirbayer, Steven Epstein, Mark Granovetter, Doug Guthrie, Carol Heimer & Philippa Levine - 1999 - Theory and Society 28 (201):201-201.
  33.  94
    In Defense of Brain Death: Replies to Don Marquis, Michael Nair-Collins, Doyen Nguyen, and Laura Specker Sullivan.John P. Lizza - 2018 - Diametros 55:68-90.
    In this paper, I defend brain death as a criterion for determining death against objections raised by Don Marquis, Michael Nair-Collins, Doyen Nguyen, and Laura Specker Sullivan. I argue that any definition of death for beings like us relies on some sortal concept by which we are individuated and identified and that the choice of that concept in a practical context is not determined by strictly biological considerations but involves metaphysical, moral, social, and cultural considerations. This view supports (...)
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  34.  7
    Book Reviews : Rukmini Bhaya Nair, Technobrat. New Delhi: Harper Collins India, 1997, 313 pp. Rs 395. D.L. Johnson, Indian Thought: Between Tradition and the Culture of Technology. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld, 1995, 140 pp. Rs 160. [REVIEW]S. K. Chakraborty - 1999 - Journal of Human Values 5 (1):77-80.
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  35.  25
    Book Reviews : Rukmini Bhaya Nair, Technobrat. New Delhi: Harper Collins India, 1997, 313 pp. Rs 395. D.L. Johnson, Indian Thought: Between Tradition and the Culture of Technology. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld, 1995, 140 pp. Rs 160. [REVIEW]S. K. Chakraborty - 1999 - Journal of Human Values 5 (1):77-80.
  36.  7
    Brain Death False Positives Reliably Track What Matters in Brain Death Cases.Eli Weber - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (3):285-286.
    Nair-Collins and Joffe (2023) rightly call attention to an incompatibility between brain-based criteria for death, as defined by the Uniform Determination of Death Act (UDDA), and what the current...
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  37.  5
    Certainty, Science, and the Brain-Based Definition of Death.Dominique E. Martin, Cynthia Forlini & Emma Tumilty - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (3):279-282.
    Nair-Collins and Joffe (2023) highlight the complexities inherent to the clinical diagnosis of death by neurologic criteria and inconsistencies between legal, scientific, and clinical standards for...
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  38.  4
    The Brain-as-a-Whole Criterion and the Uniform Determination of Death Act.James L. Bernat - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (3):271-274.
    Nair-Collins and Joffe (2023) highlighted the noncongruence between the language of the Uniform Determination of Death Act (UDDA) and the accepted brain death bedside testing standard by showing th...
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  39.  3
    Maybe Whole-Brain Death Was Never the Point.Stephen S. Hanson - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (3):277-279.
    As Nair-Collins and Joffe note, the concern that our tests for brain death do not successfully show that all brain functions have stopped is not new (Nair-Collins and Joffe 2023). As our abilities...
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  40.  21
    What sort of death matters?Rebecca Roache - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (11):727-728.
    Michael Nair-Collins and Franklin G. Miller argue in an extended essay that the dominant view in medical ethics of patients who are brain dead but sustained on mechanical ventilation is false. According to this view, these unfortunate patients are biologically dead, yet appear to be alive as a result of the fact that mechanical ventilation ensures that their heart continues to beat, that their skin remains warm, that their wounds continue to heal, that their body does not decay, (...)
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  41.  23
    Complexity of defining death: organismal death does not mean the cessation of all biological life.Melissa Moschella - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (11):754-755.
    Michael Nair-Collins and Franklin Miller are right to emphasise that, in order to deliberate responsibly about ethical and legal questions related to brain death and organ donation, it is crucial to answer the question of whether or not ‘brain death’i does indeed mark the biological death of the organism. Nonetheless, I disagree with the authors’ conclusion that brain death does not indicate the death of the human organism. Death can never be defined in merely biological terms, because any (...)
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  42.  3
    Meaningful Residual Function, Permanence and Brain Death.Ramesh K. Batra & Stephen R. Latham - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (3):269-271.
    We share Nair-Collins and Joffe's (2023) concern with the accuracy of the “whole brain-death” diagnosis, which fails to take into account current understandings of residual brain function (neurohor...
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  43.  4
    Death as the extinction of the source of value: the constructivist theory of death as an irreversible loss of moral status.Piotr Grzegorz Nowak - forthcoming - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics:1-23.
    In 2017, Michael Nair-Collins formulated his Transitivity Argument which claimed that brain-dead patients are alive according to a concept that defines death in terms of the loss of moral status. This article challenges Nair-Collins’ view in three steps. First, I elaborate on the concept of moral status, claiming that to understand this notion appropriately, one must grasp the distinction between direct and indirect duties. Second, I argue that his understanding of moral status implicit in the Transitivity (...)
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  44.  10
    Brain death as irreversible loss of a human’s moral status.Piotr Grzegorz Nowak - 2018 - Ethics and Bioethics (in Central Europe) 8 (3-4):167-178.
    Singer claims that there are two ways of challenging the fact that brain-dead patients, from whom organs are usually retrieved, are in fact biologically alive. By means of the first, the so called dead donor rule may be abandoned, opening the way to lethal organ donation. In the second, it might be posited that terms such as “life” and “death” do not have any primary biological meaning and are applicable to persons instead of organisms. This second possibility permits one to (...)
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  45.  14
    Organismal death, the dead-donor rule and the ethics of vital organ procurement.Xavier Symons & Reginald Mary Chua - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (12):868-871.
    Several bioethicists have recently discussed the complexity of defining human death, and considered in particular how our definition of death affects our understanding of the ethics of vital organ procurement. In this brief paper, we challenge the mainstream medical definition of human death—namely, that death is equivalent to total brain failure—and argue with Nair-Collins and Miller that integrated biological functions can continue even after total brain failure has occurred. We discuss the implications of Nair-Collins and Miller’s (...)
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  46.  36
    Mike Boone, Kathleen Fite, & Robert F. Reardon 43.Mike Boone - forthcoming - Journal of Thought.
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  47.  63
    Defining Function in Medicine: Bridging the Gap between Biology and Clinical Practice.Alberto Molina-Pérez - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (3):282-285.
    The classification of preserved hypothalamic activity in brain death and brainstem death as functional or non-functional has become a subject of debate. While proponents of the neurological criterion claim that these activities lack functional significance (Shemie et al. 2014), Nair-Collins and Joffe (2023) argue for their functional physiological role. However, the interpretation of the term "function" within the medico-legal framework, where death is characterized by the irreversible cessation of all brain functions, remains unclear. -/- My intention here is (...)
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  48. 13 Mike Kelley.Mike Kelley - 2007 - In Diarmuid Costello & Jonathan Vickery (eds.), Art: Key Contemporary Thinkers. Berg. pp. 13.
     
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  49.  68
    Bayesian Rationality: The Probabilistic Approach to Human Reasoning.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    Are people rational? This question was central to Greek thought and has been at the heart of psychology and philosophy for millennia. This book provides a radical and controversial reappraisal of conventional wisdom in the psychology of reasoning, proposing that the Western conception of the mind as a logical system is flawed at the very outset. It argues that cognition should be understood in terms of probability theory, the calculus of uncertain reasoning, rather than in terms of logic, the calculus (...)
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  50. Changing order: replication and induction in scientific practice.Harry Collins - 1985 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    This fascinating study in the sociology of science explores the way scientists conduct, and draw conclusions from, their experiments. The book is organized around three case studies: replication of the TEA-laser, detecting gravitational rotation, and some experiments in the paranormal. "In his superb book, Collins shows why the quest for certainty is disappointed. He shows that standards of replication are, of course, social, and that there is consequently no outside standard, no Archimedean point beyond society from which we can (...)
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