141 found
Order:
Disambiguations
Michael Tooley [142]Michael James Tooley [1]
See also
Michael Tooley
University of Colorado, Boulder
  1. Time, Tense, and Causation.Michael Tooley - 1997 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
    Michael Tooley presents a major new philosophical theory of the nature of time, offering a powerful alternative to the traditional "tensed" and recent "tenseless" accounts of time. He argues for a dynamic conception of the universe, in which past, present, and future are not merely subjective features of experience. He claims that the past and the present are real, while the future is not. Tooley's approach accounts for time in terms of causation. He therefore claims that the key to understanding (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   204 citations  
  2. Abortion and infanticide.Michael Tooley - 1972 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 2 (1):37-65.
    This essay deals with the question of the morality of abortion and infanticide. The fundamental ethical objection traditionally advanced against these practices rests on the contention that human fetuses and infants have a right to life, and it is this claim that is the primary focus of attention here. Consequently, the basic question to be discussed is what properties a thing must possess in order to have a serious right to life. The approach involves defending, then, a basic principle specifying (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   257 citations  
  3. The nature of laws.Michael Tooley - 1977 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 7 (4):667-98.
    This paper is concerned with the question of the truth conditions of nomological statements. My fundamental thesis is that it is possible to set out an acceptable, noncircular account of the truth conditions of laws and nomological statements if and only if relations among universals - that is, among properties and relations, construed realistically - are taken as the truth-makers for such statements. My discussion will be restricted to strictly universal, nonstatistical laws. The reason for this limitation is not that (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   379 citations  
  4. Causation: a realist approach.Michael Tooley - 1987 - Oxford: Oxford University Press, Clarendon Press.
    Causation: A Realist Approach Traditional empiricist accounts of causation and laws of nature have been reductionist in the sense of entailing that given a complete specification of the non-causal properties of and relations among particulars, it is therefore logically determined both what laws there are and what events are causally related. It is argued here, however, that reductionist accounts of causation and of laws of nature are exposed to decisive objections, and thus that the time has come for empiricists to (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   121 citations  
  5.  52
    The Problem of Evil.Michael Tooley - 2019 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Chapter 1 addresses some preliminary issues that it is important to think about in formulating arguments from evil. Chapter 2 is then concerned with the question of how an incompatibility argument from evil is best formulated, and with possible responses to such arguments. Chapter 3 then focuses on skeptical theism, and on the work that skeptical theists need to do if they are to defend their claim of having defeated incompatibility versions of the argument from evil. Finally, Chapter 4 discusses (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   22 citations  
  6. Abortion and Infanticide.Michael Tooley - 1984 - Philosophy 59 (230):545-547.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   157 citations  
  7.  70
    Causation and Universals.The secret Connexion: Causation, Realism, and David Hume.Causation: A Realist Approach.Evan Fales, Galen Strawson & Michael Tooley - 1991 - Philosophical Quarterly 41 (165):494-498.
  8.  26
    Knowledge of God.Alvin Plantinga & Michael Tooley (eds.) - 2008 - Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    Is belief in God epistemically justified? That's the question at the heart of this volume in the Great Debates in Philosophy series, with Alvin Plantinga and Michael Tooley each addressing this fundamental question with distinctive arguments from opposing perspectives. The first half of the book contains each philosopher's explanation of his particular view; the second half allows them to directly respond to each other's arguments, in a lively and engaging conversation Offers the reader a one of a kind, interactive discussion (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   35 citations  
  9.  97
    In Defense of the Existence of States of Motion.Michael Tooley - 1988 - Philosophical Topics 16 (1):225-254.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   79 citations  
  10. Causation.Michael Tooley - 1987 - In Robin Le Poidevin (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Metaphysics. Routledge.
    This volume presents a selection of the most influential recent discussions of the crucial metaphysical questions: what is it for one event to cause another? The subject of causation bears on many topics, such as time, explanation, mental states, the laws of nature, and the philosphy of science.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   64 citations  
  11.  40
    Time, Tense and Causation.Quentin Smith & Michael Tooley - 1999 - Philosophical Review 108 (1):123.
    The main goal of Michael Tooley’s groundbreaking book is to establish a position intermediate between the tenseless theory of time and the standard tensed theory of time. Tooley argues for a novel version of the tensed theory of time, namely, that the future is unreal and the present and past real, and yet that reality consists only of tenseless facts. The question that naturally arises for the reader concerns an apparent paradox: how could the tensed theory of time be true (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   63 citations  
  12.  40
    Causation.Ernest Sosa & Michael Tooley (eds.) - 1993 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This volume presents a selection of the most influential recent discussions of the crucial metaphysical question: What is it for one event to cause another? The subject of causation bears on many topics, such as time, explanation, mental states, the laws of nature, and the philosophy of science. Contributors include J.L Mackie, Michael Scriven, Jaegwon Kim, G.E.M. Anscombe, G.H. von Wright, C.J. Ducasse, Wesley C. Salmon, David Lewis, Paul Horwich, Jonathan Bennett, Ernest Sosa, and Michael Tooley.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   25 citations  
  13. Michael Huemer and the Principle of Phenomenal Conservatism.Michael Tooley - 2013 - In Chris Tucker (ed.), Seemings and Justification: New Essays on Dogmatism and Phenomenal Conservatism. Oup Usa. pp. 306.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  14. The problem of evil.Michael Tooley - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  15.  16
    In Defense of the Existence of States of Motion.Michael Tooley - 1988 - Philosophical Topics 16 (1):225-254.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   52 citations  
  16. The argument from evil.Michael Tooley - 1991 - Philosophical Perspectives 5:89-134.
    The problem that suffering and other evils pose for the rationality of belief in an omnipotent, omniscient, and morally perfect person has been the focus of intense discussion for a long time. The main thing that I want to do here is to consider whether recent discussions have significantly advanced our understanding of the underlying issues. I believe that they have, and I shall try to indicate the ways in which that is so. The structure of my discussion is as (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   27 citations  
  17. Causation: Reductionism versus realism.Michael Tooley - 1990 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50:215-236.
  18. Axiology: Theism Versus Widely Accepted Monotheisms.Michael Tooley - 2018 - In Does God Matter?: Essays on the Axiological Consequences of Theism. New York City and Abingdon, England: Routledge. pp. 46-69.
    The structure of this paper is as follows. First, I start off by briefly explaining the concepts of pro-theism and anti-theism, and by distinguishing both between personal and impersonal versions of those views, and also between a more modest and a less modest claim connected with the impersonal version of pro-theism. -/- I then introduce a distinction that is itself quite trivial, namely, that between pro-theism (and anti-theism), on the one hand, and pro-monotheism (and anti-monotheism), on the other, where the (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  19. Backward causation and the Stalnaker-Lewis approach to counterfactuals.Michael Tooley - 2002 - Analysis 62 (3):191–197.
  20. The Stalnaker-Lewis Approach to Counterfactuals.Michael Tooley - 2003 - Journal of Philosophy 100 (7):371-377.
  21. Plantinga's defence of the ontological argument.Michael Tooley - 1981 - Mind 90 (359):422-427.
  22.  86
    Calum Miller's attempted refutation of Michael Tooley's evidential argument from evil.Michael Tooley - 2022 - Religious Studies (A "FirstView" article,):1-18.
    In his article, ‘What's Wrong with Tooley's Argument from Evil?’, Calum Miller's goal was to show that the evidential argument from evil that I have advanced is unsound, and in support of that claim, Miller set out three main objections. First, he argued that I had failed to recognize that the actual occurrence of an event can by itself, at least in principle, constitute good evidence that it was not morally wrong for God to allow events of the kind in (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23.  13
    Causes and Coincidences.Michael Tooley - 1994 - Philosophical Review 103 (3):546.
  24.  24
    Backward causation and the Stalnaker-Lewis approach to counterfactuals.Michael Tooley - 2002 - Analysis 62 (3):191-197.
  25. Abortion: Three Perspectives.Michael Tooley, Celia Wolf-Devine, Philip E. Devine & Alison M. Jaggar - 2009 - Oup Usa.
    The newest addition to the Point/Counterpoint Series, Abortion: Three Perspectives features a debate between four noted philosophers - Michael Tooley, Celia Wolf-Devine, Philip E. Devine, and Alison M. Jaggar - presenting different perspectives on one of the most socially and politically argued issues of the past 30 years. The three main arguments include the "liberal" pro-choice approach, the "communitarian" pro-life approach, and the "gender justice" approach. Divided into two parts, the text features the authors' ideas, developed in depth, and their (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  26.  29
    Review of Bas C. Van Fraassen: Laws and symmetry[REVIEW]Michael Tooley - 1995 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 46 (2):280-283.
  27. Causation and supervenience.Michael Tooley - 2003 - In Michael J. Loux & Dean W. Zimmerman (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Metaphysics. Oxford University Press. pp. 386-434.
  28. Does God exist?Michael Tooley - 2008 - In Alvin Plantinga (ed.), Knowledge of God. Blackwell.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  29.  34
    Abortion and Infanticide.Christina Hoff Sommers & Michael Tooley - 1985 - Hastings Center Report 15 (3):39.
    Book reviewed in this article: Abortion and Infanticide. By Michael Tooley.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  30. ch. 8. Inductive logic and the probability that God exists : farewell to sceptical Theism.Michael Tooley - 2012 - In Jake Chandler & Victoria S. Harrison (eds.), Probability in the Philosophy of Religion. Oxford University Press.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  31.  49
    Value, obligation and the asymmetry question.Michael Tooley - 1998 - Bioethics 12 (2):111–124.
    Is there a prima facie obligation to produce additional individuals whose lives would be worth living? In his paper ‘Is it Good to Make Happy People?’, Stuart Rachels argues not only that there is, but, also, that precisely as much weight should be assigned to the quality of life that would be enjoyed by such potential persons, if they were to be actualized, as to the quality of life enjoyed by actually existing persons. In response, I shall argue, first, that (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  32. The Nature of Causation: A Singularist Account.Michael Tooley - 1990 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20 (sup1):271-322.
    Is a singularist conception of causation coherent? That is to say, is it possible for two events to be causally related, without that relationship being an instance of some causal law, either basic or derived, and either probabilistic or non-probabilistic? Since the time of Hume, the overwhelmingly dominant philosophical view has been that such a conception of causation is not coherent.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  33. Probability and causation.Michael Tooley - 2003 - In Phil Dowe & Paul Noordhof (eds.), Cause and Chance: Causation in an Indeterministic World. Routledge.
  34.  31
    Knowledge of God * by Alvin Plantinga and Michael Tooley. [REVIEW]Alvin Plantingaand & Michael Tooley - 2009 - Analysis 69 (3):591-592.
    Knowledge of God takes the form of a debate between Alvin Plantinga and Michael Tooley. Plantinga opens the batting with a seventy-page laying out of his case ‘that theism has a significant epistemic virtue: if it is true, it is warranted; this is a virtue naturalism emphatically lacks’. Indeed, Plantinga argues that ‘if naturalism were true, there would be no such thing as knowledge’. It will be recalled [e.g. Plantinga and Plantinga ] that Plantinga's position is that warrant, understood as (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  35. Time, Truth, Actuality, and Causation: On the Impossibility of Divine Foreknowledge.Michael Tooley - 2010 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 2 (1):143 - 163.
    In this essay, my goal is, first, to describe the most important contemporary philosophical approaches to the nature of time, and then, secondly, to discuss the ways in which those different accounts bear upon the question of the possibility of divine foreknowledge. I shall argue that different accounts of the nature of time give rise to different objections to the idea of divine foreknowledge, but that, in addition, there is a general argument for the impossibility of divine foreknowledge that is (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  36. Alvin Plantinga and the argument from evil.Michael Tooley - 1980 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 58 (4):360 – 376.
    Among the central theses defended in this paper are the following. First, the logical incompatibility version of the argument from evil is not one of the crucial versions, and Plantinga, in fostering the illusion that it is, seriously misrepresents claims advanced by other philosophers. Secondly, Plantinga’s arguments against the thesis that the existence of any evil at all is logically incompatible with God’s existence. Thirdly, Plantinga’s attempt to demonstrate that the existence of a certain amount of evil in the world (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  37. Functional Concepts, Referentially Opaque Contexts, Causal Relations, and the Definition of Theoretical Terms.Michael Tooley - 2001 - Philosophical Studies 105 (3):251-279.
    In his recent article, ``Self-Consciousness'’, George Bealer has set outa novel and interesting argument against functionalism in the philosophyof mind. I shall attempt to show, however, that Bealer's argument cannotbe sustained.In arguing for this conclusion, I shall be defending three main theses.The first is connected with the problem of defining theoreticalpredicates that occur in theories where the following two features arepresent: first, the theoretical predicate in question occurswithin both extensional and non-extensional contexts; secondly, thetheory in question asserts that the relevant (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  38.  40
    Armstrong's proof of the realist account of dispositional properties.Michael Tooley - 1972 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):283 – 287.
  39.  74
    Freedom and Foreknowledge.Michael Tooley - 2000 - Faith and Philosophy 17 (2):212-224.
    In her book, The Dilemma of Freedom and Foreknowledge, Linda Zagzebski suggests that among the strongest ways of supporting the thesis that libertarian free will is incompatible with divine foreknowledge is what she refers to as the Accidental Necessity argument. Zagzebski contends, however, that at least three satisfactory responses to that argument are available.I argue that two of the proposed solutions are open to strong objections, and that the third, although it may very well handle the specific versions of the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  40.  2
    The Nature of Causation: A Singularist Account.Michael Tooley - 1990 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 16:271-322.
    Is a singularist conception of causation coherent? That is to say, is it possible for two events to be causally related, without that relationship being an instance of some causal law, either basic or derived, and either probabilistic or non-probabilistic? Since the time of Hume, the overwhelmingly dominant philosophical view has been that such a conception of causation is not coherent.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  41.  45
    The Mathematics of Desert: Merit, Fit, and Well-Being.Stephen Kershnar & Michael Tooley - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (18):18.
    Here, we argue for a mathematical equation that captures desert. Our procedure consists of setting out principles that a correct equation must satisfy and then arguing that our set of equations satisfies them. We then consider two objections to the equation. First, an objector might argue that desert and well-being separately contribute to intrinsic goodness, and they do not separately contribute. The concern here is that our equations treat them as separate contributors. Second, our set of desert-equations are unlike equations (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42. Alvin Plantinga and Michael Tooley: Knowledge of God.Alvin Plantinga & Michael Tooley - 2009 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 66 (2):105-107.
  43. Hume and the Problem of Evil.Michael Tooley - 2011 - In Jeffrey J. Jordan (ed.), Philosophy of Religion: The Key Thinkers. London and New York: Continuum. pp. 159-86.
    1.1 The Concept of Evil The problem of evil, in the sense relevant here, concerns the question of the reasonableness of believing in the existence of a deity with certain characteristics. In most discussions, the deity is God, understood as an omnipotent, omniscient, and morally perfect person. But the problem of evil also arises, as Hume saw very clearly, for deities that are less than all-powerful, less than all-knowing, and less than morally perfect. What is the relevant concept of evil, (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  44. Laws of Nature. [REVIEW]Michael Tooley - 1997 - Philosophical Review 106 (1):119.
    In this book, John Carroll argues for the following two anti-reductionist theses.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  45.  29
    Correspondence.Robert Howell, Edward Langerak, Adam Morton & Michael Tooley - 1973 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 2 (4):407-432.
    I discuss Tooley's use of the concept of a person with respect to other moral issues such as justifiable suicide.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  46. An Irrelevant Consideration: Killing Versus Letting Die.Michael Tooley - 1980 - In Killing and Letting Die. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice–Hall. pp. 56–62.
    Many people hold that there is an important moral distinction between passive euthanasia and active euthanasia. Thus, while the AMA maintains that people have a right quote to die with dignity, quote so that it is morally permissible for a doctor to allow someone to die if that person wants to and is suffering from an incurable illness causing pain that cannot be sufficiently alleviated, the MA is unwilling to countenance active euthanasia for a person who is in similar straits, (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  47. An Irrelevant Consideration: Killing Versus Letting Die (2nd edition).Michael Tooley - 1994 - In Bonnie Steinbock & Alastair Norcross (eds.), Killing and Letting Die. New York: Fordham University Press. pp. 103–111.
    Many people hold that there is an important moral distinction between passive euthanasia and active euthanasia. Thus, while the AMA maintains that people have a right quote to die with dignity, quote so that it is morally permissible for a doctor to allow someone to die if that person wants to and is suffering from an incurable illness causing pain that cannot be sufficiently alleviated, the MA is unwilling to countenance active euthanasia for a person who is in similar straits, (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  48.  63
    Laws and Causal Relations.Michael Tooley - 1984 - In Peter French, Theodore Uehling & Howard Wettstein (eds.), Midwest Studies in Philosophy – Volume 9. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 93-112.
    How are causal relations between particular states of affairs related to causal laws? There appear to be three main answers to this question, and the choice among those three alternatives would seem to be crucial for any account of causation. In spite of this fact, the question of which view is correct has been all but totally neglected in present-day discussions. Indeed, since the time of Hume, one answer has more or less dominated philosophical thinking about causation. This is the (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  49. Causation.Michael Tooley - 2009 - In Robin LePoidevin, Peter Simons, Andrew McGonigal & Ross Cameron (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Metaphysics. New York: Routledge. pp. 459-70.
    Causation Accounts of the concept of causation can be divided up into four general types: direct non-reductionist, Humean reductionist, non-Humean reductionist, and indirect, or theoretical-term, non-reductionist accounts. This fourfold division, in turn, rests upon the following three distinctions: first, that between reductionism and non-reductionism; secondly, that between Humean and non-Humean states of affairs; and, thirdly, that between states that are directly observable and those that are not. Let us, then, consider each of these distinctions in turn. Non-Reductionism versus Reductionism The (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  50. Helping People to Think Critically about Their Religious Beliefs.Michael Tooley - 2009 - In 50 Voices of Disbelief: Why We Are Atheists. Wiley-Blackwell.
    In the debate volume, ’Knowledge of God’, co-authored with Alvin Plantinga, I argued that there is an inductively sound version of the argument from evil, and recently, several popular books criticizing religious belief have appeared, often focusing on that issue of the existence of God. In the present essay I argue, however, that to help ordinary people think more critically about religious beliefs, it is better to focus on beliefs associated with specific religions, such as Christianity. I then go on (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
1 — 50 / 141