Results for 'Michael E. McCullough'

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  1.  11
    Cognitive systems for revenge and forgiveness.Michael E. McCullough, Robert Kurzban & Benjamin A. Tabak - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):1-15.
    Minimizing the costs that others impose upon oneself and upon those in whom one has a fitness stake, such as kin and allies, is a key adaptive problem for many organisms. Our ancestors regularly faced such adaptive problems (including homicide, bodily harm, theft, mate poaching, cuckoldry, reputational damage, sexual aggression, and the infliction of these costs on one's offspring, mates, coalition partners, or friends). One solution to this problem is to impose retaliatory costs on an aggressor so that the aggressor (...)
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  2. Forgiveness and Health: A Review and Theoretical Exploration of Emotion Pathways.Charlotte V. O. Witvliet & Michael E. McCullough & D. Ph - 2007 - In Stephen Garrard Post (ed.), Altruism and Health: Perspectives From Empirical Research. Oup Usa.
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  3.  46
    Publication bias and the limited strength model of self-control: has the evidence for ego depletion been overestimated?Evan C. Carter & Michael E. McCullough - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  4.  13
    Putting revenge and forgiveness in an evolutionary context.Michael E. McCullough, Robert Kurzban & Benjamin A. Tabak - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):41-58.
    In this response, we address eight issues concerning our proposal that human minds contain adaptations for revenge and forgiveness. Specifically, we discuss (a) the inferences that are and are not licensed by patterns of contemporary behavioral data in the context of the adaptationist approach; (b) the theoretical pitfalls of conflating proximate and ultimate causation; (c) the role of development in the production of adaptations; (d) the implications of proposing that the brain's cognitive systems are fundamentally computational in nature; (e) our (...)
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  5. The Evolution of Generosity: How Natural Selection Builds Devices for Benefit Delivery.Michael E. McCullough & Eric J. Pedersen - 2013 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 80 (2):387-410.
     
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  6.  6
    When it comes to taxes, ownership intuitions abide by the law.Leo J. Kleiman-Lynch & Michael E. McCullough - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e341.
    Boyer suggests that laws cannot account for ownership intuitions, but there may be situations when intuitions hew to laws almost perfectly. Laws granting governments taxation powers provide an interesting case study. We report data here suggesting that people's intuitions track law very closely, and are unaffected by manipulating a P() tag input. We propose two hypotheses to explain this finding.
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  7.  10
    Is ego depletion too incredible? Evidence for the overestimation of the depletion effect.Evan C. Carter & Michael E. McCullough - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (6):683-684.
    The depletion effect, a decreased capacity for self-control following previous acts of self-control, is thought to result from a lack of necessary psychological/physical resources (i.e., “ego depletion”). Kurzban et al. present an alternative explanation for depletion; but based on statistical techniques that evaluate and adjust for publication bias, we question whether depletion is a real phenomenon in need of explanation.
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  8.  9
    Moral reasoning performance determines epistemic peerdom.William H. B. McAuliffe & Michael E. McCullough - 2019 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 42:e161.
    We offer a friendly criticism of May's fantastic book on moral reasoning: It is overly charitable to the argument that moral disagreement undermines moral knowledge. To highlight the role that reasoning quality plays in moral judgments, we review literature that he did not mention showing that individual differences in intelligence and cognitive reflection explain much of moral disagreement. The burden is on skeptics of moral knowledge to show that moral disagreement arises from non-rational origins.
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  9.  19
    Conceptualizing Religion and Spirituality: Points of Commonality, Points of Departure.Peter C. Hill, Kenneth Ii Pargament, Ralph W. Hood, Michael E. McCullough, Jr, James P. Swyers, David B. Larson & Brian J. Zinnbauer - 2000 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 30 (1):51-77.
    Psychologists' emerging interest in spirituality and religion as well as the relevance of each phenomenon to issues of psychological importance requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of each construct. On the basis of both historical considerations and a limited but growing empirical literature, we caution against viewing spirituality and religiousness as incompatible and suggest that the common tendency to polarize the terms simply as individual vs. institutional or ′good′ vs. ′bad′ is not fruitful for future research. Also cautioning against (...)
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  10.  43
    Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity.Charles S. Carver, Sheri L. Johnson, Michael E. McCullough, Daniel E. Forster & Jutta Joormann - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  11. Forgiveness and Health: A Review and Theoretical Exploration of Emotion Pathways.Charlotte V. O. Witvliet & McCullough, E. Michael & D. Ph - 2007 - In Stephen Garrard Post (ed.), Altruism and Health: Perspectives From Empirical Research. Oup Usa.
     
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  12.  8
    Ghazali and demonstrative science.Michael E. Marmura - 1965 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 3 (2):183-204.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Ghazali and Demonstrative Science MICHAEL E. MARMURA I MEDIEVALISLA_MICtheologians subjected Aristotle's theory of the essential efficient cause to severe criticism and rejected it. This criticism and rejection finds its most forceful expression in the writings of Ghazali (al-Ghaz~li) (d. 1111).1 In his Tahafut al-Falasifa (The Incoherence of the Philosophers), he argues on logical and empirical grounds that the alleged necessary connection between what is habitually regarded as the (...)
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  13.  19
    Al-Farabi's Commentary and Short Treatise on Aristotle's De Interpretatione.Michael E. Marmura & F. W. Zimmermann - 1983 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 103 (4):763.
  14.  42
    Al-Ghazālī, Tahāfut al-Falāsifah (Incoherence of the Philosophers)Al-Ghazali, Tahafut al-Falasifah.Michael E. Marmura & Ahmad Sabih Kamali - 1960 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 80 (1):58.
  15.  23
    Ghazālian Causes and IntermediariesCreation and the Cosmic System: Al-Ghazālī and AvicennaGhazalian Causes and IntermediariesCreation and the Cosmic System: Al-Ghazali and Avicenna.Michael E. Marmura & Richard M. Frank - 1995 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 115 (1):89.
  16.  60
    Ghazali's Chapter on Divine Power in the Iqti ād.Michael E. Marmura - 1994 - Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 4 (2):279-315.
    The theological foundations of Ghazali's causal theory are fully expressed in the chapter on the attribute of divine power in his al-Iqtiād fi al-I'tiqād. The basic doctrine which he proclaims and argues for is that divine power, an attribute additional to the divine essence, is one and pervasive. It does not consist of a multiplicity of powers that produce a multiplicity of effects, but is a unitary direct cause of each and every created existent. In a defense of the doctrine (...)
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  17.  47
    Ethico-Religious Concepts in the Qur'an. By Toshihiko Izutsu. Montreal: McGill University Press, 1966. McGill Islamic Studies. Pp. ix + 284. $9. [REVIEW]Michael E. Marmura - 1967 - Dialogue 6 (2):262-263.
  18. Eclipse of the Self the Development of Heidegger's Concept of Authenticity /Michael E. Zimmerman. --. --.Michael E. Zimmerman - 1982 - Ohio University Press,, C1981 1982.
     
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  19. Faces of Intention: Selected Essays on Intention and Agency.Michael E. Bratman - 1999 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    This collection of essays by one of the most prominent and internationally respected philosophers of action theory is concerned with deepening our understanding of the notion of intention. In Bratman's view, when we settle on a plan for action we are committing ourselves to future conduct in ways that help support important forms of coordination and organization both within the life of the agent and interpersonally. These essays enrich that account of commitment involved in intending, and explore its implications for (...)
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  20.  12
    Heidegger’s Confrontation with Modernity: Technology, Politics, and Art.Michael E. ZIMMERMAN - 1990 - Indiana University Press.
    "Writing in a lively and refreshingly clear American English, Zimmerman provides an uncompromisingly honest and judicious account... of Heidegger’s views on technology and his involvement with National Socialism.... One of the most important books on Heidegger in recent years." —John D. Caputo "... superb... " —Thomas Sheehan, The New York Review of Books "... thorough and complex... " —Choice "... excellent guide to Heidegger as eco-philosopher." —Radical Philosophy "... engrossing, rich in substance... makes clear Heidegger's importance for the issue of (...)
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  21.  11
    Contesting Earth's Future: Radical Ecology and Postmodernity.Michael E. Zimmerman (ed.) - 1994 - University of California Press.
    Radical ecology typically brings to mind media images of ecological activists standing before loggers' saws, staging anti-nuclear marches, and confronting polluters on the high seas. Yet for more than twenty years, the activities of organizations such as the Greens and Earth First! have been influenced by a diverse, less-publicized group of radical ecological philosophers. It is their work—the philosophical underpinnings of the radical ecological movement—that is the subject of _Contesting Earth's Future_. The book offers a much-needed, balanced appraisal of radical (...)
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  22. Eclipse of the Self: The Development of Heidegger's Concept of Authenticity.Michael E. Zimmerman - 1984 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 16 (2):187-188.
     
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  23.  19
    Two Problems About Human Agency.Michael E. Bratman - 2001 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 101 (1):309-326.
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  24. The Eclipse of the Self: The Development of Heidegger's Concept of Authenticity.Michael E. Zimmerman - 1982 - Religious Studies 18 (3):401-402.
     
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  25.  13
    Feminism, Deep Ecology, and Environmental Ethics.Michael E. Zimmerman - 1987 - Environmental Ethics 9 (1):21-44.
    Deep ecologists have criticized reform environmentalists for not being sufficiently radical in their attempts to curb human exploitation of the nonhuman world. Ecofeminists, however, maintain that deep ecologists, too, are not sufficiently radical, for they have neglected the cmcial role played by patriarchalism in shaping the cultural categories responsible for Western humanity’s domination of Nature. According to eco-feminists, only by replacing those categories-including atomism, hierarchalism, dualism, and androcentrism - can humanity learn to dweIl in harmony with nonhuman beings. After reviewing (...)
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  26. Physical Perspectives on Computation, Computational Perspectives on Physics.Michael E. Cuffaro & Samuel C. Fletcher (eds.) - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    Although computation and the science of physical systems would appear to be unrelated, there are a number of ways in which computational and physical concepts can be brought together in ways that illuminate both. This volume examines fundamental questions which connect scholars from both disciplines: is the universe a computer? Can a universal computing machine simulate every physical process? What is the source of the computational power of quantum computers? Are computational approaches to solving physical problems and paradoxes always fruitful? (...)
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  27. The Open Systems View.Michael E. Cuffaro & Stephan Hartmann - manuscript
    There is a deeply entrenched view in philosophy and physics, the closed systems view, according to which isolated systems are conceived of as fundamental. On this view, when a system is under the influence of its environment this is described in terms of a coupling between it and a separate system which taken together are isolated. We argue against this view, and in favor of the alternative open systems view, for which systems interacting with their environment are conceived of as (...)
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  28.  87
    Shared Agency: Replies to Ludwig, Pacherie, Petersson, Roth, and Smith.Michael E. Bratman - 2014 - Journal of Social Ontology 1 (1):59-76.
    These are replies to the discussions by Kirk Ludwig, Elizabeth Pacherie, Björn Petersson, Abraham Roth, and Thomas Smith of Michael E. Bratman, Shared Agency: A Planning Theory of Acting Together (Oxford University Press, 2014).
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  29.  8
    Injustice: political theory for the real world.Michael E. Goodhart - 2018 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    This book challenges the dominant approach to problems of justice in global normative theory and offers a radical alternative designed to transform our thinking about what kind of problem injustice is and how political theorists might do better in understanding and addressing it. It argues that the dominant approach, ideal moral theory (IMT), takes a fundamentally wrong-headed approach to the problem of justice. IMT seeks to work out what an ideally just society would look like, and only then outlines our (...)
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  30.  37
    XV*-Two Problems About Human Agency.Michael E. Bratman - 2001 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 101 (3):309-326.
  31.  55
    Reflection, Planning, and Temporally Extended Agency.Michael E. Bratman - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (1):35.
    We are purposive agents; but we—adult humans in a broadly modern world—are more than that. We are reflective about our motivation. We form prior plans and policies that organize our activity over time. And we see ourselves as agents who persist over time and who begin, develop, and then complete temporally extended activities and projects. Any reasonably complete theory of human action will need in some way to advert to this trio of features—to our reflectiveness, our planfulness, and our conception (...)
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  32. Modest sociality and the distinctiveness of intention.Michael E. Bratman - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 144 (1):149-165.
    Cases of modest sociality are cases of small scale shared intentional agency in the absence of asymmetric authority relations. I seek a conceptual framework that adequately supports our theorizing about such modest sociality. I want to understand what in the world constitutes such modest sociality. I seek an understanding of the kinds of normativity that are central to modest sociality. And throughout we need to keep track of the relations—conceptual, metaphysical, normative—between individual agency and modest sociality. In pursuit of these (...)
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  33.  32
    Notes on source materials: The Edwin Grant Conklin papers at Princeton University.Garland E. Allen & Dennis M. McCullough - 1968 - Journal of the History of Biology 1 (2):325-331.
  34.  11
    Metaphysics and the Mind-Body Problem.Michael E. Levin - 1979 - New York: Oxford University Press.
  35.  23
    The Philosophy of Quantum Computing.Michael E. Cuffaro - 2022 - In Eduardo Reck Miranda (ed.), Quantum Computing in the Arts and Humanities: An Introduction to Core Concepts, Theory and Applications. Springer. pp. 107-152.
    From the philosopher’s perspective, the interest in quantum computation stems primarily from the way that it combines fundamental concepts from two distinct sciences: Physics, in particular Quantum Mechanics, and Computer Science, each long a subject of philosophical speculation and analysis in its own right. Quantum computing combines both of these more traditional areas of inquiry into one wholly new, if not quite independent, science. Over the course of this chapter we will be discussing some of the most important philosophical questions (...)
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  36.  24
    The extensionality of causation and causal-explanatory contexts.Michael E. Levin - 1976 - Philosophy of Science 43 (2):266-277.
    I argue that 'c' occurs extensionally in 'c caused e' and 'D' occurs extensionally in 'c caused e because c is D'. I claim that this has been insufficiently appreciated because the two contexts are often run together and because it has not been clear that the description D of c is among the referents of an explanatory argument. I argue as well that Hume's analysis of causation is consistent with taking causation to be a relation between single events, and (...)
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  37.  18
    Dynamics of Sociality.Michael E. Bratman - 2006 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 30 (1):1-15.
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  38. Reconsidering No-Go Theorems from a Practical Perspective.Michael E. Cuffaro - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 69 (3):633-655.
    I argue that our judgements regarding the locally causal models that are compatible with a given constraint implicitly depend, in part, on the context of inquiry. It follows from this that certain quantum no-go theorems, which are particularly striking in the traditional foundational context, have no force when the context switches to a discussion of the physical systems we are capable of building with the aim of classically reproducing quantum statistics. I close with a general discussion of the possible implications (...)
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  39.  22
    On theory-change and meaning-change.Michael E. Levin - 1979 - Philosophy of Science 46 (3):407-424.
    I argue against the currently popular view that a radical change in theory affects the meaning of theoretical terms, and hence render pre- and post-shift theories incomparable. I first show how to pose the meaning-change issue without appeal to meanings reified. I contend that arguments against theory-neutral observation languages are faulty, but that even if they were sound, there are semantic devices that allow a theory to refer to the factual basis of a competitor. This suggests a picture of science (...)
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  40.  11
    The Measurement Problem is a Feature, Not a Bug – Schematising the Observer and the Concept of an Open System on an Informational, or (neo-)Bohrian, Approach.Michael E. Cuffaro - 2023 - Entropy 25:1410.
    I flesh out the sense in which the informational approach to interpreting quantum mechanics, as defended by Pitowsky and Bub and lately by a number of other authors, is (neo-)Bohrian. I argue that on this approach, quantum mechanics represents what Bohr called a “natural generalisation of the ordinary causal description” in the sense that the idea (which philosophers of science like Stein have argued for on the grounds of practical and epistemic necessity) that understanding a theory as a theory of (...)
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  41.  5
    Bioethical Considerations in Translational Research: Primate Stroke.Michael E. Sughrue, J. Mocco, Willam J. Mack, Andrew F. Ducruet, Ricardo J. Komotar, Ruth L. Fischbach, Thomas E. Martin & E. Sander Connolly - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (5):3-12.
    Controversy and activism have long been linked to the subject of primate research. Even in the midst of raging ethical debates surrounding fertility treatments, genetically modified foods and stem-cell research, there has been no reduction in the campaigns of activists worldwide. Plying their trade of intimidation aimed at ending biomedical experimentation in all animals, they have succeeded in creating an environment where research institutions, often painted as guilty until proven innocent, have avoided addressing the issue for fear of becoming targets. (...)
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  42.  34
    A Planning Theory of Acting Together.Michael E. Bratman - 2022 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 8 (3):391-398.
    We have the capacity to act together in shared intentional and shared cooperative ways. This lecture argues that our capacity for the plan-based, mind-supported cross-temporal organization of our individual activities, together with certain further elements, suffices for our capacity for the mind-supported, small-scale social organization characteristic of acting together. These two fundamental forms of human practical organization––diachronic and small-scale social––are for us grounded in a common core: our capacity for planning agency.
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  43. Shared cooperative activity.Michael E. Bratman - 1992 - Philosophical Review 101 (2):327-341.
  44.  73
    Shared intention.Michael E. Bratman - 1993 - Ethics 104 (1):97-113.
  45. Ethical and Unethical Leadership: Exploring New Avenues for Future Research.Michael E. Brown & Marie S. Mitchell - 2010 - Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (4):583-616.
    ABSTRACT:The purpose of this article is to review literature that is relevant to the social scientific study of ethics and leadership, as well as outline areas for future study. We first discuss ethical leadership and then draw from emerging research on “dark side” organizational behavior to widen the boundaries of the review to includeunethical leadership. Next, three emerging trends within the organizational behavior literature are proposed for a leadership and ethics research agenda: 1) emotions, 2) fit/congruence, and 3) identity/identification. We (...)
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  46. Rational Planning Agency.Michael E. Bratman - 2017 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 80:25-48.
    Our planning agency contributes to our lives in fundamental ways. Prior partial plans settle practical questions about the future. They thereby pose problems of means, filter solutions to those problems, and guide action. This plan-infused background frames our practical thinking in ways that cohere with our resource limits and help organize our lives, both over time and socially. And these forms of practical thinking involve guidance by norms of plan rationality, including norms of plan consistency, means-end coherence, and stability over (...)
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  47.  9
    Change blindness and priming: When it does and does not occur.Michael E. Silverman & Arien Mack - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):409-422.
    In a series of three experiments, we explored the nature of implicit representations in change blindness . Using 3 × 3 letter arrays, we asked subjects to locate changes in paired arrays separated by 80 ms ISIs, in which one, two or three letters of a row in the second array changed. In one testing version, a tone followed the second array, signaling a row for partial report . In the other version, no PR was required. After Ss reported whether (...)
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  48.  79
    Kuhn reconstructed: Incommensurability without relativism.Michael E. Malone - 1991 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (1):69-93.
    The standard reading of Kuhn's philosophy attributes to him the view that the incommensurability of rival theories and theory-ladenness of observation make rational debate about competing paradigms nearly impossible. If this reflects his real view, then he has claimed something prima facie absurd, and easily refuted with historical counter-examples. It is not the incommensurability thesis per se that is easily refutable, but Kuhn's gestelt interpretation of it. The gestalt interpretation, moreover misrepresents his more fundamental ideas on paradigms, and is in (...)
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  49.  29
    Practical reasoning and acceptance in a context.Michael E. Bratman - 1992 - Mind 101 (401):1-16.
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  50.  87
    Information causality, the Tsirelson bound, and the ‘being-thus’ of things.Michael E. Cuffaro - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 72:266-277.
    The principle of 'information causality' can be used to derive an upper bound---known as the 'Tsirelson bound'---on the strength of quantum mechanical correlations, and has been conjectured to be a foundational principle of nature. In this paper, however, I argue that the principle has not to date been sufficiently motivated to play this role; the motivations that have so far been given are either unsatisfactorily vague or else amount to little more than an appeal to intuition. I then consider how (...)
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