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  1.  14
    Individuality and Hierarchy in Cicero’s De Officiis.Michael C. Hawley - 2020 - European Journal of Political Theory 19 (1):87-105.
    This essay explores a creative argument that Cicero offers to answer a fundamental question: how are we to judge among different ways of life? Is there a natural hierarchy of human types? In response to this problem, Cicero gives an account of a person’s possessing two natures. All of us participate in a general human nature, the characteristics of which provide us with certain universal duties and a natural moral hierarchy. But, we also each possess an individual nature, qualities that (...)
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    Newman’s Immanent Critique of Liberalism.Michael C. Hawley - 2015 - Philosophy and Theology 27 (1):189-207.
    John Henry Newman's theological arguments against the mixture of liberal philosophy and Christian religion have drawn a great deal of scholarly attention. Comparatively underappreciated is Newman's rebuttal of liberal ideas on the philosophical plane. In this line of argument, which runs parallel to his more purely theological critique, Newman uses some of liberalism's own foundational philosophical premises to undermine the conclusions put forth by the exponents of liberal religion. This immanent critique of liberal religion is important not merely because it (...)
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    Individuality and Hierarchy in Cicero’s De Officiis.Michael C. Hawley - 2016 - European Journal of Political Theory:147488511665769.
    This essay explores a creative argument that Cicero offers to answer a fundamental question: how are we to judge among different ways of life? Is there a natural hierarchy of human types? In respon...
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  4.  7
    Cicero’s Duties and Adam Smith’s Sentiments: How Smith Adapts Cicero’s Account of Self-Interest, Virtue, and Justice.Michael C. Hawley - 2019 - History of European Ideas 45 (5):705-720.
    ABSTRACTIn this article, I explore the complex and unappreciated relationship between the moral and political thought of Cicero and Adam Smith. Cicero’s views about justice, propriety, and the selfish love of praise find new expression in Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments. I illustrate the important ways in which Smith adopts – often without attribution – Cicero’s precepts and moral judgments. I then go on to demonstrate how Smith strips those Ciceronian conclusions from their original justifying grounds in teleology and natural (...)
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