Results for 'Michael A. Tolson'

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  1.  46
    The relationship between ethical ideology and ethical behavior intentions: An exploratory look at physicians' responses to managed care dilemmas. [REVIEW]Jacqueline K. Eastman, Kevin L. Eastman & Michael A. Tolson - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 31 (3):209 - 224.
    Within the past few years, managed care health insurance programs have become commonplace. With managed care programs, however, physicians are facing increasing ethical pressures. This paper examines the relationship between physicians'' behavior intentions with respect to four managed care ethical scenarios and their responses to Forsyth''s (1980) Ethics Position Questionnaire (EPQ). This is one of the first papers to compare this scale to behavioral intentions in the workplace. We provide a literature review of the ethical dilemmas that doctors face under (...)
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  2. A theory of freedom and responsibility.Michael A. Smith - 1997 - In Garrett Cullity & Berys Nigel Gaut (eds.), Ethics and practical reason. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 293-317.
  3.  88
    The Construction of Reality.Michael A. Arbib & Mary B. Hesse - 1986 - New York: Cambridge University Press. Edited by Mary B. Hesse.
    In this book, Michael Arbib, a researcher in artificial intelligence and brain theory, joins forces with Mary Hesse, a philosopher of science, to present an integrated account of how humans 'construct' reality through interaction with the social and physical world around them. The book is a major expansion of the Gifford Lectures delivered by the authors at the University of Edinburgh in the autumn of 1983. The authors reconcile a theory of the individual's construction of reality as a network (...)
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  4.  5
    Interview with Kevin Harris.Michael A. Peters - 2021 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 53 (3):209-216.
    This interview took place through email during October-November, 2019. Michael: It’s a real pleasure to engage you in conversation. You were a foundation member of PESA and someone who in the pre-I...
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  5. Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment.Michael A. Bishop & J. D. Trout - 2004 - New York: OUP USA. Edited by J. D. Trout.
    Bishop and Trout here present a unique and provocative new approach to epistemology. Their approach aims to liberate epistemology from the scholastic debates of standard analytic epistemology, and treat it as a branch of the philosophy of science. The approach is novel in its use of cost-benefit analysis to guide people facing real reasoning problems and in its framework for resolving normative disputes in psychology. Based on empirical data, Bishop and Trout show how people can improve their reasoning by relying (...)
  6.  58
    The Good Life: Unifying the Philosophy and Psychology of Well-Being.Michael A. Bishop - 2014 - New York, US: OUP USA.
    Science and philosophy study well-being with different but complementary methods. Marry these methods and a new picture emerges: To have well-being is to be "stuck" in a positive cycle of emotions, attitudes, traits and success. This book unites the scientific and philosophical worldviews into a powerful new theory of well-being.
  7.  37
    Neural expectations: A possible evolutionary path from manual skills to language.Michael A. Arbib & Giacomo Rizzolatti - forthcoming - Communication and Cognition: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly Journal.
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  8. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics.Michael A. Arbib - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):105-124.
    The article analyzes the neural and functional grounding of language skills as well as their emergence in hominid evolution, hypothesizing stages leading from abilities known to exist in monkeys and apes and presumed to exist in our hominid ancestors right through to modern spoken and signed languages. The starting point is the observation that both premotor area F5 in monkeys and Broca's area in humans contain a “mirror system” active for both execution and observation of manual actions, and that F5 (...)
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  9.  37
    Neurolinguistics must be computational.Michael A. Arbib & David Caplan - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (3):449-460.
  10.  3
    Culture critique: Fernand Dumont and new Quebec sociology.Michael A. Weinstein - 1985 - New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Critical explorations of the key thinkers in the New World. Intersecting biography and history, individual monographs in New World Perspectives examine the central intellectual vision of leading contributors to politics, culture and society.
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  11.  2
    Finite perfection: reflections on virtue.Michael A. Weinstein - 1985 - Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
  12. Spinoza on beings of reason [entia rationis] and the analogical imagination.Michael A. Rosenthal - 2019 - In Charles Ramond & Jack Stetter (eds.), Spinoza in Twenty-First-Century American and French Philosophy: Metaphysics, Philosophy of Mind, Moral and Political Philosophy.
  13. Consciousness cannot be separated from function.Michael A. Cohen & Daniel C. Dennett - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (8):358--364.
    Here, we argue that any neurobiological theory based on an experience/function division cannot be empirically confirmed or falsified and is thus outside the scope of science. A ‘perfect experiment’ illustrates this point, highlighting the unbreachable boundaries of the scientific study of consciousness. We describe a more nuanced notion of cognitive access that captures personal experience without positing the existence of inaccessible conscious states. Finally, we discuss the criteria necessary for forming and testing a falsifiable theory of consciousness.
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  14.  32
    Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks.Michael A. Arbib (ed.) - 1995 - MIT Press.
    Choice Outstanding Academic Title, 1996. In hundreds of articles by experts from around the world, and in overviews and "road maps" prepared by the editor, The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networkscharts the immense progress made in recent years in many specific areas related to two great questions: How does the brain work? and How can we build intelligent machines? While many books have appeared on limited aspects of one subfield or another of brain theory and neural networks, the (...)
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  15.  24
    The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks.Michael A. Arbib (ed.) - 1998 - MIT Press.
    Choice Outstanding Academic Title, 1996. In hundreds of articles by experts from around the world, and in overviews and "road maps" prepared by the editor, The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks charts the immense progress made in recent years in many specific areas related to great questions: How does the brain work? How can we build intelligent machines? While many books discuss limited aspects of one subfield or another of brain theory and neural networks, the Handbook covers the (...)
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  16. Can You Hear Me Now? Sensitive Comparisons of Human and Machine Perception.Michael A. Lepori & Chaz Firestone - 2022 - Cognitive Science 46 (10):e13191.
    Cognitive Science, Volume 46, Issue 10, October 2022.
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  17. In Search of the Person: Philosophical Explorations in Cognitive Science.Michael A. Arbib - 1987 - The Personalist Forum 3 (1):78-80.
     
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  18. What is the Bandwidth of Perceptual Experience?Michael A. Cohen, Daniel C. Dennett & Nancy Kanwisher - 2016 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (5):324-335.
    Although our subjective impression is of a richly detailed visual world, numerous empirical results suggest that the amount of visual information observers can perceive and remember at any given moment is limited. How can our subjective impressions be reconciled with these objective observations? Here, we answer this question by arguing that, although we see more than the handful of objects, claimed by prominent models of visual attention and working memory, we still see far less than we think we do. Taken (...)
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  19.  7
    Unified Theories of Cognition.Michael A. Arbib - 1993 - Artificial Intelligence 59 (1-2):265-283.
  20.  8
    Correction to: Far From the Madding Crowd: Health Service Expectations in the “Country”.Michael A. Ashby - 2024 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 21 (1):209-209.
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  21.  12
    Brains, Machines, and Mathematics.Michael A. Arbib - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (3):482-483.
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  22. The Possibility of Conceptual Clarity in Philosophy.Michael A. Bishop - 1992 - American Philosophical Quarterly 29 (3):267 - 277.
  23. Why Thought Experiments are Not Arguments.Michael A. Bishop - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (4):534-541.
    Are thought experiments nothing but arguments? I argue that it is not possible to make sense of the historical trajectory of certain thought experiments if one takes them to be arguments. Einstein and Bohr disagreed about the outcome of the clock-in-the-box thought experiment, and so they reconstructed it using different arguments. This is to be expected whenever scientists disagree about a thought experiment's outcome. Since any such episode consists of two arguments but just one thought experiment, the thought experiment cannot (...)
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  24. Why the generality problem is everybody’s problem.Michael A. Bishop - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 151 (2):285 - 298.
    The generality problem is widely considered to be a devastating objection to reliabilist theories of justification. My goal in this paper is to argue that a version of the generality problem applies to all plausible theories of justification. Assume that any plausible theory must allow for the possibility of reflective justification—S's belief, B, is justified on the basis of S's knowledge that she arrived at B as a result of a highly (but not perfectly) reliable way of reasoning, R. The (...)
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  25.  22
    Levels of modeling of mechanisms of visually guided behavior.Michael A. Arbib - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (3):407-436.
    Intermediate constructs are required as bridges between complex behaviors and realistic models of neural circuitry. For cognitive scientists in general, schemas are the appropriate functional units; brain theorists can work with neural layers as units intermediate between structures subserving schemas and small neural circuits.After an account of different levels of analysis, we describe visuomotor coordination in terms of perceptual schemas and motor schemas. The interest of schemas to cognitive science in general is illustrated with the example of perceptual schemas in (...)
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  26.  96
    The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks, Second Edition.Michael A. Arbib (ed.) - 2002 - MIT Press.
    A new, dramatically updated edition of the classic resource on the constantly evolving fields of brain theory and neural networks.
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  27.  6
    Multi-Modal 2020.Michael A. Gilbert - 2022 - Informal Logic 44 (1):487-506.
    My essay, “Multi-modal argumentation” was published in the journal, _Philosophy of the Social Sciences,_ in 1994. This information appeared again in my book, _Coalescent argumentation_ in 1997. In the ensuing twenty years, there have been many changes in argumentation theory, and I would like to take this opportunity to examine my now middle-aged theory in light of the developments in our discipline. I will begin by relating how a once keen intended lawyer and then formal logician ended up in argumentation (...)
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  28.  17
    Liminality: The Not-So-New Normal?Michael A. Ashby - 2022 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 19 (1):1-5.
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  29. Baruch Spinoza.Michael A. Rosenthal - 2009 - In Graham Oppy & Nick Trakakis (eds.), Medieval Philosophy of Religion: The History of Western Philosophy of Religion, Volume 2. Routledge. pp. 3--141.
     
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  30. Music Performance As an Experimental Approach to Hyperscanning Studies.Michaël A. S. Acquadro, Marco Congedo & Dirk De Riddeer - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  31. In Praise of Epistemic Irresponsibility: How Lazy and Ignorant Can You Be?Michael A. Bishop - 2000 - Synthese 122 (1-2):179 - 208.
    Epistemic responsibility involves at least two central ideas. (V) To be epistemically responsible is to display the virtue(s) epistemic internalists take to be central to justification (e.g., coherence, having good reasons, fitting the evidence). (C) In normal (non-skeptical)circumstances and in thelong run, epistemic responsibility is strongly positively correlated with reliability. Sections 1 and 2 review evidence showing that for a wide range of real-world problems, the most reliable, tractable reasoning strategies audaciously flout the internalist''s epistemic virtues. In Section 3, I (...)
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  32. Uploading and Branching Identity.Michael A. Cerullo - 2015 - Minds and Machines 25 (1):17-36.
    If a brain is uploaded into a computer, will consciousness continue in digital form or will it end forever when the brain is destroyed? Philosophers have long debated such dilemmas and classify them as questions about personal identity. There are currently three main theories of personal identity: biological, psychological, and closest continuer theories. None of these theories can successfully address the questions posed by the possibility of uploading. I will argue that uploading requires us to adopt a new theory of (...)
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  33.  26
    Quantum Computation and Quantum Information.Michael A. Nielsen & Isaac L. Chuang - 2000 - Cambridge University Press.
    First-ever comprehensive introduction to the major new subject of quantum computing and quantum information.
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  34.  35
    Philosophy of education in a new key: A collective project of the PESA executive.Michael A. Peters, Sonja Arndt, Marek Tesar, Liz Jackson, Ruyu Hung, Carl Mika, Janis T. Ozolins, Christoph Teschers, Janet Orchard, Rachel Buchanan, Andrew Madjar, Rene Novak, Tina Besley, Sean Sturm, Peter Roberts & Andrew Gibbons - 2022 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 54 (8):1061-1082.
    Michael Peters, Sonja Arndt & Marek TesarThis is a collective writing experiment of PESA members, including its Executive Committee, asking questions of the Philosophy of Education in a New Key. Co...
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  35. Schemas versus symbols: A vision from the 90s.Michael A. Arbib - 2021 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 2 (1):68-74.
    Thirty years ago, I elaborated on a position that could be seen as a compromise between an "extreme," symbol-based AI, and a "neurochemical reductionism" in AI. The present article recalls aspects of the espoused framework of schema theory that, it suggested, could provide a better bridge from human psychology to brain theory than that offered by the symbol systems of A. Newell and H. A. Simon.
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  36.  4
    Definitionen psychologisch-ethischer Faktoren in der systematischen Philosophie des Buddhismus.Michael A. Colsman - 1990 - Pfaffenweiler: Centaurus-Verlagsgesellschaft. Edited by Phu-Khaṅ Dge-BśEs Blo-Bzaṅ-Rgya-Mtsho.
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  37.  13
    Computational challenges of evolving the language-ready brain.Michael A. Arbib - 2018 - Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies / Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies 19 (1-2):7-21.
    Computational modeling of the macaque brain grounds hypotheses on the brain of LCA-m. Elaborations thereof provide a brain model for LCA-c. The Mirror System Hypothesis charts further steps via imitation and pantomime to protosign and protolanguage on the path to a "language-ready brain" in Homo sapiens, with the path to speech being indirect. The material poses new challenges for both experimentation and modeling.
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  38. Towards a philosophy of academic publishing.Michael A. Peters, Petar Jandrić, Ruth Irwin, Kirsten Locke, Nesta Devine, Richard Heraud, Andrew Gibbons, Tina Besley, Jayne White, Daniella Forster, Liz Jackson, Elizabeth Grierson, Carl Mika, Georgina Stewart, Marek Tesar, Susanne Brighouse, Sonja Arndt, George Lazaroiu, Ramona Mihaila, Catherine Legg & Leon Benade - 2016 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 48 (14):1401-1425.
    This article is concerned with developing a philosophical approach to a number of significant changes to academic publishing, and specifically the global journal knowledge system wrought by a range of new digital technologies that herald the third age of the journal as an electronic, interactive and mixed-media form of scientific communication. The paper emerges from an Editors' Collective, a small New Zealand-based organisation comprised of editors and reviewers of academic journals mostly in the fields of education and philosophy. The paper (...)
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  39.  53
    Complex imitation and the language-ready brain.Michael A. Arbib - forthcoming - Language and Cognition.
  40.  27
    Précis of How the brain got language: The Mirror System Hypothesis.Michael A. Arbib - forthcoming - Language and Cognition.
  41.  78
    A category-theoretic approach to systems in a fuzzy world.Michael A. Arbib & Ernest G. Manes - 1975 - Synthese 30 (3-4):381 - 406.
  42. Co-evolution of human consciousness and language.Michael A. Arbib - 2001 - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 929:195-220.
  43. The Flight to Reference, or How Not to Make Progress in the Philosophy of Science.Michael A. Bishop & Stephen P. Stich - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (1):33-49.
    The flight to reference is a widely-used strategy for resolving philosophical issues. The three steps in a flight to reference argument are: (1) offer a substantive account of the reference relation, (2) argue that a particular expression refers (or does not refer), and (3) draw a philosophical conclusion about something other than reference, like truth or ontology. It is our contention that whenever the flight to reference strategy is invoked, there is a crucial step that is left undefended, and that (...)
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  44. A Piagetian perspective on mathematical construction.Michael A. Arbib - 1990 - Synthese 84 (1):43 - 58.
    In this paper, we offer a Piagetian perspective on the construction of the logico-mathematical schemas which embody our knowledge of logic and mathematics. Logico-mathematical entities are tied to the subject's activities, yet are so constructed by reflective abstraction that they result from sensorimotor experience only via the construction of intermediate schemas of increasing abstraction. The axiom set does not exhaust the cognitive structure (schema network) which the mathematician thus acquires. We thus view truth not as something to be defined within (...)
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  45. Human Needs: Overview.Michael A. Dover - 2023 - Oxford//Nasw Encyclopedia of Social Work Https://Doi.Org/10.1093/Acrefore/9780199975839.013.554.
    Human need and related concepts such as basic needs have long been part of the implicit conceptual foundation for social work theory, practice, and research. However, while the published literature in social work has long stressed social justice, and has incorporated discussion of human rights, human need has long been both a neglected and contested concept. In recent years, the explicit use of human needs theory has begun to have a significant influence on the literature in social work.
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  46.  73
    The comparative neuroprimatology 2018 road map for research on How the Brain Got Language.Michael A. Arbib, Francisco Aboitiz, Judith M. Burkart, Michael C. Corballis, Gino Coudé, Erin Hecht, Katja Liebal, Masako Myowa-Yamakoshi, James Pustejovsky, Shelby S. Putt, Federico Rossano, Anne E. Russon, P. Thomas Schoenemann, Uwe Seifert, Katerina Semendeferi, Chris Sinha, Dietrich Stout, Virginia Volterra, Sławomir Wacewicz & Benjamin Wilson - 2018 - Interaction Studies 19 (1-2):370-387.
    We present a new road map for research on “How the Brain Got Language” that adopts an EvoDevoSocio perspective and highlights comparative neuroprimatology – the comparative study of brain, behavior and communication in extant monkeys and great apes – as providing a key grounding for hypotheses on the last common ancestor of humans and monkeys and chimpanzees and the processes which guided the evolution LCA-m → LCA-c → protohumans → H. sapiens. Such research constrains and is constrained by analysis of (...)
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  47. Beware the passionate robot.Michael A. Arbib - 2004 - In J. Fellous (ed.), Who Needs Emotions?: The Brain Meets the Robot. Oxford University Press.
  48.  17
    Embedded Journalists or Empirical Critics? The Nature of The “Gaze” in Bioethics.Michael A. Ashby & Bronwen Morrell - 2018 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 15 (3):305-307.
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  49. Theory-Ladenness of Perception Arguments.Michael A. Bishop - 1992 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:287 - 299.
    The theory-ladenness of perception argument is not an argument at all. It is two clusters of arguments. The first cluster is empirical. These arguments typically begin with a discussion of one or more of the following psychological phenomena: (a) the conceptual penetrability of the visual system, (b) voluntary perceptual reversal of ambiguous figures, (c) adaptation to distorting lenses, or (d) expectation effects. From this evidence, proponents of theory-ladenness typically conclude that perception is in some sense "laden" with theory. The second (...)
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  50.  51
    Second Nature, Critical Theory and Hegel’s Phenomenology.Michael A. Becker - 2018 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 26 (4):523-545.
    ABSTRACTWhile Hegel’s concept of second nature has now received substantial attention from commentators, relatively little has been said about the place of this concept in the Phenomenology of Spirit. This neglect is understandable, since Hegel does not explicitly use the phrase ‘second nature’ in this text. Nonetheless, several closely related phrases reveal the centrality of this concept to the Phenomenology’s structure. In this paper, I develop new interpretations of the figures ‘natural consciousness’, ‘natural notion’, and ‘inorganic nature’, in order to (...)
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