26 found
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  1.  73
    Primer on an ethics of AI-based decision support systems in the clinic.Matthias Braun, Patrik Hummel, Susanne Beck & Peter Dabrock - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):3-3.
    Making good decisions in extremely complex and difficult processes and situations has always been both a key task as well as a challenge in the clinic and has led to a large amount of clinical, legal and ethical routines, protocols and reflections in order to guarantee fair, participatory and up-to-date pathways for clinical decision-making. Nevertheless, the complexity of processes and physical phenomena, time as well as economic constraints and not least further endeavours as well as achievements in medicine and healthcare (...)
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  2.  31
    A Personalized Patient Preference Predictor for Substituted Judgments in Healthcare: Technically Feasible and Ethically Desirable.Brian D. Earp, Sebastian Porsdam Mann, Jemima Allen, Sabine Salloch, Vynn Suren, Karin Jongsma, Matthias Braun, Dominic Wilkinson, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Annette Rid, David Wendler & Julian Savulescu - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics:1-14.
    When making substituted judgments for incapacitated patients, surrogates often struggle to guess what the patient would want if they had capacity. Surrogates may also agonize over having the (sole) responsibility of making such a determination. To address such concerns, a Patient Preference Predictor (PPP) has been proposed that would use an algorithm to infer the treatment preferences of individual patients from population-level data about the known preferences of people with similar demographic characteristics. However, critics have suggested that even if such (...)
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  3.  75
    Own Data? Ethical Reflections on Data Ownership.Patrik Hummel, Matthias Braun & Peter Dabrock - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (3):545-572.
    In discourses on digitization and the data economy, it is often claimed that data subjects shall beownersof their data. In this paper, we provide a problem diagnosis for such calls fordata ownership: a large variety of demands are discussed under this heading. It thus becomes challenging to specify what—if anything—unites them. We identify four conceptual dimensions of calls for data ownership and argue that these help to systematize and to compare different positions. In view of this pluralism of data ownership (...)
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  4.  48
    Represent me: please! Towards an ethics of digital twins in medicine.Matthias Braun - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (6):394-400.
    Simulations are used in very different contexts and for very different purposes. An emerging development is the possibility of using simulations to obtain a more or less representative reproduction of organs or even entire persons. Such simulations are framed and discussed using the term ‘digital twin’. This paper unpacks and scrutinises the current use of such digital twins in medicine and the ideas embedded in this practice. First, the paper maps the different types of digital twins. A special focus is (...)
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  5.  43
    A Leap of Faith: Is There a Formula for “Trustworthy” AI?Matthias Braun, Hannah Bleher & Patrik Hummel - 2021 - Hastings Center Report 51 (3):17-22.
    Trust is one of the big buzzwords in debates about the shaping of society, democracy, and emerging technologies. For example, one prominent idea put forward by the High‐Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence appointed by the European Commission is that artificial intelligence should be trustworthy. In this essay, we explore the notion of trust and argue that both proponents and critics of trustworthy AI have flawed pictures of the nature of trust. We develop an approach to understanding trust in AI (...)
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  6.  63
    Data sovereignty: A review.Peter Dabrock, Max Tretter, Matthias Braun & Patrik Hummel - 2021 - Big Data and Society 8 (1).
    New data-driven technologies yield benefits and potentials, but also confront different agents and stakeholders with challenges in retaining control over their data. Our goal in this study is to arrive at a clear picture of what is meant by data sovereignty in such problem settings. To this end, we review 341 publications and analyze the frequency of different notions such as data sovereignty, digital sovereignty, and cyber sovereignty. We go on to map agents they concern, in which context they appear, (...)
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  7.  35
    Just data? Solidarity and justice in data-driven medicine.Matthias Braun & Patrik Hummel - 2020 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 16 (1):1-18.
    This paper argues that data-driven medicine gives rise to a particular normative challenge. Against the backdrop of a distinction between the good and the right, harnessing personal health data towards the development and refinement of data-driven medicine is to be welcomed from the perspective of the good. Enacting solidarity drives progress in research and clinical practice. At the same time, such acts of sharing could—especially considering current developments in big data and artificial intelligence—compromise the right by leading to injustices and (...)
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  8.  20
    Vulnerable Life: Reflections on the Relationship Between Theological and Philosophical Ethics.Matthias Braun - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (12):21-23.
    It is very timely and highly important to think the relationship between theological and philosophical ethics. In this issue, Michael McCarthy et al. make a plea for a stronger dialogue...
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  9.  11
    Meaningful Human Control over AI for Health? A Review.Eva Maria Hille, Patrik Hummel & Matthias Braun - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Artificial intelligence is currently changing many areas of society. Especially in health, where critical decisions are made, questions of control must be renegotiated: who is in control when an automated system makes clinically relevant decisions? Increasingly, the concept of meaningful human control (MHC) is being invoked for this purpose. However, it is unclear exactly how this concept is to be understood in health. Through a systematic review, we present the current state of the concept of MHC in health. The results (...)
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  10.  9
    The Ethics of Medical Data Donation.Peter Dabrock, Matthias Braun & Patrik Hummel (eds.) - 2019 - Springer Verlag.
    This open access book presents an ethical approach to utilizing personal medical data. It features essays that combine academic argument with practical application of ethical principles. The contributors are experts in ethics and law. They address the challenges in the re-use of medical data of the deceased on a voluntary basis. This pioneering study looks at the many factors involved when individuals and organizations wish to share information for research, policy-making, and humanitarian purposes. Today, it is easy to donate blood (...)
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  11.  32
    Ethics of digital twins: four challenges.Matthias Braun - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (9):579-580.
    In the article ‘Represent Me: Please! Towards an Ethics of Digital Twins in Medicine’, I analysed and tried to better understand the main ethical challenges associated with Digital Twins. For those who are just entering the debate with this article: DT is a metaphor for a bundle of artificial intelligence driven simulation technologies that constantly, in real time and ad personam simulate single or multiple parts of the body and make predictions about future health states based on these simulations. My (...)
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  12. The trust game CRISPR for human germline editing unsettles scientists and society.Matthias Braun & Darian Meacham - 2019 - EMBO Reports 20 (2).
  13.  18
    Perspectives of patients and clinicians on big data and AI in health: a comparative empirical investigation.Patrik Hummel, Matthias Braun, Serena Bischoff, David Samhammer, Katharina Seitz, Peter A. Fasching & Peter Dabrock - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-15.
    Background Big data and AI applications now play a major role in many health contexts. Much research has already been conducted on ethical and social challenges associated with these technologies. Likewise, there are already some studies that investigate empirically which values and attitudes play a role in connection with their design and implementation. What is still in its infancy, however, is the comparative investigation of the perspectives of different stakeholders. Methods To explore this issue in a multi-faceted manner, we conducted (...)
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  14.  15
    Between Moral Hazard and Legal Uncertainty: Ethical, Legal and Societal Challenges of Human Genome Editing.Matthias Braun, Hannah Schickl & Peter Dabrock (eds.) - 2018 - Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.
    Genome Editing Techniques are seen to be at the frontier of current research in the field of emerging biotechnologies. The latest revolutionary development, the so-called CRISPR technology, represents a paradigmatic example of the ambiguity of such techniques and has resulted in an international interdisciplinary debate on whether or not it is necessary to ban the application of this technique by means of a moratorium on its use for human germline modifications, particularly in human embryos in the reproduction process. However, given (...)
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  15.  11
    Risikoadaptierte Prävention: Governance Perspective Für Leistungsansprüche Bei Genetischen (Brustkrebs-)Risiken.Friedhelm Meier, Anke Harney, Kerstin Rhiem, Anja Neumann, Silke Neusser, Matthias Braun, Jürgen Wasem, Rita Schmutzler, Stefan Huster & Peter Dabrock - 2018 - Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.
    Die vorliegende Studie empfiehlt, Leistungsansprüche für Personen mit interventionsfordernden Risiken anhand einer neuen Rechtskategorie, der ‚risikoadaptieren Prävention‘, abzubilden. Spätestens seit dem bioinformatischen Innovationsschub kann eine risikoadaptierte Anwendung von prophylaktischen Maßnahmen umfassend gewährleistet werden. Jedoch können die gegebenen Rechtskategorien das medizinische Anwendungsfeld nicht adäquat steuern. Die Autoren Friedhelm Meier, Anke Harney, Kerstin Rhiem, Anja Neumann, Silke Neusser, Matthias Braun, Jürgen Wasem, Rita Schmutzler, Stefan Huster und Peter Dabrock haben zusammen im BMBF geförderten Projekt SYSKON. Re-Konfiguration von Gesundheit und Krankheit. Ethische, psychosoziale, (...)
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  16.  8
    Between Moral Hazard and Legal Uncertainty.Matthias Braun, Hannah Schickl & Peter Dabrock - 2018 - In Matthias Braun, Hannah Schickl & Peter Dabrock (eds.), Between Moral Hazard and Legal Uncertainty: Ethical, Legal and Societal Challenges of Human Genome Editing. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. pp. 1-14.
    Genome editing techniques are seen to be at the frontier of current research in the field of emerging biotechnologies. However, such biotechnological research is tensioned at the interface of science, technology and society. On the one hand, this means that it offers a tremendous potential to provide new concepts, methods and – in the long run – novel applications for urgent challenges and needs within society.
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  17.  29
    Reflections on Putting AI Ethics into Practice: How Three AI Ethics Approaches Conceptualize Theory and Practice.Hannah Bleher & Matthias Braun - 2023 - Science and Engineering Ethics 29 (3):1-21.
    Critics currently argue that applied ethics approaches to artificial intelligence (AI) are too principles-oriented and entail a theory–practice gap. Several applied ethical approaches try to prevent such a gap by conceptually translating ethical theory into practice. In this article, we explore how the currently most prominent approaches of AI ethics translate ethics into practice. Therefore, we examine three approaches to applied AI ethics: the embedded ethics approach, the ethically aligned approach, and the Value Sensitive Design (VSD) approach. We analyze each (...)
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  18.  23
    Ways Out of the Patenting Prohibition? Human Parthenogenetic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.Hannah Schickl, Matthias Braun & Peter Dabrock - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (5):409-417.
    According to the judgement of the European Court of Justice in 2014, human parthenogenetic stem cells are excluded from the patenting prohibition of procedures based on hESC by the European Biopatent Directive, because human parthenotes are not human embryos. This article is based on the thesis that in light of the technological advances in the field of stem cell research, the attribution of the term ‘human embryo’ to certain entities on a descriptive level as well as the attribution of a (...)
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  19.  14
    Tackling Structural Injustices: On the Entanglement of Visibility and Justice in Emerging Technologies.Matthias Braun, Hannah Bleher, Eva Maria Hille & Jenny Krutzinna - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (7):100-102.
    In today’s world, Artificial Intelligence plays a central role in many decision-making processes. However, its use can lead to structural and epistemic injustices—especially in the context of healt...
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  20. Das ist doch Populismus!" : zur (nicht nur aber auch : theologischen) Verhältnisbestimmung von Anerkennung und Affekt.Matthias Braun - 2018 - In Thomas Wabel, Torben Stamer & Jonathan Weider (eds.), Zwischen Diskurs und Affekt: politische Urteilsbildung in theologischer Perspektive. Leipzig: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt.
     
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  21.  24
    Riding New Waves. Sozialethische Metabeobachtungen zur Individualisierten Medizin.Matthias Braun, Dr Jens Ried & Prof Dr Peter Dabrock - 2013 - Ethik in der Medizin 25 (3):251-258.
    Neben grundsätzlichen konzeptionellen Fragen der sog. Individualisierten Medizin (IM), prägen ethische Bedenken und Fragen die aktuellen Debatten um die IM. Allerdings ist bislang noch nicht geklärt, in welchem methodischen Rahmen diese Fragen verortet werden können. Für die Entwicklung eines solchen Rahmens wird das Modell der First- und Second-Wave-Bioethics diskutiert und an zwei konkreten Herausforderungen – 1) dem Verhältnis der IM zur evidenz-basierten Medizin und 2) am Konzept der genetischen Risikoperson – aufgezeigt. Eine solche Kontextualisierung der IM-Debatte legt den Grundstein für (...)
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  22.  16
    Riding New Waves. Sozialethische Metabeobachtungen zur Individualisierten Medizin.Matthias Braun, Jens Ried & Peter Dabrock - 2013 - Ethik in der Medizin 25 (3):251-258.
    ZusammenfassungNeben grundsätzlichen konzeptionellen Fragen der sog. Individualisierten Medizin (IM), prägen ethische Bedenken und Fragen die aktuellen Debatten um die IM. Allerdings ist bislang noch nicht geklärt, in welchem methodischen Rahmen diese Fragen verortet werden können. Für die Entwicklung eines solchen Rahmens wird das Modell der First- und Second-Wave-Bioethics diskutiert und an zwei konkreten Herausforderungen – 1) dem Verhältnis der IM zur evidenz-basierten Medizin und 2) am Konzept der genetischen Risikoperson – aufgezeigt. Eine solche Kontextualisierung der IM-Debatte legt den Grundstein für (...)
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  23.  10
    Riding new waves. Socioethical meta observations in individualized medicine.Matthias Braun, Jens Ried & Peter Dabrock - 2013 - Ethik in der Medizin 25 (3):251-258.
    ZusammenfassungNeben grundsätzlichen konzeptionellen Fragen der sog. Individualisierten Medizin, prägen ethische Bedenken und Fragen die aktuellen Debatten um die IM. Allerdings ist bislang noch nicht geklärt, in welchem methodischen Rahmen diese Fragen verortet werden können. Für die Entwicklung eines solchen Rahmens wird das Modell der First- und Second-Wave-Bioethics diskutiert und an zwei konkreten Herausforderungen – 1) dem Verhältnis der IM zur evidenz-basierten Medizin und 2) am Konzept der genetischen Risikoperson – aufgezeigt. Eine solche Kontextualisierung der IM-Debatte legt den Grundstein für eine (...)
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  24.  4
    From Functional Differentiation to (Re-) Hybridization. The Challenges of Bio-Objects in Synthetic Biology.Peter Dabrock, Matthias Braun & Jens Ried - 2013 - In Martin G. Weiss & Hajo Greif (eds.), Ethics, society, politics: proceedings of the 35th International Ludwig Wittgenstein Symposium, Kirchberg am Wechsel, Austria, 2012. Boston: De Gruyter Ontos. pp. 453-482.
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  25.  14
    Hybridisierungsdynamiken im Verständnis von und im Umgang mit ‚Leben'.Jens Ried, Matthias Braun & Peter Dabrock - 2014 - Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 18 (1):173-198.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft und Ethik Jahrgang: 18 Heft: 1 Seiten: 173-198.
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  26.  11
    Synthetic Biology and the Question of Public Participation : Governance and Ethics in Dealing with Emerging Technologies.Stephanie Siewert, Katharina Kieslich, Matthias Braun & Peter Dabrock - 2023 - Springer Verlag.
    The book considers the relationship between governance and participation, and the ways participation has been understood, framed and applied in the context of synthetic biology (SB) governance approaches. Based on fundamental questions about the scope, purpose, and responsibilities assigned to public participation activities, the authors conducted an literature review of policy reports and articles on SB governance. The authors identify key characteristics of synthetic biology, such as the complex interplay of research, engineering and IT expertise in the field, as well (...)
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