Part of a 14-volume work covering writings in American religious history with specific attention to trends in American Protestantism; church and state; theological issues; social Christianity; women in religion; native American religion; regional and black religion; fundamentalism and creationism.
In Building Cultures of Trust MartinMarty proposes ways to improve the conditions for trust at what might be called the "grassroots" level. He suggests that it makes a difference if citizens put energy into inventing, developing, and encouraging "cultures of trust" in all areas of life--families, schools, neighborhoods, workplaces, and churches. Marty acknowledges that the reality of human nature tends toward trust-breaking, not trust-building--all the more reason, he argues, to develop strategies to bring about improvements incrementally, (...) one small step at a time. --from publisher description. (shrink)
The Christian Heritage delves into the history of the western Christian heritage. Challenges to the Christian heritage, a heritage nourished both by Judaism and by the western classics, have been stimulated by the very success of the way of life that is promoted, a way of life that is somehow responsible for the emergence of modern science with its revolutionary technology.
Modern medical ethics developed in America after mid-century chiefly at theological schools, but discourse on bioethics soon moved to the pluralist-secular settings of the academy and the clinic, where it acquired a philosophical and intentionally non-religious cast. An effort was made, on the grounds of ‘liberal culture’ and ‘late Enlightenment rationality’ to find a framework for inquiry which aspired to the universal. Today, while that language persists, it coexists with, challenges, and is challenged by forms of ethical analysis and advocacy (...) which take into consideration the ‘thickness’ of complicating narrative and reasoning based in the many religious traditions. It has become incumbent upon advocates of those traditions to propose ‘publicly accessible’ argument. Keywords: bioethics, church, religion, theology CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this? (shrink)
O artigo busca examinar, no pensamento de Martín de Azpilcueta (1492- 1586), a questão da justificação moral da prática comercial. Na intenção de alcançar este objetivo, buscar-se-á explorar a compreensão da moralidade envolvendo a atividade comercial em pensadores anteriores a Azpilcueta que trataram do tema e, que de certa forma, o influenciaram na abordagem da questão. Nessa perspectiva, será destacada a discussão trazida por Tomás de Aquino (1225-1274) e João Duns Scotus (1265-1308). Assim, se investigará como o legado destes dois (...) grandes filósofos medievais influenciaram a compreensão de Azpilcueta sobre o tema da defesa da legitimidade moral da prática comercial, discussão essa que o pensador trata em sua obra Commentaria in septem distinctiones de poenitentia. (shrink)
Bullying is a serious problem in today’s workplace, in that, a large percentage of employees have either been bullied or knows someone who has. There are a variety of ethical concerns dealing with bullying—that is, courses of action to manage the bullying contain serious ethical/legal concerns. The inadequacies of legal protections for bullying in the U.S. workplace also compound the approaches available to deal ethically with bullying. While Schumann (2001, Human Resource Management Review 11, 93–111) does not explicitly examine bullying, (...) the five moral principles that he advocates can be applied to judge the ethics of bullying in the workplace. A possible limitation of this model is that, it is designed to be normative (judgmental), and while it does take into consideration the relationships among the victim, the perpetrator, the groups in the organization, and the organization itself in judging the ethics of bullying, it does not explicitly consider the process by which bullying might develop and persist. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the dynamics of this process, Nijhof and Rietdijk (1999, Journal of Business Ethics 20(1), 39–50)) suggest applying an A–B–C (antecedents, behaviors, and consequences) model to help understand the dynamics of bullying in the workplace. Formal propositions are offered to guide both academics and practitioners to an enriched understanding of the ethics of workplace bullying. (shrink)
Like COVID-19, new infectious disease outbreaks emerge almost annually, and studies predict that this trend will continue due to a variety of factors, including an aging population, ease of travel, and globalization of the economy. In response to episodic public health crises, governments and organizations develop, implement, and enforce policies, procedures, protocols, and programs. The epidemiological triad is both a model of disease causation and fundamentally used to design and deploy such control measures. Here we adapt this model to the (...) workplace setting and use the epidemiological triad to characterize the related ethical challenges in implementing the control measures employers face as a guide for a workplace intervention framework. Through this approach, our aim is to show how an integrated ethical framework, grounded in epidemiological principles, has important implications for how we categorize, understand, and resolve the difficult decisions that emerge in the workplace under pandemic conditions. (shrink)
Martin E. Rosenberg -/- The Gift of Silence: Towards an Anthropology of Jazz Improvisation as Neuro-Resistance. -/- ABSTRACT: -/- This essay addresses how the complex processes that occur during jazz improvisation enact behaviors that resemble the logic of gift exchange first described by Marcel Mauss. It is possible to bring to bear structural, sociological, political economical, deconstructive or even ethical approaches to what constitutes gift exchange during the performance of jazz. Yet, I would like to shift from focusing this (...) analysis of jazz improvisation with reference to the language of music as symbolic action (which all of these approaches require), to grounding improvisation in embodied and distributed cognition, the performance of which begins with a ritual gift of silence. By silence, I refer to the embodied, yet shared pure duration as felt synchrony within an individual performer, that extends to the members of an ensemble. Thus, I refer to both aesthetic and micro-political implications of embodied, yet also distributed musical cognition in real time. -/- For jazz musicians, embodied silence becomes the initial condition for processes of cognitive bifurcation. For it is bifurcation that attracts us to jazz in the first place. Here I expand my previous work establishing similarities in the behavior of bifurcating systems in physical and cognitive sciences to the unfolding of ambiguity in real time during improvisation with respect to polyphony, polytonality and polyrhythms in the history of jazz from Charlie Parker to Ornette Coleman. We can therefore re-conceptualize jazz improvisation as a subversive antidote for processes of determination identified in a sub-discipline of cultural studies called “cognitive capitalism.” By examining silence from this anthropological perspective, we can conceive of jazz performance as a ritualized resistance to top-down cognitive control immanent with social and digital networks. The ritual enactment that is jazz improvisation points towards an aesthetics of bifurcation that is simultaneously a micro-politics of neuro-resistance. In other words, I argue that freedom of thought requires freedom from thought as an initial condition. -/- Yet, I emphasize the empirical rather than mystical grounds to this gift of silence. The valorization of silence by jazz musicians is not simply etiquette, an ethics of reciprocity for performers exchanging “riffs,” but an initial condition that jazz performers (and, I would argue, listeners) experience in their bodies, thus linking embodied cognition to a collective field of cultural production that emerges from each embodied individual, and yet also pervades the ensemble in ways reminiscent of feedback loops in complex systems. The recent and remarkable research on music and the brain has demonstrated that it is now possible to describe jazz improvisation as possessing both embodied and distributed cognitive properties. The emergent neuronal ensemble behavior within the individual that is visible in jazz improvisors, discovered by the neuroscientists at Johns Hopkins led by Charles Limb, bears striking resemblance to the interactive behaviors of the jazz ensemble itself. Thus, it is by recourse to recent research by myself and others into the cognitive neuroscience of music generally, and jazz improvisation specifically, that the empirical grounds for an anthropology of neuro-resistance become visible. (shrink)
Egalitarian thinkers have adopted Ronald Dworkin’s distinction between brute and option luck in their attempts to construct theories that better respect our intuitions about what it is that egalitarian justice should equalize. I argue that when there is no risk-free choice available, it is less straightforward than commonly assumed to draw this distinction in a way that makes brute-luck egalitarianism plausible. I propose an extension of the brute-luck–option-luck distinction to this more general case. The generalized distinction, called the ‘least risky (...) prospect view’ of brute luck, implies more redistribution than Dworkin’s own solution (although less than called for by some of his other critics). Moreover, the generalized brute-luck–option-luck distinction must be parasitical on an underlying non-egalitarian theory of which sets of options are reasonable. The presupposed prior theory may be inimical to the claim that justice requires equality rather than some other distributive pattern. (shrink)
Stakeholder theory usually focuses on the moral responsibility of corporations towards their stakeholders. This article takes the reverse perspective to shed light on the moral responsibility of stakeholders—specifically, investors or 'financiers'. It explicates a distinction between two types of financiers, creditors and shareholders. Many intuitively judge that shareholders have greater or more extensive moral responsibility for the actions of the corporations they invest in than do bondholders and other creditors. Examining the merits of possible arguments for or against treating owners (...) and creditors differently elucidates which arguments can support the moral duties of investors generally, and different duties for different groups of investors specifically. The paper considers three possible lines of arguments, rooting investors' responsibility, respectively, in how they enable corporate conduct, how they benefit from it, and to what extent they are complicit in it. The paper argues that a notion of complicity is the only tenable ground for holding investors liable; sketches an account of complicity based on the recent philosophical literature on collective intention and collective action; and concludes that shareholders but not creditors can generally be seen as complicit on this account. (shrink)
Conventional economic theory assumes that people care only about ultimate outcomes and are indifferent to the decision and allocation processes by which outcomes are brought about. Building on Sen (1997), I relax this assumption, and investigate the formal and philosophical issues that arise. I extend the formal apparatus of preference theory to analyse how processes may enter preferences, and investigate whether traditional invariance requirements like the Weak Axiom of Revealed Preference are still satisfied in this new setting. I show that (...) it is, provided certain conditions of separability hold, and I discuss the plausibility of these conditions. Further, I argue that processes are often valued in a mode that diverges from the conventional modes of instrumental and intrinsic/independent valuation. I introduce the notion of dependent non-instrumental valuation, and show how processes could depend on their instrumental function for their value – making their value dependent – and yet derive their value from something else – making it non-instrumental. Dependent non-instrumental value, I argue, can be explained by symbolic and evidential relations between processes and outcomes. (Published Online July 31 2007) Footnotes1 This article is based on the third chapter of my Ph.D. dissertation (Sandbu 2003). I would like to thank Richard Tuck for many discussions over several years, which helped me develop and elaborate the ideas presented here. I am also very grateful to Amartya Sen, Nien-hê Hsieh, Luc Bovens, and Xaq Pitkow for their close readings of various versions of the paper and their incisive comments, questions, and suggestions. Further thanks go to Christopher Avery, Matthias Benz, Jerry Green, Waheed Hussain, David Laibson, Robert Sugden, Alan Strudler, Justin Wolfers, and seminar participants at Harvard University and the Wharton School of Business. Akshay Jashnani provided helpful research assistance. Most of the ideas in the present article were developed while I was the recipient of a doctoral grant from the Research Council of Norway, which I gratefully acknowledge. (shrink)
A actividade científica de Mário Martins, S.J. (1908-1990) integra-se em uma directriz que aponta para a valorização do pensamento português, um dos objectivos precípuos da Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia, de que aquele foi colaborador. Pode definir-se o alcance da tese que está subjacente aos estudos de M. Martins: - a existência du. duma constante no Homem, quando este é considerado globalmente, como ser vivo e senhor de sentimentos e de aspirações em larga medida comuns a todos os tempos. Os termos (...) em que o homem medieval experimentou e desenvolveu tão complexa teia de relações na sua época - de ideias, de gostos, de crenças, de volições e de vivências, e sobre aquela, nos textos quenos legou pôde reflectir em plano. especulativo - tal foi o objecto prioritário da diuturna inquirição do nosso Autor. Tese essa que supõe, para conveniente compreensão e tratamento dos temas, se reconheça a funcionalidade interdisciplinar dos agentes da cultura. É esta noção que leva M. Martins a recorrer a uma metodologia comparatista, privilegiando as inter-relações, ao aproximar as doutrinas filosóficas de textos osmais diversos, tais como fontes históricas (primárias,narrativas, literárias, iconográficas, litúrgicas,) estruturas tradicionais de mitos e lendas, arquétipos de versões arcaicas de poema de contos, do romanceiro popular, enfim da vasta e complexa rede de veios de espiritualidade, entre Oriente e Ocidente, entre a Antiguidade e o Medievo, ou entre este e o tempo actual. Autor de vastíssima bibliografia no campo da cultura portuguesa, e especialmente em seu âmbito medieval, M. Martins apresenta-se como o historiador das inter-relações, em termos, amplitude e alcance antes desconhecidos, como chave de interpretação da cultura medieval, com novas modalidades de tratamento e de exegese de textos o que conduz a uma necessária revisão de conceitos na actual historiografia portuguesa. O epistolário inédito e a bibliografia do Autor, em Apêndice, colocam em relevo os traços essenciais da personalidade e os núcleos temáticos da obra deste Medievalista. /// L'activé scientifique de Mário Martins, S.J. (1908-1990) a comme ligne de force la valorisation de la pensée portugaise, un des objrectifs principaux de la Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia, dont il fut collaborateur. On peut définir l'enjeu de la thèse sous-jacente aux études de M. Martins: l'existence d'une constante en l'Homme, quand celui-ci est considéré globalement, comme être vivant et siège de sentiments et d'aspirations pour une large part communs à tous les temps. Les termes en lesquels l'homme médiéval a vécu et développé un si complexe réseau de relations en son époque - réseau d'idées, de goûts, de croyances, volitions et expériences vécues - et la réflexion qu'il a pu poursuivre sur ce réseau grâce aux textes qu'il nous a légués, tel fut l'objectif prioritaire de la longue recherche de notre Auteur. Cette thèse suppose, pour que l'on puisse correctement comprendre et développer les thèmes en questions, que l'on reconnaisse la fonctionalité interdisciplinaire des agents de la culture. C'est cette notion que pousse M. Martins à faire appel à une méthodologie comparatiste privilégiant les relations en rapportant les doctrines philosophiques de textes très divers comme les sources historiques (primaires, narratives, littéraires, iconographiques, liturgiques), ou comme les structures traditionnelles de mythes et de légendes, les archétypes de versions archaïques de poèmes et de contes, du romain populaire, enfin de Ia vaste et complexe gamme des chemins de spiritualité, entre l'Orient et l'Occident, entre F Antiquité et le Moyen Age, entre ce temps-là et le temps actuei. Auteur d'une três vaste bibliographie dans le domaine de lacultureportugaise, et spécialement sur le térrain du Moyen-Age, M. Martins apparait comme Tnistorien des "inter-relations» (menées avec une envergure jusqu'alors inconnue) comme clé d'interprétation de laculture médiévale, avec de nouvelles modalités de traitement et d'exégèse de textes, ce que conduit à une nécessaire révision des concepts dans 1'actuelle historiographie portugaise. La correspondance et Ia bibliographie de 1'Auteur, en appendice, mettent en relief les traits essentiels de Ia personnalité et les thèmes centraux de 1'oeuvre de ce Médiéviste. /// Mário Martins' work can be appreciated as part of the project, implicit in the criation of the Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia, to promote Portuguese thought as such. M. Martins' contribution can be seen in his insistence that there is a constant factor in the existence of Man. His rechearch into Medieval texts attemps to bring this factor out; the key notion is the interdisciplinary functioning of cultural agents. M. Martins releas, thus, to a comparative methodology, giving special emphasis on interrelationships; diverse philosophical doctrines, historical sources, tradional myths and legends archetypes revealed in arcajc poetry, popular novelas, etc. What we find is avast network of spirituality that brings together East and West, Antiquity and the Middle Ages, the Middle Ages and our oun times. As historica of interrelationships, M. Martins' work can contribute to the need revision of concepts in current Portuguese historical studies. Unpublished letters and bibliography of the author can be found in apendix. These reveal the personality traits and the central themes of this medievalist. (shrink)
Diamantino Martins, one of the main masters of the Braga School, was part of the founding group of the Portuguese Journal of Philosophy. He is the author of a vast philosophical work, and presents an original thought on natural evidence and immediate intuitive knowledge of God. The fine sensitivity and psychological analysis of the feeling of the divine in the deepest identity of the human being manifest, in his work, a penetrating understanding of the actuality of the question of God, (...) very present in the return of the religious and the divine, in the literature of the end of last century. It is also situated in the innovative current of philosophical thought of contemporary Portuguese authors, about the philosophical treatment of the question of God, like Sampaio Bruno and Fernando Pessoa. (shrink)