Results for 'Markus Kosel'

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  1.  43
    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in depression.Thomas E. Schlaepfer, Markus Kosel & Hans-Ulrich Fisch - 2006 - Poiesis and Praxis 4 (2):111-127.
    Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a relatively non-invasive technique to interfere with the function of small cortical areas through currents induced by alternating magnetic fields emanating from a handheld coil placed directly above the targeted area. This technique has clear effects on a whole range of measures of brain function and has become an important research tool in neuropsychiatry. More recently, TMS has been studied in psychiatry mainly to assess its putative therapeutic effects in the treatment of refractory major depression. Most (...)
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  2.  47
    Deep brain stimulation to reward circuitry alleviates anhedonia in refractory major depression.Thomas E. Schlaepfer, Michael X. Cohen, Caroline Frick, Markus Mathaus Kosel, Daniela Brodesser, Nikolai Axmacher, Alexius Young Joe, Martina Kreft, Doris Lenartz & Volker Sturm - unknown
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) to different sites allows interfering with dysfunctional network function implicated in major depression. Because a prominent clinical feature of depression is anhedonia--the inability to experience pleasure from previously pleasurable activities--and because there is clear evidence of dysfunctions of the reward system in depression, DBS to the nucleus accumbens might offer a new possibility to target depressive symptomatology in otherwise treatment-resistant depression. Three patients suffering from extremely resistant forms of depression, who did not respond to pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, (...)
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  3.  61
    Synchrony and composition: Toward a cognitive architecture between classicism and connectionism.Markus Werning - 2003 - In Benedikt Löwe, Thoralf Räsch & Wolfgang Malzkorn (eds.), Foundations of the Formal Sciences II. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 261--278.
  4. The Oxford Handbook of Ethics of Ai.Markus Dirk Dubber, Frank Pasquale & Sunit Das (eds.) - 2020 - Oxford Handbooks.
    This 44-chapter volume tackles a quickly-evolving field of inquiry, mapping the existing discourse as part of a general attempt to place current developments in historical context; at the same time, breaking new ground in taking on novel subjects and pursuing fresh approaches. The term "A.I." is used to refer to a broad range of phenomena, from machine learning and data mining to artificial general intelligence. The recent advent of more sophisticated AI systems, which function with partial or full autonomy and (...)
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  5.  17
    An den Grenzen der Erkenntnistheorie: die notwendige Endlichkeit des objektiven Wissens als Lektion des Skeptizismus.Markus Gabriel - 2008 - Freiburg: Alber.
  6.  67
    Inductive risk: does it really refute value-freedom?Markus Dressel - 2022 - Theoria 37 (2):181-207.
    The argument from inductive risk is considered to be one of the strongest challenges for value-free science. A great part of its appeal lies in the idea that even an ideal epistemic agent—the “perfect scientist” or “scientist qua scientist”—cannot escape inductive risk. In this paper, I scrutinize this ambition by stipulating an idealized Bayesian decision setting. I argue that inductive risk does not show that the “perfect scientist” must, descriptively speaking, make non-epistemic value-judgements, at least not in a way that (...)
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  7. Spontaneity and Contingency: Kant’s Two Models of Rational Self-Determination.Markus Kohl - 2020 - In Manja Kisner & Jörg Noller (eds.), The Concept of Will in Classical German Philosophy: Between Ethics, Politics, and Metaphysics. Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 29-48.
    I argue that Kant acknowledges two models of spontaneous self-determination that rational beings are capable of. The first model involves absolute unconditional necessity and excludes any form of contingency. The second model involves (albeit not as a matter of definition) a form of contingency which entails alternative possibilities for determining oneself. The first model would be exhibited by a divine being; the second model is exhibited by human beings. Human beings do, however, partake in the divine model up to an (...)
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  8.  14
    Der Sinn des Denkens.Markus Gabriel - 2018 - Berlin: Ullstein.
  9. Agency.Markus Schlosser - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    In very general terms, an agent is a being with the capacity to act, and 'agency' denotes the exercise or manifestation of this capacity. The philosophy of action provides us with a standard conception and a standard theory of action. The former construes action in terms of intentionality, the latter explains the intentionality of action in terms of causation by the agent’s mental states and events. From this, we obtain a standard conception and a standard theory of agency. There are (...)
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  10. Language and Production. A Critique of the Paradigms.György Márkus - 1986 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 96.
  11. Ethical issues of 'morality mining': When the moral identity of individuals becomes a focus of data-mining.Markus Christen, Mark Alfano, Endre Bangerter & Daniel Lapsley - 2013 - In Hakikur Rahman & Isabel Ramos (eds.), Ethical Data Mining Applications for Socio-Economic Development. IGI Global. pp. 1-21.
  12.  31
    Who is talking in backward crosstalk? Disentangling response- from goal-conflict in dual-task performance.Markus Janczyk, Roland Pfister, Bernhard Hommel & Wilfried Kunde - 2014 - Cognition 132 (1):30-43.
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  13. No luck for moral luck.Markus Kneer & Edouard Machery - 2019 - Cognition 182 (C):331-348.
    Moral philosophers and psychologists often assume that people judge morally lucky and morally unlucky agents differently, an assumption that stands at the heart of the Puzzle of Moral Luck. We examine whether the asymmetry is found for reflective intuitions regarding wrongness, blame, permissibility, and punishment judg- ments, whether people’s concrete, case-based judgments align with their explicit, abstract principles regarding moral luck, and what psychological mechanisms might drive the effect. Our experiments produce three findings: First, in within-subjects experiments favorable to reflective (...)
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  14. The Semantic Neighborhood of Intellectual Humility.Markus Christen, Mark Alfano & Brian Robinson - 2014 - Proceedings of the European Conference on Social Intelligence.
    Intellectual humility is an interesting but underexplored disposition. The claim “I am (intellectually) humble” seems paradoxical in that someone who has the disposition in question would not typically volunteer it. There is an explanatory gap between the meaning of the sentence and the meaning the speaker expresses by uttering it. We therefore suggest analyzing intellectual humility semantically, using a psycholexical approach that focuses on both synonyms and antonyms of ‘intellectual humility’. We present a thesaurus-based method to map the semantic space (...)
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  15. Nachmetaphysische Reformulierungen. Der unvollendete Abschied von der Metaphysik : Wilhelm Herrmann / Dietrich Korsch ; Gott selbst ist nicht fromm : Georg Simmels nach-theistischer Gottesbegriff.Markus Buntfuss - 2009 - In Jörg Lauster & Bernd Oberdorfer (eds.), Der Gott der Vernunft: Protestantismus und vernünftiger Gottesgedanke. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
     
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  16.  10
    Der Mensch ist nur Mensch durch Sprache: zur Sprachlichkeit des Menschen.Markus Messling & Ute Tintemann (eds.) - 2009 - München: Wilhelm Fink.
    'Der Mensch ist nur Mensch durch Sprache' - Ausgehend von diesem Satz Wilhelm von Humboldts wird noch einmal die Frage nach der sprachlichen Verfasstheit des Menschen aufgeworfen. Für Wilhelm von Humboldt war die Sprachlichkeit des Menschen die zentrale anthropologische Konstante: Der Mensch produziert sein Denken in der Dimension des Anderen mittels der Sprache, die Vielfalt der menschlichen Denkmöglichkeiten zeigt sich in der Vielfalt der Sprachen, und dies konstituiert den Menschen als Menschen. Ist diese Annahme noch aktuell? Oder muss sie vor (...)
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  17. .Markus Wild (ed.) - 2011
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  18. Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation.Hazel R. Markus & Shinobu Kitayama - 1991 - Psychological Review 98 (2):224-253.
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  19. Objectivity in Mathematics, Without Mathematical Objects†.Markus Pantsar - 2021 - Philosophia Mathematica 29 (3):318-352.
    I identify two reasons for believing in the objectivity of mathematical knowledge: apparent objectivity and applications in science. Focusing on arithmetic, I analyze platonism and cognitive nativism in terms of explaining these two reasons. After establishing that both theories run into difficulties, I present an alternative epistemological account that combines the theoretical frameworks of enculturation and cumulative cultural evolution. I show that this account can explain why arithmetical knowledge appears to be objective and has scientific applications. Finally, I will argue (...)
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  20. What do we want from Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI)? – A stakeholder perspective on XAI and a conceptual model guiding interdisciplinary XAI research.Markus Langer, Daniel Oster, Timo Speith, Lena Kästner, Kevin Baum, Holger Hermanns, Eva Schmidt & Andreas Sesing - 2021 - Artificial Intelligence 296 (C):103473.
    Previous research in Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) suggests that a main aim of explainability approaches is to satisfy specific interests, goals, expectations, needs, and demands regarding artificial systems (we call these “stakeholders' desiderata”) in a variety of contexts. However, the literature on XAI is vast, spreads out across multiple largely disconnected disciplines, and it often remains unclear how explainability approaches are supposed to achieve the goal of satisfying stakeholders' desiderata. This paper discusses the main classes of stakeholders calling for explainability (...)
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  21.  86
    Predicting the Past from Minimal Traces: Episodic Memory and its Distinction from Imagination and Preservation.Markus Werning - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):301-333.
    The paper develops an account of minimal traces devoid of representational content and exploits an analogy to a predictive processing framework of perception. As perception can be regarded as a prediction of the present on the basis of sparse sensory inputs without any representational content, episodic memory can be conceived of as a “prediction of the past” on the basis of a minimal trace, i.e., an informationally sparse, merely causal link to a previous experience. The resulting notion of episodic memory (...)
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  22.  36
    Fellow-brethren and compeers : Montaigne’s rapprochement between man and animal.Markus Wild - 2011 - In .
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  23. The Enculturated Move From Proto-Arithmetic to Arithmetic.Markus Pantsar - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
    The basic human ability to treat quantitative information can be divided into two parts. With proto-arithmetical ability, based on the core cognitive abilities for subitizing and estimation, numerosities can be treated in a limited and/or approximate manner. With arithmetical ability, numerosities are processed (counted, operated on) systematically in a discrete, linear, and unbounded manner. In this paper, I study the theory of enculturation as presented by Menary (2015) as a possible explanation of how we make the move from the proto-arithmetical (...)
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  24. On What Ground Do Thin Objects Exist? In Search of the Cognitive Foundation of Number Concepts.Markus Pantsar - 2023 - Theoria 89 (3):298-313.
    Linnebo in 2018 argues that abstract objects like numbers are “thin” because they are only required to be referents of singular terms in abstraction principles, such as Hume's principle. As the specification of existence claims made by analytic truths (the abstraction principles), their existence does not make any substantial demands of the world; however, as Linnebo notes, there is a potential counter-argument concerning infinite regress against introducing objects this way. Against this, he argues that vicious regress is avoided in the (...)
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  25.  30
    Ethical Focal Points in the International Practice of Deep Brain Stimulation.Markus Christen, Christian Ineichen, Merlin Bittlinger, Hans-Werner Bothe & Sabine Müller - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 5 (4):65-80.
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  26. Supporting Value Sensitivity in the Humanitarian Use of Drones through An Ethics Assessment Framework.Markus Christen, Matthew Hunt & Nikola Biller-Andorno - 2022 - International Review of the Red Cross 104 (919):1397-1428.
    The current humanitarian use of drones is focused on two applications: disaster mapping and medical supply delivery. In response to the growing interest in drone deployment in the aid sector, we sought to develop a resource to support value sensitivity in humanitarian drone activities. Following a bottom-up approach encompassing a comprehensive literature review, two empirical studies, a review of guidance documents, and consultations with experts, this work illuminates the nature and scope of ethical challenges encountered by humanitarian organizations embarking upon (...)
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  27. Metaphysics of Science: A Systematic and Historical Introduction.Markus Schrenk - 2017 - London & New York: Routledge.
    Metaphysics and science have a long but troubled relationship. In the twentieth century the Logical Positivists argued metaphysics was irrelevant and that philosophy should be guided by science. However, metaphysics and science attempt to answer many of the same, fundamental questions: What are laws of nature? What is causation? What are natural kinds? -/- In this book, Markus Schrenk examines and explains the central questions and problems in the metaphysics of science. He reviews the development of the field from (...)
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  28.  26
    Galileo versus Aristotle on Free Falling Bodies.Markus Schrenk - 2004 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 7 (1):81-89.
    This essay attempts to demonstrate that it is doubtful if Galileo's famous thought experiment concerning falling bodies in his 'Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences' (Galileo 1954: 61-64) actually does succeed in proving that Aristotle was wrong in claiming that "bodies of different weight […] move […] with different speeds which stand to one another in the same ratio as their weights," (Galileo 1954: 61). (Part I); and further that it is likewise doubtful that that argument does or even can establish (...)
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  29.  66
    Ethical Challenges of Simulation-Driven Big Neuroscience.Markus Christen, Nikola Biller-Andorno, Berit Bringedal, Kevin Grimes, Julian Savulescu & Henrik Walter - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (1):5-17.
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  30. A research program for empirically informed ethics.Markus Christen & Mark Alfano - 2013 - In Empirically Informed Ethics. Springer. pp. 3-27.
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  31.  37
    Promoting Curiosity?Markus Lindholm - 2018 - Science & Education 27 (9-10):987-1002.
    Curiosity is a wonder of the human mind. It goes to the heart of modernity, as a driving force for learning, novel insights, and innovation, both for individuals and communities. In societies dependent on science and development, finding out what promotes or hampers curiosity and wonder in school curricula and science education is accordingly essential. In this conceptual article, I suggest a framework for curiosity-based science education and I explore options for its wellbeing and development during preschool, preadolescence, and adolescence. (...)
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  32. Mathematical cognition and enculturation: introduction to the Synthese special issue.Markus Pantsar - 2020 - Synthese 197 (9):3647-3655.
  33.  45
    Overcoming Transhumanism: Education or Enhancement Towards the Overhuman?Markus Lipowicz - 2019 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 53 (1):200-213.
  34.  57
    DNA Dispose, but Subjects Decide. Learning and the Extended Synthesis.Markus Lindholm - 2015 - Biosemiotics 8 (3):443-461.
    Adaptation by means of natural selection depends on the ability of populations to maintain variation in heritable traits. According to the Modern Synthesis this variation is sustained by mutations and genetic drift. Epigenetics, evodevo, niche construction and cultural factors have more recently been shown to contribute to heritable variation, however, leading an increasing number of biologists to call for an extended view of speciation and evolution. An additional common feature across the animal kingdom is learning, defined as the ability to (...)
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  35.  73
    Substancehood and Subjecthood in Aristotle's Categories.Markus Kohl - 2008 - Phronesis 53 (2):152-179.
    I attempt to answer the question of what Aristotle's criteria for 'being a substance' are in the Categories. On the basis of close textual analysis, I argue that subjecthood, conceived in a certain way, is the criterion that explains why both concrete objects and substance universals must be regarded as substances. It also explains the substantial primacy of concrete objects. But subjecthood can only function as such a criterion if both the subjecthood of concrete objects and the subjecthood of substance (...)
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  36.  24
    Bolzanos Propositionalismus.Markus Textor - 1996 - New York: W. de Gruyter.
    In der 1970 gegr ndeten Reihe erscheinen Arbeiten, die philosophiehistorische Studien mit einem systematischen Ansatz oder systematische Studien mit philosophiehistorischen Rekonstruktionen verbinden. Neben deutschsprachigen werden auch englischsprachige Monographien ver ffentlicht. Gr ndungsherausgeber sind: Erhard Scheibe (Herausgeber bis 1991), G nther Patzig (bis 1999) und Wolfgang Wieland (bis 2003). Von 1990 bis 2007 wurde die Reihe von J rgen Mittelstra mitherausgegeben.
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  37. Epistemic Relativism. A Constructive Critique.Markus Seidel - 2014 - Houndsmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Are our beliefs justified only relatively to a specific culture or society? Is it possible to give reasons for the superiority of our scientific, epistemic methods? Markus Seidel sets out to answer these questions in his critique of epistemic relativism. Focusing on the work of the most prominent, explicitly relativist position in the sociology of scientific knowledge – so-called 'Edinburgh relativism' or the 'Strong Programme' –, he scrutinizes the key arguments for epistemic relativism from a philosophical perspective: underdetermination and (...)
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  38.  38
    Meaning in Life oder: Die Debatte um das sinnvolle Leben – Überblick über ein neues Forschungsthema in der analytischen Ethik. Teil 2: normativ-inhaltliche Fragen.Markus Rüther - 2021 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 75 (2):316-354.
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  39. Better Best Systems and the Issue of CP-Laws.Markus Schrenk - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (S10):1787-1799.
    This paper combines two ideas: (1) That the Lewisian best system analysis of lawhood (BSA) can cope with laws that have exceptions (cf. Braddon-Mitchell in Noûs 35(2):260–277, 2001; Schrenk in The metaphysics of ceteris paribus laws. Ontos, Frankfurt, 2007). (2) That a BSA can be executed not only on the mosaic of perfectly natural properties but also on any set of special science properties (cf., inter alia, Schrenk 2007, Selected papers contributed to the sections of GAP.6, 6th international congress of (...)
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  40. Religio simplicitatis : zu einem Grundmotiv der religionstheologischen Aufklärung bei J.Fr.W. Jerusalem.Markus Buntfuss - 2018 - In Walter Sparn, Joar Haga, Sascha Salatowsky, Wilhelm Schmidt-Biggemann & Wolfgang Schoberth (eds.), Das Projekt der Aufklärung: philosophisch-theologische Debatten von der Frühen Neuzeit bis zur Gegenwart: Walter Sparn zum 75. Geburtstag. Leipzig: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt.
  41.  8
    How to Study Virtual Entities Historically? A Proposal.Markus Ehberger - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (3):278-299.
    This paper will not present a case study of the historical development of a virtual entity. Rather, I will develop an outlook on virtual entities in the sciences and propose a corresponding method for studying them (historically). In essence, my presentation can be considered a synthesis of different observations from the history and philosophy of science and has its roots in my dissertational research on the development of the virtual particle. Starting with a reflection on the role of presentism for (...)
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  42.  6
    Politischer Liberalismus als Bildungserlebnis bei Augustin Keller.Markus Leimgruber - 1973 - Bern,: H. Lang.
    Über Augustin Keller wurde bis heute wenig geschrieben. Seine Person wird von Historikern umgangen, obwohl man ihn als Schlüsselfigur der Sonderbundskrise, als Hauptankläger der Jesuiten und als Wegbereiter der 48-er Verfassung bezeichnen kann. Keller ist zwar als Politiker berühmt geworden, aber ausgefüllt wurde sein Leben nicht von der Politik, sondern von der Schule. Es ist wichtig, dass Kellers politische Interventionen auch aus der Sicht des Pädagogen Keller verstanden werden: Sein Aufzeigen von Missständen war getragen vom Bestreben nach Aufklärung, nach Unterricht (...)
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  43.  48
    A Mozart is not a Pavarotti: singers outperform instrumentalists on foreign accent imitation.Markus Christiner & Susanne Maria Reiterer - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  44.  45
    When Low Leisure-Time Physical Activity Meets Unsatisfied Psychological Needs: Insights From a Stress-Buffer Perspective.Markus Gerber, Sandrine Isoard-Gautheur, René Schilling, Sebastian Ludyga, Serge Brand & Flora Colledge - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
  45.  44
    Moral Sensitivity as a Precondition of Moral Distress.Markus Christen & Johannes Katsarov - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (12):19-21.
  46. In search of $$\aleph _{0}$$ ℵ 0 : how infinity can be created.Markus Pantsar - 2015 - Synthese 192 (8):2489-2511.
    In this paper I develop a philosophical account of actual mathematical infinity that does not demand ontologically or epistemologically problematic assumptions. The account is based on a simple metaphor in which we think of indefinitely continuing processes as defining objects. It is shown that such a metaphor is valid in terms of mathematical practice, as well as in line with empirical data on arithmetical cognition.
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  47.  41
    A cross-cultural assessment of the semantic dimensions of intellectual humility.Markus Christen, Mark Alfano & Brian Robinson - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (4):785-801.
    Intellectual humility can be broadly construed as being conscious of the limits of one’s existing knowledge and capable of acquiring more knowledge, which makes it a key virtue of the information age. However, the claim “I am humble” seems paradoxical in that someone who has the disposition in question would not typically volunteer it. Therefore, measuring intellectual humility via self-report may be methodologically unsound. As a consequence, we suggest analyzing intellectual humility semantically, using a psycholexical approach that focuses on both (...)
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  48. An Evaluation Schema for the Ethical Use of Autonomous Robotic Systems in Security Applications.Markus Christen, Thomas Burri, Joseph O. Chapa, Raphael Salvi, Filippo Santoni de Sio & John P. Sullins - 2017 - University of Zurich Digital Society Initiative White Paper Series, No. 1.
    We propose a multi-step evaluation schema designed to help procurement agencies and others to examine the ethical dimensions of autonomous systems to be applied in the security sector, including autonomous weapons systems.
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  49. The norm of assertion: Empirical data.Markus Kneer - 2018 - Cognition 177 (C):165-171.
    Assertions are speech acts by means of which we express beliefs. As such they are at the heart of our linguistic and social practices. Recent research has focused extensively on the question whether the speech act of assertion is governed by norms, and if so, under what conditions it is acceptable to make an assertion. Standard theories propose, for instance, that one should only assert that p if one knows that p (the knowledge account), or that one should only assert (...)
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  50.  51
    How “moral” are the principles of biomedical ethics? – a cross-domain evaluation of the common morality hypothesis.Markus Christen, Christian Ineichen & Carmen Tanner - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):47.
    The principles of biomedical ethics – autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice – are of paradigmatic importance for framing ethical problems in medicine and for teaching ethics to medical students and professionals. In order to underline this significance, Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress base the principles in the common morality, i.e. they claim that the principles represent basic moral values shared by all persons committed to morality and are thus grounded in human moral psychology. We empirically investigated the relationship (...)
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