Results for 'Markus Huberich'

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  1.  10
    A Note on Boolean Algebras with Few Partitions Modulo some Filter.Markus Huberich - 1996 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 42 (1):172-174.
    We show that for every uncountable regular κ and every κ-complete Boolean algebra B of density ≤ κ there is a filter F ⊆ B such that the number of partitions of length < modulo κF is ≤2<κ. We apply this to Boolean algebras of the form P/I, where I is a κ-complete κ-dense ideal on X.
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  2.  8
    Large ideals on small cardinals.Markus Huberich - 1993 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 64 (3):241-271.
    We prove, assuming the existence of large cardinals, the relative consistency of the existence of strongly saturated ideals on small cardinals. We also give some information about the problem, how many σ-additive, 0-1-valued measures over a small cardinal are necessary, such that every subset of the cardinal is measurable in at least one of them.
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  3. Taking Something as a Reason for Action.Markus E. Schlosser - 2012 - Philosophical Papers 41 (2):267-304.
    This paper proposes and defends an account of what it is to act for reasons. In the first part, I will discuss the desire-belief and the deliberative model of acting for reasons. I will argue that we can avoid the weaknesses and retain the strengths of both views, if we pursue an alternative according to which acting for reasons involves taking something as a reason. In the main part, I will develop an account of what it is to take something (...)
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  4.  11
    Why Care About Sustainable AI? Some Thoughts From The Debate on Meaning in Life.Markus Rüther - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (1):1-19.
    The focus of AI ethics has recently shifted towards the question of whether and how the use of AI technologies can promote sustainability. This new research question involves discerning the sustainability of AI itself and evaluating AI as a tool to achieve sustainable objectives. This article aims to examine the justifications that one might employ to advocate for promoting sustainable AI. Specifically, it concentrates on a dimension of often disregarded reasons — reasons of “meaning” or “meaningfulness” — as discussed more (...)
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  5. Reasonableness on the Clapham Omnibus: Exploring the outcome-sensitive folk concept of reasonable.Markus Kneer - 2022 - In P. Bystranowski, Bartosz Janik & M. Prochnicki (eds.), Judicial Decision-Making: Integrating Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives. Springer Nature. pp. 25-48.
    This paper presents a series of studies (total N=579) which demonstrate that folk judgments concerning the reasonableness of decisions and actions depend strongly on whether they engender positive or negative consequences. A particular decision is deemed more reasonable in retrospect when it produces beneficial consequences than when it produces harmful consequences, even if the situation in which the decision was taken and the epistemic circumstances of the agent are held fixed across conditions. This finding is worrisome for the law, where (...)
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  6. The Metaphysics of Ceteris Paribus Laws.Markus Schrenk - 2007 - ontos.
    INTRODUCTION I. CETERIS PARIBUS LAWS An alleged law of nature—like Newton's law of gravitation—is said to be a ceteris paribus law if it does not hold under ...
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  7. Dual-system theory and the role of consciousness in intentional action.Markus E. Schlosser - 2019 - In Bernard Feltz, Marcus Missal & Andrew Sims (eds.), Free Will, Causality, and Neuroscience. Leiden: Brill. pp. 35–56.
    According to the standard view in philosophy, intentionality is the mark of genuine action. In psychology, human cognition and agency are now widely explained in terms of the workings of two distinct systems (or types of processes), and intentionality is not a central notion in this dual-system theory. Further, it is often claimed, in psychology, that most human actions are automatic, rather than consciously controlled. This raises pressing questions. Does the dual-system theory preserve the philosophical account of intentional action? How (...)
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  8. Relativism about predicates of personal taste and perspectival plurality.Markus Https://Orcidorg Kneer, Agustin Vicente & Dan Zeman - 2017 - Linguistics and Philosophy 40 (1):37-60.
    In this paper we discuss a phenomenon we call perspectival plurality, which has gone largely unnoticed in the current debate between relativism and contextualism about predicates of personal taste. According to perspectival plurality, the truth value of a sentence containing more than one PPT may depend on more than one perspective. Prima facie, the phenomenon engenders a problem for relativism and can be shaped into an argument in favor of contextualism. We explore the consequences of perspectival plurality in depth and (...)
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  9.  32
    Reduction in Philosophy of Mind: A Pluralistic Account.Markus I. Eronen - 2011 - De Gruyter.
    The notion of reduction continues to play a key role in philosophy of mind and philosophy of cognitive science. Supporters of reductionism claim that psychological properties or explanations reduce to neural properties or explanations, while antireductionists claim that such reductions are not possible. In this book, I apply recent developments in philosophy of science, particularly the mechanistic explanation paradigm and the interventionist theory of causation, to reassess the traditional approaches to reduction in philosophy of mind. I then elaborate and defend (...)
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  10.  19
    Recovering from negative events by boosting implicit positive affect.Markus Quirin, Regina C. Bode & Julius Kuhl - 2011 - Cognition and Emotion 25 (3):559-570.
    Upregulation of implicit positive affect (PA) can act as a mechanism to deal with negative affect. Two studies tracked temporal changes in positive and negative affect (NA) assessed by self-report and the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT; Quirin, Kazén, & Kuhl, 2009). Study 1 observed the predicted increases in implicit PA after exposure to a threat-related film clip, which correlated positively with the speed of recognising a happy face among an angry crowd. Study 2 replicated increases in implicit (...)
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  11.  72
    Theorem proving in artificial neural networks: new frontiers in mathematical AI.Markus Pantsar - 2024 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 14 (1):1-22.
    Computer assisted theorem proving is an increasingly important part of mathematical methodology, as well as a long-standing topic in artificial intelligence (AI) research. However, the current generation of theorem proving software have limited functioning in terms of providing new proofs. Importantly, they are not able to discriminate interesting theorems and proofs from trivial ones. In order for computers to develop further in theorem proving, there would need to be a radical change in how the software functions. Recently, machine learning results (...)
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  12. Sheḳer ha-ruḥani.Markus Gottfried - 1959 - [s.n.],:
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  13. Istorii︠a︡ muzykalʹnoĭ ėstetiki.Stanislav Adolʹfovich Markus - 1959 - Moskva: Gos. Muz. Izd-vo..
     
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  14.  1
    Gerechtfertigter Fetozid? Eine rechtsphilosophische Kritik von Spätabbrüchen.Markus Rothhaar - 2021 - In Olivia Mitscherlich-Schönherr & Reiner Anselm (eds.), Gelingende Geburt: Interdisziplinäre Erkundungen in Umstrittenen Terrains. Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 299-316.
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  15. Durkheim and the sociality of space.Markus Schroer - 2024 - In Hans Joas & Andreas Pettenkofer (eds.), The Oxford handbook of Emile Durkheim. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
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  16.  1
    Der Sinn des Denkens.Markus Gabriel - 2018 - Berlin: Ullstein.
  17.  18
    Thomas Kuhn and the Strong Programme. An Appropriate Appropriation?Markus Seidel - 2024 - In K. Brad Wray (ed.), Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions at 60. Cambridge University Press. pp. 235-253.
    This chapter discusses whether the appropriation of Kuhnian thoughts by the so-called Strong Programme in the sociology of scientific knowledge is appropriate. In order to answer the question of appropriate appropriation, Kuhn’s and the Strong Programme’s stances on two “isms” are compared: relativism and naturalism. It is shown that the Strong Programme clearly goes beyond Kuhn and breaks more radically with philosophical tradition. Nevertheless, there are also philosophical continuities and similarities.
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  18.  60
    Kant on Cognition and Knowledge.Markus Kohl - forthcoming - In Andrew Stephenson & Anil Gomes (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Kant. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    I discuss the difference and the connections between Kant’s notions of cognition (Erkenntnis) and knowledge (Wissen). Unlike knowledge, cognition is a representational state which need not have the propositional structure of a judgments. Even cognitions that have such a structure need not coincide with knowledge, because they might rather have the doxastic status of opinion or faith, or they might be false (whereas knowledge is a certain recognition of truth). I argue that while Kant distinguishes between many different species of (...)
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  19.  12
    Diverging implicit measurement of sense of agency using interval estimation and Libet clock.Markus Siebertz & Petra Jansen - 2022 - Consciousness and Cognition 99 (C):103287.
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  20. What do we want from Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI)? – A stakeholder perspective on XAI and a conceptual model guiding interdisciplinary XAI research.Markus Langer, Daniel Oster, Timo Speith, Lena Kästner, Kevin Baum, Holger Hermanns, Eva Schmidt & Andreas Sesing - 2021 - Artificial Intelligence 296 (C):103473.
    Previous research in Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) suggests that a main aim of explainability approaches is to satisfy specific interests, goals, expectations, needs, and demands regarding artificial systems (we call these “stakeholders' desiderata”) in a variety of contexts. However, the literature on XAI is vast, spreads out across multiple largely disconnected disciplines, and it often remains unclear how explainability approaches are supposed to achieve the goal of satisfying stakeholders' desiderata. This paper discusses the main classes of stakeholders calling for explainability (...)
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  21. Spontaneity and Contingency: Kant’s Two Models of Rational Self-Determination.Markus Kohl - 2020 - In Manja Kisner & Jörg Noller (eds.), The Concept of Will in Classical German Philosophy: Between Ethics, Politics, and Metaphysics. Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 29-48.
    I argue that Kant acknowledges two models of spontaneous self-determination that rational beings are capable of. The first model involves absolute unconditional necessity and excludes any form of contingency. The second model involves (albeit not as a matter of definition) a form of contingency which entails alternative possibilities for determining oneself. The first model would be exhibited by a divine being; the second model is exhibited by human beings. Human beings do, however, partake in the divine model up to an (...)
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  22. Objectivity in Mathematics, Without Mathematical Objects†.Markus Pantsar - 2021 - Philosophia Mathematica 29 (3):318-352.
    I identify two reasons for believing in the objectivity of mathematical knowledge: apparent objectivity and applications in science. Focusing on arithmetic, I analyze platonism and cognitive nativism in terms of explaining these two reasons. After establishing that both theories run into difficulties, I present an alternative epistemological account that combines the theoretical frameworks of enculturation and cumulative cultural evolution. I show that this account can explain why arithmetical knowledge appears to be objective and has scientific applications. Finally, I will argue (...)
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  23. The Enculturated Move From Proto-Arithmetic to Arithmetic.Markus Pantsar - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
    The basic human ability to treat quantitative information can be divided into two parts. With proto-arithmetical ability, based on the core cognitive abilities for subitizing and estimation, numerosities can be treated in a limited and/or approximate manner. With arithmetical ability, numerosities are processed (counted, operated on) systematically in a discrete, linear, and unbounded manner. In this paper, I study the theory of enculturation as presented by Menary (2015) as a possible explanation of how we make the move from the proto-arithmetical (...)
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  24.  98
    Bootstrapping of integer concepts: the stronger deviant-interpretation challenge.Markus Pantsar - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):5791-5814.
    Beck presents an outline of the procedure of bootstrapping of integer concepts, with the purpose of explicating the account of Carey. According to that theory, integer concepts are acquired through a process of inductive and analogous reasoning based on the object tracking system, which allows individuating objects in a parallel fashion. Discussing the bootstrapping theory, Beck dismisses what he calls the "deviant-interpretation challenge"—the possibility that the bootstrapped integer sequence does not follow a linear progression after some point—as being general to (...)
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  25.  3
    Soeren Kierkegaard: eine Schlüsselfigur der europäischen Moderne.Markus Pohlmeyer & Joakim Garff (eds.) - 2015 - Hamburg: Igel Verlag.
    „An die Stelle des Klischees, Kierkegaard sei Kind seiner Zeit, könnte man deshalb mit Recht die weniger klischeehafte Aussage setzen, dass Kierkegaard durch seine Werke geboren worden ist, geschrieben durch seine Schriften. Aus demselben Grund lassen sich im Fall Kierkegaards Biographie und Bildung nicht trennen. Dass man sie auch nicht aufeinander reduzieren kann, dürfte entsprechend klar sein. Tut man das nämlich, raubt man dem göttlichen Erzähler die Möglichkeit, in dem Leben des Einzelnen zu Wort zu kommen – sowohl im Leben (...)
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  26. Throwing the Baby Out with the Water: From Reasonably Scrutinizing Authorities to Rampant Scepticism About Expertise.Markus Seidel - 2014 - Informal Logic 34 (2):192-218.
    In this paper, I argue that many arguments from expert opinion are strong arguments. Therefore, in many cases it is rational to rely on experts since in many cases the fact that an expert says that p makes it highly likely that p is true. I will defend this claim by providing 5 arguments that illuminate and elaborate on 5 crucial claims about expertise. In this way, I aim to undermine recent attempts to establish a rampant scepticism about arguments from (...)
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  27.  9
    I am not a brain: philosophy of mind for the 21st century.Markus Gabriel - 2017 - Malden, MA: Polity. Edited by Christopher Turner.
    Many consider the nature of human consciousness to be one of the last great unsolved mysteries. Why should the light turn on, so to speak, in human beings at all? And how is the electrical storm of neurons under our skull connected with our consciousness? Is the self only our brain's user interface, a kind of stage on which a show is performed that we cannot freely direct? In this book, philosopher Markus Gabriel challenges an increasing trend in the (...)
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  28. On What Ground Do Thin Objects Exist? In Search of the Cognitive Foundation of Number Concepts.Markus Pantsar - 2023 - Theoria 89 (3):298-313.
    Linnebo in 2018 argues that abstract objects like numbers are “thin” because they are only required to be referents of singular terms in abstraction principles, such as Hume's principle. As the specification of existence claims made by analytic truths (the abstraction principles), their existence does not make any substantial demands of the world; however, as Linnebo notes, there is a potential counter-argument concerning infinite regress against introducing objects this way. Against this, he argues that vicious regress is avoided in the (...)
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  29. An empirically feasible approach to the epistemology of arithmetic.Markus Pantsar - 2014 - Synthese 191 (17):4201-4229.
    Recent years have seen an explosion of empirical data concerning arithmetical cognition. In this paper that data is taken to be philosophically important and an outline for an empirically feasible epistemological theory of arithmetic is presented. The epistemological theory is based on the empirically well-supported hypothesis that our arithmetical ability is built on a protoarithmetical ability to categorize observations in terms of quantities that we have already as infants and share with many nonhuman animals. It is argued here that arithmetical (...)
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  30.  9
    Bolzanos Propositionalismus.Markus Textor - 1996 - New York: Walter de Gruyter.
    In der 1970 gegr ndeten Reihe erscheinen Arbeiten, die philosophiehistorische Studien mit einem systematischen Ansatz oder systematische Studien mit philosophiehistorischen Rekonstruktionen verbinden. Neben deutschsprachigen werden auch englischsprachige Monographien ver ffentlicht. Gr ndungsherausgeber sind: Erhard Scheibe (Herausgeber bis 1991), G nther Patzig (bis 1999) und Wolfgang Wieland (bis 2003). Von 1990 bis 2007 wurde die Reihe von J rgen Mittelstra mitherausgegeben.
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  31. Zwischen Gut und Böse: Philosophie der radikalen Mitte.Markus Gabriel - 2021 - Hamburg: Edition Körber. Edited by Gert Scobel.
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  32. Ungründe: potenziale prekärer Fundierung.Markus Rautzenberg & Juliane Schiffers (eds.) - 2016 - Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink.
    Einer Welt ohne letzte Gründe bleibt, so scheint es, nur die Alternative zwischen Fundamentalismus und pragmatischer Indifferenz. Beides wird weder der Komplexität noch der ungebrochenen Notwendigkeit der Begründungssuche gerecht. Die Autoren denken Begründung konsequent als ein stets prekäres Unternehmen: Den Ungründen in Philosophie und Kunst nachzugehen meint nicht eine bloße Ablehnung von Gründen oder einen existenziell aufgeladenen Nihilismus. Im Unheimlichen, Unbegrifflichen oder Unbestimmten schwingt der Versuch (wie das Scheitern) der Entbergung, Konzeptionalisierung und Bestimmung immer mit. Genauso zeichnen sich Ungründe dadurch (...)
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  33.  47
    Moral Commitments and the Societal Role of Business: An Ordonomic Approach to Corporate Citizenship.Markus Beckmann - 2009 - Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (3):375-401.
    This article introduces an “ordonomic” approach to corporate citizenship. We believe that ordonomics offers a conceptual framework for analyzing both the social structure and the semantics of moral commitments. We claim that such an analysis can provide theoretical guidance for the changing role of business in society, especially in regard to the expectation and trend that businesses take a political role and act as corporate citizens. The systematicraison d'êtreof corporate citizenship is that business firms can and—judged by the criterion of (...)
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  34.  17
    Neo-existentialism: how to conceive of the human mind after naturalism's failure.Markus Gabriel - 2018 - Medford, MA: Polity Press.
    In this highly original book, Markus Gabriel presents 'Neo-Existentialism', an anti-naturalist view that holds that human mindedness consists in an open-ended proliferation of mentalistic vocabularies. Challenged by Charles Taylor, Andrea Kern and Jocelyn Benoist, Gabriel deftly refutes naturalism's metaphysical claim to epistemic exclusiveness.
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  35.  12
    Why do numbers exist? A psychologist constructivist account.Markus Pantsar - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    In this paper, I study the kind of questions we can ask about the existence of numbers. In addition to asking whether numbers exist, and how, I argue that there is also a third relevant question: why numbers exist. In platonist and nominalist accounts this question may not make sense, but in the psychologist account I develop, it is as well-placed as the other two questions. In fact, there are two such why-questions: the causal why-question asks what causes numbers to (...)
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  36. Mathematical cognition and enculturation: introduction to the Synthese special issue.Markus Pantsar - 2020 - Synthese 197 (9):3647-3655.
  37. Early numerical cognition and mathematical processes.Markus Pantsar - 2018 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 33 (2):285-304.
    In this paper I study the development of arithmetical cognition with the focus on metaphorical thinking. In an approach developing on Lakoff and Núñez, I propose one particular conceptual metaphor, the Process → Object Metaphor, as a key element in understanding the development of mathematical thinking.
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  38.  42
    Inductive risk: does it really refute value-freedom?Markus Dressel - 2022 - Theoria 37 (2):181-207.
    The argument from inductive risk is considered to be one of the strongest challenges for value-free science. A great part of its appeal lies in the idea that even an ideal epistemic agent—the “perfect scientist” or “scientist qua scientist”—cannot escape inductive risk. In this paper, I scrutinize this ambition by stipulating an idealized Bayesian decision setting. I argue that inductive risk does not show that the “perfect scientist” must, descriptively speaking, make non-epistemic value-judgements, at least not in a way that (...)
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  39.  8
    The power of art.Markus Gabriel - 2020 - Medford, MA: Polity.
    The rising star of German philosophy provides a compelling defence of the autonomous power of art.
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  40. ha-Ideʹah.Markus Gottfried - 1952 - [Tel-Aviv,:
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  41. Ḥiḳre lev.Markus Gottfried - 1947
     
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  42.  7
    Rolf Tiedemann: der getreue Editor.Karel Markus (ed.) - 2020 - München: Et+k, Edition Text+Kritik.
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  43.  7
    Der Mensch im Mythos: Untersuchungen über Ontotheologie, Anthropologie und Selbstbewußtseinsgeschichte in Schellings "Philosophie der Mythologie".Markus Gabriel - 2006 - De Gruyter.
    Schelling entwirft in seiner Spätphilosophie einen neuen Philosophietypus, der in Konkurrenz zu Hegels Metaphysik tritt. Dabei greift er Hegel nicht nur auf dem Gebiet fundamentaler theoretischen Annahmen an, sondern sucht ihn insbesondere durch einen neuen Begriff von Religion zu überbieten. Die Arbeit untersucht dies im Ausgang von Schellings "Philosophie der Mythologie".
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  44.  78
    The power of simplicity: a fast-and-frugal heuristics approach to performance science.Markus Raab & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  45.  16
    Ethical Focal Points in the International Practice of Deep Brain Stimulation.Markus Christen, Christian Ineichen, Merlin Bittlinger, Hans-Werner Bothe & Sabine Müller - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 5 (4):65-80.
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  46. Developing Artificial Human-Like Arithmetical Intelligence (and Why).Markus Pantsar - 2023 - Minds and Machines 33 (3):379-396.
    Why would we want to develop artificial human-like arithmetical intelligence, when computers already outperform humans in arithmetical calculations? Aside from arithmetic consisting of much more than mere calculations, one suggested reason is that AI research can help us explain the development of human arithmetical cognition. Here I argue that this question needs to be studied already in the context of basic, non-symbolic, numerical cognition. Analyzing recent machine learning research on artificial neural networks, I show how AI studies could potentially shed (...)
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  47. In search of $$\aleph _{0}$$ ℵ 0 : how infinity can be created.Markus Pantsar - 2015 - Synthese 192 (8):2489-2511.
    In this paper I develop a philosophical account of actual mathematical infinity that does not demand ontologically or epistemologically problematic assumptions. The account is based on a simple metaphor in which we think of indefinitely continuing processes as defining objects. It is shown that such a metaphor is valid in terms of mathematical practice, as well as in line with empirical data on arithmetical cognition.
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  48. Cognitive and Computational Complexity: Considerations from Mathematical Problem Solving.Markus Pantsar - 2019 - Erkenntnis 86 (4):961-997.
    Following Marr’s famous three-level distinction between explanations in cognitive science, it is often accepted that focus on modeling cognitive tasks should be on the computational level rather than the algorithmic level. When it comes to mathematical problem solving, this approach suggests that the complexity of the task of solving a problem can be characterized by the computational complexity of that problem. In this paper, I argue that human cognizers use heuristic and didactic tools and thus engage in cognitive processes that (...)
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  49. Relativism or Relationism? A Mannheimian Interpretation of Fleck’s Claims About Relativism.Markus Seidel - 2011 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 42 (2):219-240.
    The paper explores the defence by the early sociologist of science Ludwik Fleck against the charge of relativism. It is shown that there are crucial and hitherto unnoticed similarities between Fleck’s strategy and the attempt by his contemporary Karl Mannheim to distinguish between an incoherent relativism and a consistent relationism. Both authors seek to revise epistemology fundamentally by reinterpreting the concept of objectivity in two ways: as inner- and inter-style objectivity. The argument for the latter concept shows the genuine political (...)
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  50. Descriptive Complexity, Computational Tractability, and the Logical and Cognitive Foundations of Mathematics.Markus Pantsar - 2020 - Minds and Machines 31 (1):75-98.
    In computational complexity theory, decision problems are divided into complexity classes based on the amount of computational resources it takes for algorithms to solve them. In theoretical computer science, it is commonly accepted that only functions for solving problems in the complexity class P, solvable by a deterministic Turing machine in polynomial time, are considered to be tractable. In cognitive science and philosophy, this tractability result has been used to argue that only functions in P can feasibly work as computational (...)
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