Results for 'Markus Emden'

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  1.  6
    Can Faraday's The Chemical History of a Candle Inform the Teaching of Experimentation?Markus Emden & Mario Gerwig - 2020 - Science & Education 29 (3):589-616.
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  2.  5
    Reintroducing “the” Scientific Method to Introduce Scientific Inquiry in Schools?Markus Emden - forthcoming - Science & Education.
    There are some crucial critiques on scientific inquiry and “the” Scientific Method in current science education. Recent research literature is replete with arguments against inquiry’s legitimacy to be included in science classes, and it has even been abandoned from the Next Generation Science Standards. Critics of scientific inquiry in schools blame it to be a caricature of authentic inquiry suffering from five shortcomings: knowledge becomes desocialized from its generative contexts, scientific inquiry in schools suggests methodological monism favoring a primacy of (...)
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  3.  79
    Markus Gabriel : Der Neue Realismus.Markus Gabriel & Kurt Wuchterl - 2016 - Philosophischer Literaturanzeiger 69 (2):170-175.
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  4.  3
    Nietzsche's Naturalism: Philosophy and the Life Sciences in the Nineteenth Century.Christian J. Emden - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book explores Nietzsche's philosophical naturalism in its historical context, showing that his position is best understood against the background of encounters between neo-Kantianism and the life sciences in the nineteenth century. Analyzing most of Nietzsche's writings from the late 1860s onwards, Christian J. Emden reconstructs Nietzsche's naturalism and argues for a new understanding of his account of nature and normativity. Emden proposes historical reasons why Nietzsche came to adopt the position he did; his genealogy of values and (...)
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  5.  51
    Trolleys, Triage and Covid-19: The Role of Psychological Realism in Sacrificial Dilemmas.Markus Kneer & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2022 - Cognition and Emotion 36 (1):137-153.
    At the height of the Covid-19 pandemic, frontline medical professionals at intensive care units around the world faced gruesome decisions about how to ration life-saving medical resources. These events provided a unique lens through which to understand how the public reasons about real-world dilemmas involving trade-offs between human lives. In three studies (total N = 2298), we examined people’s moral attitudes toward the triage of acute coronavirus patients, and found elevated support for utilitarian triage policies. These utilitarian tendencies did not (...)
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  6. Robustness and Reality.Markus I. Eronen - 2015 - Synthese 192 (12):3961-3977.
    Robustness is often presented as a guideline for distinguishing the true or real from mere appearances or artifacts. Most of recent discussions of robustness have focused on the kind of derivational robustness analysis introduced by Levins, while the related but distinct idea of robustness as multiple accessibility, defended by Wimsatt, has received less attention. In this paper, I argue that the latter kind of robustness, when properly understood, can provide justification for ontological commitments. The idea is that we are justified (...)
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  7.  11
    Why the World Does Not Exist.Markus Gabriel - 2015 - Polity.
    Where do we come from? Are we merely a cluster of elementary particles in a gigantic world receptacle? And what does it all mean? In this highly original new book, the philosopher Markus Gabriel challenges our notion of what exists and what it means to exist. He questions the idea that there is a world that encompasses everything like a container life, the universe, and everything else. This all-inclusive being does not exist and cannot exist. For the world itself (...)
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  8. Trolleys, Triage and Covid-19: The Role of Psychological Realism in Sacrificial Dilemmas.Markus Kneer & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2021 - Cognition and Emotion 8.
    At the height of the Covid-19 pandemic, frontline medical professionals at intensive care units around the world faced gruesome decisions about how to ration life-saving medical resources. These events provided a unique lens through which to understand how the public reasons about real-world dilemmas involving trade-offs between human lives. In three studies (total N = 2298), we examined people’s moral attitudes toward triage of acute coronavirus patients, and found elevated support for utilitarian triage policies. These utilitarian tendencies did not stem (...)
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  9.  28
    Friedrich Nietzsche and the Politics of History.Christian Emden - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book explores Friedrich Nietzsche's understanding of modern political culture and his position in the history of modern political thought. Surveying Nietzsche's entire intellectual career from his years as a student in Bonn and Leipzig during the 1860s to his genealogical project of the 1880s, Christian Emden contributes to a historically informed discussion of Nietzsche's response to the political predicaments of modernity, and sheds new light on the intellectual and political culture in Germany as the ideals of the Enlightenment (...)
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  10. Christian Faith and Greek Philosophy [by] A.H. Armstrong and R.A. Markus.A. H. Armstrong & R. A. Markus - 1960 - Darton, Longman & Todd.
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  11.  5
    The Handbook of Rationality.Markus Knauff & Wolfgang Spohn (eds.) - 2021 - MIT Press.
    The first reference on rationality that integrates accounts from psychology and philosophy, covering descriptive and normative theories from both disciplines. Both analytic philosophy and cognitive psychology have made dramatic advances in understanding rationality, but there has been little interaction between the disciplines. This volume offers the first integrated overview of the state of the art in the psychology and philosophy of rationality. Written by leading experts from both disciplines, The Handbook of Rationality covers the main normative and descriptive theories of (...)
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  12. Fields of Sense: A New Realist Ontology.Markus Gabriel - 2015 - Edinburgh University Press.
    It is still a widespread assumption that metaphysics and ontology deal with roughly the same questions. They are supposed to be concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and to give an account of the meaning of 'existence' or 'being' in line with the broadest possible metaphysical assumptions. Against this, Markus Gabriel proposes a radical form of ontological pluralism that divorces ontology from metaphysics, understood as the most fundamental theory of absolutely everything. He argues that the concept of existence (...)
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  13. Augustine; a Collection of Critical Essays.R. A. Markus - 1972 - Garden City, N.Y., Anchor Books.
    Introduction, by R. A. Markus.--St. Augustine and Christian Platonism, by A. H. Armstrong.--Action and contemplation, by F. R. J. O'Connell.--St. Augustine on signs, by R. A. Markus.--The theory of signs in St. Augustine's De doctrina Christiana, by B. D. Jackson.--Si fallor, sum, by G. B. Matthews.--Augustine on speaking from memory, by G. B. Matthews.--The inner man, by G. B. Matthews.--On Augustine's concept of a person, by A. C. Lloyd.--Augustine on foreknowledge and free will, by W. L. Rowe.--Augustine on (...)
     
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  14.  15
    Emden's Nietzsche.P. J. E. Kail - 2017 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 48 (1):83-94.
    Christian Emden’s informative book has a number of explicit aims: the first aim is to “reconstruct Nietzsche’s philosophical naturalism”; the second aim is to show “that there are specific historical reasons why Nietzsche came to adopt a position best understood in terms of philosophical naturalism”; and the third aim is to show “how Nietzsche’s naturalism and his understanding of the life sciences tie in with genealogy.”1 In pursuit of these aims, Emden divides the book into three parts, one (...)
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  15.  44
    Nietzsche on Language, Consciousness, and the Body.Christian Emden - 2005 - University of Illinois Press.
    The irreducibility of language : the history of rhetoric in the age of typewriters -- The failures of empiricism : language, science, and the philosophical tradition -- What is a trope? : the discourse of metaphor and the language of the body -- The nervous systems of modern consciousness : metaphor, physiology, and mind -- Interpretation and life : outlines of an anthropology of knowledge.
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  16. Contextualism Vs. Relativism: More Empirical Data.Markus Kneer - 2022 - In Jeremy Wyatt, Julia Zakkou & Dan Zeman (eds.), Perspectives on Taste. Routledge.
    Contextualism is the view that the extension of perspectival claims (involving e.g. predicates of personal taste or epistemic modals) depends on the context of utterance. Relativism is the view that the extension of perspectival claims depends on the context of assessment. Both views make concrete, empirically testable predictions about how such claims are used by ordinary English language speakers. This chapter surveys some of the recent empirical literature on the topic and presents four new experiments (total N=724). Consistent with contextualism (...)
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  17.  3
    Saeculum: History and Society in the Theology of St Augustine.R. A. Markus - 1970 - CUP Archive.
    The main concern of this book is with those aspects of Augustine's thought which help to answer questions about the purpose of human society.
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  18.  18
    The Fiery Test of Critique: A Reading of Kant’s Dialectic, by Ian Proops. [REVIEW]Markus Kohl - forthcoming - Mind.
  19.  3
    Trust in Medicine: Its Nature, Justification, Significance, and Decline.Markus Wolfensberger & Anthony Wrigley - 2019 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Over the past decades, public trust in medical professionals has steadily declined. This decline of trust and its replacement by ever tighter regulations is increasingly frustrating physicians. However, most discussions of trust are either abstract philosophical discussions or social science investigations not easily accessible to clinicians. The authors, one a surgeon-turned-philosopher, the other an analytical philosopher working in medical ethics, joined their expertise to write a book which straddles the gap between the practical and theoretical. Using an approach grounded in (...)
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  20.  66
    Can a Robot Lie? Exploring the Folk Concept of Lying as Applied to Artificial Agents.Markus Kneer - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (10):e13032.
    The potential capacity for robots to deceive has received considerable attention recently. Many papers explore the technical possibility for a robot to engage in deception for beneficial purposes (e.g., in education or health). In this short experimental paper, I focus on a more paradigmatic case: robot lying (lying being the textbook example of deception) for nonbeneficial purposes as judged from the human point of view. More precisely, I present an empirical experiment that investigates the following three questions: (a) Are ordinary (...)
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  21.  5
    Die Anthropologische Differenz: Der Geist der Tiere in der Frühen Neuzeit Bei Montaigne, Descartes Und Hume.Markus Wild - 2006 - Walter de Gruyter.
    "Die anthropologische Differenz" befasst sich mit dem Geist der Tiere in der frühneuzeitlichen Philosophie und dem Problem der anthropologischen Differenz zwischen Mensch und Tier. Anhand des Gemäldes Las Meninas werden einleitend die Antwortstrategien auf die Frage nach der Mensch-Tier-Unterscheidung aufgezeigt. Montaignes Verteidigung der Tiervernunft setzt sich skeptisch von einem aristotelischen Hintergrund ab. Descartes schlägt eine folgenreiche Betrachtungsweise vor: Tiere als Maschinen. Humes naturalistischer Betrachtungsweise unseres Geistes setzt sich von Descartes ab und greift auf montaignesche Überlegungen zurück. In der Neuzeit etablieren (...)
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  22.  23
    Beyond Habermas: Democracy, Knowledge, and the Public Sphere.Christian Emden & David R. Midgley (eds.) - 2012 - Berghahn Books.
    This volume examines whether the “public sphere” remains a central explanatory model in the social sciences, political theory, and the humanities.
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  23. Epistemic Relativism. A Constructive Critique.Markus Seidel - 2014 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Are our beliefs justified only relatively to a specific culture or society? Is it possible to give reasons for the superiority of our scientific, epistemic methods? Markus Seidel sets out to answer these questions in his critique of epistemic relativism. Focusing on the work of the most prominent, explicitly relativist position in the sociology of scientific knowledge – so-called 'Edinburgh relativism' or the 'Strong Programme' –, he scrutinizes the key arguments for epistemic relativism from a philosophical perspective: underdetermination and (...)
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  24.  4
    Jewish Law in Gentile Churches: Halakhah and the Beginning of Christian Public Ethics.Markus Bockmuehl - 2000 - Baker Academic.
    Halakhah and ethics in the Jesus tradition -- Matthew's divorce texts in the light of pre-rabbinic Jewish law -- Let the dead bury their dead : Jesus and the law revisited -- James, Israel, and Antioch -- Natural law in Second Temple Judaism -- Natural law in the New Testament? -- The Noachide commandments and New Testament ethics -- The beginning of Christian public ethics : from Luke to Aristides and Diognetus -- Jewish and Christian public ethics in the early (...)
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  25. Das Ethische in der Rhetorik des Aristoteles.Markus H. Wörner - 1990
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  26.  6
    A Priori Intuition and Transcendental Necessity in Kant's Idealism.Markus Kohl - 2022 - Wiley: European Journal of Philosophy 29 (4).
    European Journal of Philosophy, Volume 29, Issue 4, Page 827-845, December 2021.
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  27. Frege und Husserl über Urteilen und Denken.Markus Stepanians - 1998 - Paderborn: Schöningh.
  28.  57
    Radical Evil As A Regulative Idea.Markus Kohl - 2017 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 55 (4):641-673.
    Kant's doctrine of the radical evil in human nature invites at least two serious worries: first, it is unclear how Kant could establish the claim that all human beings adopt an evil maxim; second, this claim seems to conflict with central features of Kant's doctrine of freedom. I argue, via criticisms of various charitable interpretations, that these problems are indeed insuperable if we read Kant as trying to establish that all human beings are evil as a matter of fact. I (...)
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  29. Le Dialecte Grec Ancien de Chypre: Tome I: Grammaire; Tome Ii: Répertoire des Inscriptions En Syllabaire Chypro-Grec.Markus Egetmeyer - 2010 - De Gruyter.
    Cypriote is an Ancient Greekdialect of the first millennium BC, closely related to Mycenean,whichhas come down to us as an Aegean syllabary.The renowned Indogermanic scholar Markus Egetmeyer is one of the few specialists for this dialect. The two fascicles presented here offer a unique and comprehensive documentation and analysis of the Cypriote dialect. The first fascicle is a systematic grammar; the second a collection of inscriptions arranged according to region and documenting all surviving material in the language.
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  30.  12
    Über Bioethik, Gerechtigkeit und den Wert der Kunst: Philip Kitcher im Gespräch mit Markus Rüther.Philip Kitcher & Markus Rüther - 2015 - Ethik in der Medizin 27 (4):335-342.
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  31.  30
    Predicting the Past From Minimal Traces: Episodic Memory and its Distinction From Imagination and Preservation.Markus Werning - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):301-333.
    The paper develops an account of minimal traces devoid of representational content and exploits an analogy to a predictive processing framework of perception. As perception can be regarded as a prediction of the present on the basis of sparse sensory inputs without any representational content, episodic memory can be conceived of as a “prediction of the past” on the basis of a minimal trace, i.e., an informationally sparse, merely causal link to a previous experience. The resulting notion of episodic memory (...)
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  32. Metaphysics of Science: A Systematic and Historical Introduction.Markus Schrenk - 2017 - London & New York: Routledge.
    Metaphysics and science have a long but troubled relationship. In the twentieth century the Logical Positivists argued metaphysics was irrelevant and that philosophy should be guided by science. However, metaphysics and science attempt to answer many of the same, fundamental questions: What are laws of nature? What is causation? What are natural kinds? -/- In this book, Markus Schrenk examines and explains the central questions and problems in the metaphysics of science. He reviews the development of the field from (...)
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  33. Markus Buntfuß, Martin Fritz (Hg.): Fremde Unter Einem Dach? Die Theologischen Fächerkulturen in Enzyklopädischer Perspektive, Theologische Bibliothek Töpelmann, Band 163. [REVIEW]Philipp David - 2016 - Journal for the History of Modern Theology/Zeitschrift für Neuere Theologiegeschichte 23 (1):148-154.
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  34.  5
    Social Dimensions of Health: Ritual Practice, Moral Orders, and Worlds of Meaning in Brazilian Candomblé and Umbanda Temples.Wiencke Markus - 2020 - Anthropology of Consciousness 31 (2):153-173.
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  35.  28
    Definition of Historical Models of Gene Function and Their Relation to Students’ Understanding of Genetics.Niklas Markus Gericke & Mariana Hagberg - 2007 - Science & Education 16 (7-8):849-881.
  36. Agency.Markus E. Schlosser - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    In very general terms, an agent is a being with the capacity to act, and 'agency' denotes the exercise or manifestation of this capacity. The philosophy of action provides us with a standard conception and a standard theory of action. The former construes action in terms of intentionality, the latter explains the intentionality of action in terms of causation by the agent’s mental states and events. From this, we obtain a standard conception and a standard theory of agency. There are (...)
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  37. The Content-Dependence of Imaginative Resistance.Hanna Kim, Markus Kneer & Michael T. Stuart - 2018 - In Florian Cova & Sébastien Réhault (eds.), Advances in Experimental Philosophy of Aesthetics. London: Bloomsbury. pp. 143-166.
    An observation of Hume’s has received a lot of attention over the last decade and a half: Although we can standardly imagine the most implausible scenarios, we encounter resistance when imagining propositions at odds with established moral (or perhaps more generally evaluative) convictions. The literature is ripe with ‘solutions’ to this so-called ‘Puzzle of Imaginative Resistance’. Few, however, question the plausibility of the empirical assumption at the heart of the puzzle. In this paper, we explore empirically whether the difficulty we (...)
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  38.  16
    Encore une fois Oliveriana et Rolandiana, ou l'inverse.Wolfgang E. van Emden - 1976 - Revue Belge de Philologie Et D’Histoire 54 (3):837-858.
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  39. Can Artificial Intelligence Make Art?Elzė Sigutė Mikalonytė & Markus Kneer - 2022 - ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interactions.
    In two experiments (total N=693) we explored whether people are willing to consider paintings made by AI-driven robots as art, and robots as artists. Across the two experiments, we manipulated three factors: (i) agent type (AI-driven robot v. human agent), (ii) behavior type (intentional creation of a painting v. accidental creation), and (iii) object type (abstract v. representational painting). We found that people judge robot paintings and human painting as art to roughly the same extent. However, people are much less (...)
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  40.  33
    Neural Mechanisms and Temporal Dynamics of Performance Monitoring.Markus Ullsperger, Adrian G. Fischer, Roland Nigbur & Tanja Endrass - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (5):259-267.
  41. Taking Something as a Reason for Action.Markus E. Schlosser - 2012 - Philosophical Papers 41 (2):267-304.
    This paper proposes and defends an account of what it is to act for reasons. In the first part, I will discuss the desire-belief and the deliberative model of acting for reasons. I will argue that we can avoid the weaknesses and retain the strengths of both views, if we pursue an alternative according to which acting for reasons involves taking something as a reason. In the main part, I will develop an account of what it is to take something (...)
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  42. The Powerlessness of Necessity.Markus Schrenk - 2010 - Noûs 44 (4):725-739.
    This paper concerns anti-Humean intuitions about connections in nature. It argues for the existence of a de re link that is not necessity.Some anti-Humeans tacitly assume that metaphysical necessity can be used for all sorts of anti-Humean desires. Metaphysical necessity is thought to stick together whatever would be loose and separate in a Hume world, as if it were a kind of universal superglue.I argue that this is not feasible. Metaphysical necessity might connect synchronically co-existent properties—kinds and their essential features, (...)
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  43. Levels of Organization: A Deflationary Account.Markus I. Eronen - 2015 - Biology and Philosophy 30 (1):39-58.
    The idea of levels of organization plays a central role in the philosophy of the life sciences. In this article, I first examine the explanatory goals that have motivated accounts of levels of organization. I then show that the most state-of-the-art and scientifically plausible account of levels of organization, the account of levels of mechanism proposed by Bechtel and Craver, is fundamentally problematic. Finally, I argue that the explanatory goals can be reached by adopting a deflationary approach, where levels of (...)
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  44.  39
    Moral Commitments and the Societal Role of Business: An Ordonomic Approach to Corporate Citizenship.Markus Beckmann - 2009 - Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (3):375-401.
    This article introduces an “ordonomic” approach to corporate citizenship. We believe that ordonomics offers a conceptual framework for analyzing both the social structure and the semantics of moral commitments. We claim that such an analysis can provide theoretical guidance for the changing role of business in society, especially in regard to the expectation and trend that businesses take a political role and act as corporate citizens. The systematic raison d’être of corporate citizenship is that business firms can and—judged by the (...)
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  45. Kants Subjektivistische Begründung von Moral Und Freiheit Im Naturrecht Feyerabend.Markus Kohl - 2021 - In Dieter Hüning, Stefan Klingner & Gianluca Bordoni (eds.), Auf dem Weg zur kritischen Rechtslehre? Naturrecht, Moralphilosophie und Eigentumstheorie in Kants Naturrecht Feyerabend. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. pp. 150-171.
    “Naturrecht Feyerabend” is a collection of student notes taken on a lecture that Kant gave around the time he was working on the Groundwork. I show that these notes portray Kant as proposing a defense of morality and freedom whose “subjectivism” is unparalleled by anything that we find in his major published works. Kant here traces both the normativity of the moral principle that we must treat humanity as an end in itself and the legitimacy of regarding ourselves as free (...)
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  46.  24
    Transcendental Ontology and Apperceptive Idealism.Markus Gabriel - 2018 - Australasian Philosophical Review 2 (4):383-392.
    ABSTRACTWhilst agreeing with Robert Pippin that Hegel undertakes his philosophical enterprise in light of Kant's insights into the failings of pre-critical metaphysics, this paper outlines the shortcomings of Pippin's Hegel interpretation by contrasting what I call 'apperceptive idealism' on the one hand with 'transcendental ontology' on the other. By privileging subject over substance, Pippin commits Hegel to an ontologically modest form of Kantianism that, in missing how reality as a whole is the main topic of Hegel’s philosophy, leaves no room (...)
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  47. What Do We Want From Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI)? – A Stakeholder Perspective on XAI and a Conceptual Model Guiding Interdisciplinary XAI Research.Markus Langer, Daniel Oster, Timo Speith, Lena Kästner, Kevin Baum, Holger Hermanns, Eva Schmidt & Andreas Sesing - 2021 - Artificial Intelligence 296:103473.
    Previous research in Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) suggests that a main aim of explainability approaches is to satisfy specific interests, goals, expectations, needs, and demands regarding artificial systems (we call these “stakeholders' desiderata”) in a variety of contexts. However, the literature on XAI is vast, spreads out across multiple largely disconnected disciplines, and it often remains unclear how explainability approaches are supposed to achieve the goal of satisfying stakeholders' desiderata. This paper discusses the main classes of stakeholders calling for explainability (...)
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  48. Interventionism for the Intentional Stance: True Believers and Their Brains.Markus I. Eronen - 2020 - Topoi 39 (1):45-55.
    The relationship between psychological states and the brain remains an unresolved issue in philosophy of psychology. One appealing solution that has been influential both in science and in philosophy is Dennett’s concept of the intentional stance, according to which beliefs and desires are real and objective phenomena, but not necessarily states of the brain. A fundamental shortcoming of this approach is that it does not seem to leave any causal role for beliefs and desires in influencing behavior. In this paper, (...)
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  49.  34
    Merritt, Melissa. Kant on Reflection and Virtue. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018. Pp. 234. $99.99. [REVIEW]Markus Kohl - 2019 - Ethics 129 (4):726-731.
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  50. The Luck Argument Against Event-Causal Libertarianism: It is Here to Stay.Markus E. Schlosser - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 167 (2):375-385.
    The luck argument raises a serious challenge for libertarianism about free will. In broad outline, if an action is undetermined, then it appears to be a matter of luck whether or not one performs it. And if it is a matter of luck whether or not one performs an action, then it seems that the action is not performed with free will. This argument is most effective against event-causal accounts of libertarianism. Recently, Franklin (Philosophical Studies 156:199–230, 2011) has defended event-causal (...)
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