Results for 'Marius Petria'

507 found
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  1.  15
    Abstract Beth Definability in Institutions.Marius Petria & Răzvan Diaconescu - 2006 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 71 (3):1002 - 1028.
    This paper studies definability within the theory of institutions, a version of abstract model theory that emerged in computing science studies of software specification and semantics. We generalise the concept of definability to arbitrary logics, formalised as institutions, and we develop three general definability results. One generalises the classical Beth theorem by relying on the interpolation properties of the institution. Another relies on a meta Birkhoff axiomatizability property of the institution and constitutes a source for many new actual definability results, (...)
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  2.  74
    Saturated Models in Institutions.Răzvan Diaconescu & Marius Petria - 2010 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 49 (6):693-723.
    Saturated models constitute one of the powerful methods of conventional model theory, with many applications. Here we develop a categorical abstract model theoretic approach to saturated models within the theory of institutions. The most important consequence is that the method of saturated models becomes thus available to a multitude of logical systems from logic or from computing science. In this paper we define the concept of saturated model at an abstract institution-independent level and develop the fundamental existence and uniqueness theorems. (...)
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  3.  16
    The Decline of Roman Statesmanship in Plutarch's Pyrrhus-Marius.Gaius Marius & T. F. Carney - 2005 - Classical Quarterly 55:481-497.
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  4.  26
    What’s in a Gold Standard? In Defence of Randomised Controlled Trials.Marius Backmann - 2017 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 20 (4):513-523.
    The standardised randomised clinical trial has been exceedingly popular in medical research, economics, and practical policy making. Recently, RCTs have faced criticism. First, it has been argued by John Worrall that we cannot be certain that our sample is not atypical with regard to possible confounding factors. I will argue that at least in the case of medical research, we know enough about the relevant causal mechanisms to be justified to ignore a number of factors we have good reason not (...)
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  5.  30
    The Time Course of Perceptual Choice: The Leaky, Competing Accumulator Model.Marius Usher & James L. McClelland - 2001 - Psychological Review 108 (3):550-592.
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  6.  84
    Consequentializing and Underdetermination.Marius Baumann - 2019 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 97 (3):511-527.
    abstractThe paper explores a new interpretation of the consequentializing project. Three prominent interpretations are criticized for neglecting the explanatory dimension of moral theories. Instead...
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  7.  27
    Attention in the Real World: Toward Understanding its Neural Basis.Marius V. Peelen & Sabine Kastner - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (5):242-250.
  8. Better Best Systems – Too Good To Be True.Marius Backmann & Alexander Reutlinger - 2014 - Dialectica 68 (3):375-390.
    Craig Callender, Jonathan Cohen and Markus Schrenk have recently argued for an amended version of the best system account of laws – the better best system account (BBSA). This account of lawhood is supposed to account for laws in the special sciences, among other desiderata. Unlike David Lewis's original best system account of laws, the BBSA does not rely on a privileged class of natural predicates, in terms of which the best system is formulated. According to the BBSA, a contingently (...)
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  9. Emilie du Chatelet's Metaphysics of Substance.Marius Stan - 2018 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 56 (3):477-496.
    Much early modern metaphysics grew with an eye to the new science of its time, but few figures took it as seriously as Emilie du Châtelet. Happily, her oeuvre is now attracting close, renewed attention, and so the time is ripe for looking into her metaphysical foundation for empirical theory. Accordingly, I move here to do just that. I establish two conclusions. First, du Châtelet's basic metaphysics is a robust realism. Idealist strands, while they exist, are confined to non-basic regimes. (...)
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  10. Agency, Teleological Control and Robust Causation.Marius Usher - 2020 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 100 (2):302-324.
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, EarlyView.
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  11.  8
    Practical Theologians’ Calling to Serve in the Field of Gerontology.Petria M. Theron - 2013 - Hts Theological Studies 69 (2):01-07.
    The South African demographic statistics echo the global trend of an ageing population. This fact poses challenges to the country's labour supply, to health care, retirement and intergenerational relations. The elderly are faced with specific challenges such as negative views regarding older people, discrimination and prejudice based on age, changing roles, the loss of a support system when children emigrate, financial problems, abuse and neglect, emotions of fear and depression, and the struggle to find meaning in life and suffering. The (...)
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  12. A Statistical Referential Theory of Content: Using Information Theory to Account for Misrepresentation.Marius Usher - 2001 - Mind and Language 16 (3):331-334.
  13.  23
    Parfit, Convergence, and Underdetermination.Marius Baumann - 2018 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 13 (3).
  14.  25
    No Fact of the Matter.Marius Baumann - 2021 - Metaphilosophy 52 (3-4):466-478.
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  15.  48
    No Time for Powers.Marius Backmann - 2019 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 62 (9-10):979-1007.
    ABSTRACTIn this paper, I will investigate the compatibility of different metaphysics of time with the powers view. At first sight, it seems natural to combine some sort of powers ontology with a dy...
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  16.  1
    Necessarily the Old Riddle Necessary Connections and the Problem of Induction.Marius Backmann - 2022 - Disputatio 14 (64):1-26.
    In this paper, I will discuss accounts to solve the problem of induction by introducing necessary connections. The basic idea is this: if we know that there are necessary connections between properties F and G such that F -ness necessarily brings about G-ness, then we are justified to infer that all, including future or unobserved, F s will be Gs. To solve the problem of induction with ontology has been proposed by David Armstrong and Brian Ellis. In this paper, I (...)
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  17. Kant’s Third Law of Mechanics: The Long Shadow of Leibniz.Marius Stan - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):493-504.
    This paper examines the origin, range and meaning of the Principle of Action and Reaction in Kant’s mechanics. On the received view, it is a version of Newton’s Third Law. I argue that Kant meant his principle as foundation for a Leibnizian mechanics. To find a ‘Newtonian’ law of action and reaction, we must look to Kant’s ‘dynamics,’ or theory of matter. I begin, in part I, by noting marked differences between Newton’s and Kant’s laws of action and reaction. I (...)
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  18.  6
    Being Treated Like ‘Waste’ During the ‘Golden Years’: Practical-Theological Perspectives.Petria M. Theron - 2014 - Hts Theological Studies 70 (2).
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  19.  13
    In Search of the Trinity: A Dilemma for Parfit’s Conciliatory Project.Marius Baumann - 2021 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 24 (4):999-1018.
    I outline a dilemma for Derek Parfit’s project to vindicate moral realism. In On What Matters, Parfit argues that the best versions of three of the main moral traditions agree on a set of moral principles, which should make us more confident about the prospects of truth in ethics. I show that the result of this Convergence Argument can be interpreted in two ways. Either there remain three separate and deontically equivalent theories or there remains just one theory, the Triple (...)
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  20.  15
    Visuo-Tactile Congruency Influences the Body Schema During Full Body Ownership Illusion.Marius Rubo & Matthias Gamer - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 73:102758.
  21.  58
    Using Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis of fMRI Data to Interpret Overlapping Functional Activations.Marius V. Peelen & Paul E. Downing - 2007 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (1):4-5.
  22.  22
    Understanding and Assessing Uncertainty of Observational Datasets for Model Evaluation Using Ensembles.Marius Zumwald, Benedikt Knüsel, Christoph Baumberger, Gertrude Hirsch Hadorn, David Bresch & Reto Knutti - 2020 - WIREs Climate Change 10:1-19.
    In climate science, observational gridded climate datasets that are based on in situ measurements serve as evidence for scientific claims and they are used to both calibrate and evaluate models. However, datasets only represent selected aspects of the real world, so when they are used for a specific purpose they can be a source of uncertainty. Here, we present a framework for understanding this uncertainty of observational datasets which distinguishes three general sources of uncertainty: (1) uncertainty that arises during the (...)
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  23.  6
    Loss Aversion and Inhibition in Dynamical Models of Multialternative Choice.Marius Usher & James L. McClelland - 2004 - Psychological Review 111 (3):757-769.
  24.  53
    Beyond Newton, Leibniz and Kant: Insufficient Foundations, 1687 to 1786.Marius Stan - forthcoming - In Between Leibniz, Newton, and Kant, Second Edition. New York, NY, USA:
    Early modern foundations for mechanics came in two kinds, nomic and material. I examine here the dynamical laws and pictures of matter given respectively by Newton, Leibniz, and Kant. I argue that they fall short of their foundational task, viz. to represent enough kinematic behavior; or at least to explain it. In effect, for the true foundations of classical mechanics we must look beyond Newton, Leibniz, and Kant.
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  25.  64
    Humean Libertarianism: Outline of a Revisionist Account of the Joint Problem of Free Will, Determinism and Laws of Nature.Marius Backmann - 2013 - Frankfurt: ontos.
    3 LIBERTARIANISM Now that we have discussed determinism and laws of nature, let us finally turn to libertarianism. Traditionally, libertarianism has been viewed as an incompatibilist theory of free will, as it requires the existence of real ...
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  26.  26
    Piggy in the Middle: How Direct Customer Power Affects First-Tier Suppliers’ Adoption of Socially Responsible Procurement Practices and Performance.Paul McGrath, Marius Claudy, Lucy McCarthy & Donna Marshall - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 154 (4):1081-1102.
    Companies are faced with a choice of which type of power to use in their efforts to persuade their first-tier suppliers to adopt socially responsible procurement practices with key second-tier suppliers. However, we know little about how first-tier suppliers will react to different types of power and which are most effective in encouraging the adoption of socially responsible procurement practices. We are also ignorant of the impact of these practices on first-tier suppliers’ performance. This paper uses bases of power theory (...)
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  27. Phoronomy: Space, Construction, and Mathematizing Motion.Marius Stan - 2022 - In Michael Bennett McNulty (ed.), Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science: A Critical Guide. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. pp. 80-97.
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  28.  66
    Philosophical Mechanics in the Age of Reason.Marius Stan & Katherine Brading - forthcoming - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This book argues that the Enlightenment was a golden age for the philosophy of body, and for efforts to integrate coherently a philosophical concept of body with a mathematized theory of mechanics. Thereby, it articulates a new framing for the history of 18th-century philosophy and science. It explains why, more than a century after Newton, physics broke away from philosophy to become an autonomous domain. And, it casts fresh light on the structure and foundations of classical mechanics. Among the figures (...)
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  29.  2
    Automatic Construction of Parallel Portfolios Via Algorithm Configuration.Marius Lindauer, Holger Hoos, Kevin Leyton-Brown & Torsten Schaub - 2017 - Artificial Intelligence 244:272-290.
  30. Newton's Concepts of Force Among the Leibnizians.Marius Stan - 2017 - In Mordechai Feingold & Elizabethanne Boran (eds.), Reading Newton in Early Modern Europe. Leiden: Brill. pp. 244-289.
    I argue that the key dynamical concepts and laws of Newton's Principia never gained a solid foothold in Germany before Kant in the 1750s. I explain this absence as due to Leibniz. Thus I make a case for a robust Leibnizian legacy for Enlightenment science, and I solve what Jonathan Israel called “a meaningful historical problem on its own,” viz. the slow and hesitant reception of Newton in pre-Kantian Germany.
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  31. Unity for Kant’s Natural Philosophy.Marius Stan - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (3):423-443.
    I uncover here a conflict in Kant’s natural philosophy. His matter theory and laws of mechanics are in tension. Kant’s laws are fit for particles but are too narrow to handle continuous bodies, which his doctrine of matter demands. To fix this defect, Kant ultimately must ground the Torque Law; that is, the impressed torque equals the change in angular momentum. But that grounding requires a premise—the symmetry of the stress tensor—that Kant denies himself. I argue that his problem would (...)
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  32. Absolute and Relative Motion.Marius Stan - 2022 - In Charles T. Wolfe & Dana Jalobeanu (eds.), Encyclopedia of Early Modern Philosophy and the Sciences. Springer. pp. 1-8.
    Modern philosophy of physics debates whether motion is absolute or relative. The debate began in the 1600s, so it deserves a close look here. Primarily, it was a controversy in metaphysics, but it had epistemic aspects too. I begin with the former, and then touch upon the latter at the end.
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  33. Huygens on Inertial Structure and Relativity.Marius Stan - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (2):277-298.
    I explain and assess here Huygens’ concept of relative motion. I show that it allows him to ground most of the Law of Inertia, and also to explain rotation. Thereby his concept obviates the need for Newton’s absolute space. Thus his account is a powerful foundation for mechanics, though not without some tension.
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  34.  2
    Simon Marius and His Research.Hans Gaab & Pierre Leich (eds.) - 2018 - Springer Verlag.
    The margravial court astronomer Simon Marius, was involved in all of the new observations made with the recently invented telescope in the early part of the seventeenth century. He also discovered the Moons of Jupiter in January 1610, but lost the priority dispute with Galileo Galilei, because he missed to publish his findings in a timely manner. The history of astronomy neglected Marius for a long time, finding only the apologists for the Copernican system worthy of attention. In (...)
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  35.  3
    Activating Episodic Simulation Increases Affective Empathy.Marius C. Vollberg, Brendan Gaesser & Mina Cikara - 2021 - Cognition 209:104558.
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  36. Kant’s Early Theory of Motion.Marius Stan - 2009 - The Leibniz Review 19:29-61.
    This paper examines the young Kant’s claim that all motion is relative, and argues that it is the core of a metaphysical dynamics of impact inspired by Leibniz and Wolff. I start with some background to Kant’s early dynamics, and show that he rejects Newton’s absolute space as a foundation for it. Then I reconstruct the exact meaning of Kant’s relativity, and the model of impact he wants it to support. I detail (in Section II and III) his polemic engagement (...)
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  37. Absolute Space and the Riddle of Rotation: Kant’s Response to Newton.Marius Stan - 2016 - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 7:257-308.
    Newton had a fivefold argument that true motion must be motion in absolute space, not relative to matter. Like Newton, Kant holds that bodies have true motions. Unlike him, though, Kant takes all motion to be relative to matter, not to space itself. Thus, he must respond to Newton’s argument above. I reconstruct here Kant’s answer in detail. I prove that Kant addresses just one part of Newton’s case, namely, his “argument from the effects” of rotation. And, to show that (...)
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  38. Newton and Wolff: The Leibnizian Reaction to the Principia, 1716-1763.Marius Stan - 2012 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):459-481.
    Newton rested his theory of mechanics on distinct metaphysical and epistemological foundations. After Leibniz's death in 1716, the Principia ran into sharp philosophical opposition from Christian Wolff and his disciples, who sought to subvert Newton's foundations or replace them with Leibnizian ideas. In what follows, I chronicle some of the Wolffians' reactions to Newton's notion of absolute space, his dynamical laws of motion, and his general theory of gravitation. I also touch on arguments advanced by Newton's Continental followers, such as (...)
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  39.  4
    African Pentecostal Spirituality as a Mystical Tradition: How Regaining its Roots Could Benefit Pentecostals.Marius Nel - 2020 - HTS Theological Studies 76 (4):1-10.
    Western academic theology do not succeed in accounting for the identity and faith culture of African Pentecostals for at least two reasons. In the first place, because as part of the Pentecostal movement it grew from the holiness, divine healing and revivalist movement that went back to Pietism and emphasised a holistic effective spirituality, and secondly, because it links with the holistic tradition of African traditional religions and worldview that share some aspects of the Old Testament realist way of thinking. (...)
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  40.  28
    Marius And Fortuna.C. D. Gilbert - 1973 - Classical Quarterly 23 (1):104-107.
    In his treatment of Marius in the Bellum Jugurthinum Sallust lays considerable stress on fortune2 and Marius' belief in divine assistance. I shall offer an analysis of these concepts in two sections: their use by Sallust himself in relation to Marius; their use in the earlier tradition about Marius. I. Though he is frequently mentioned in the earlier chapters of the B.J., our first formal introduction to Marius is in chapter 63. This chapter is of (...)
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  41.  48
    Varieties of Justification—How (Not) to Solve the Problem of Induction.Marius Backmann - 2019 - Acta Analytica 34 (2):235-255.
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  42.  7
    Refuting the Unfolding-Argument on the Irrelevance of Causal Structure to Consciousness.Marius Usher - 2021 - Consciousness and Cognition 95:103212.
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  43.  27
    Input and Age‐Dependent Variation in Second Language Learning: A Connectionist Account.Marius Janciauskas & Franklin Chang - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S2):519-554.
    Language learning requires linguistic input, but several studies have found that knowledge of second language rules does not seem to improve with more language exposure. One reason for this is that previous studies did not factor out variation due to the different rules tested. To examine this issue, we reanalyzed grammaticality judgment scores in Flege, Yeni-Komshian, and Liu's study of L2 learners using rule-related predictors and found that, in addition to the overall drop in performance due to a sensitive period, (...)
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  44. Euler, Newton, and Foundations for Mechanics.Marius Stan - 2017 - In Chris Smeenk & Eric Schliesser (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Newton. Oxford University Press. pp. 1-22.
    This chapter looks at Euler’s relation to Newton, and at his role in the rise of ‘Newtonian’ mechanics. It aims to give a sense of Newton’s complicated legacy for Enlightenment science, and to raise awareness that some key ‘Newtonian’ results really come from Euler.
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  45.  19
    Marius Maximus and Ausonius' Caesares.R. P. H. Green - 1981 - Classical Quarterly 31 (01):226-.
    The disappearance of the imperial biographies written by Marius Maximus is one of the more frustrating losses of Latin literature, for various reasons: the well-known testimony of Ammianus, the interest of Marius Maximus' attested contribution to the Historia Augusta, his importance, much in dispute, to the writer of that work, the lack of information on much of the period he covered, and, not least, the fascinating role assigned to him by modern scholars, remodelling a previous duality of sources, (...)
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  46. Marius Victorinus a-t-il lu les Enneades de Plotin ?P. Henry - 1934 - Recherches de Science Religieuse 24 (1):432.
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  47. Marius Timmann Mjaaland: The Hidden God. Luther, Philosophy, and Political Theology.Egil Hjelmervik - 2017 - Agora 35 (1):388-404.
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  48. Richard Marius, Thomas Morus : Eine Biographie. [REVIEW]Seymour House - 1988 - Moreana 25 (2-3):84-84.
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  49.  8
    Moral underdetermination and a new skeptical challenge.Marius Baumann - 2022 - Synthese 200 (3):1-22.
    In this paper, I introduce a new challenge to moral realism: the skeptical argument from moral underdetermination. The challenge arises as a consequence of two recent projects in normative ethics. Both Parfit and a group called consequentializers have independently claimed that the main traditions of normative theories can agree on the set of correct particular deontic verdicts. Nonetheless, as Dietrich and List :421–479, 2017) and myself :191–221, 2018; Australas J Philos 97:511–527, 2019; Ethical Theory Moral Pract 24:999–1018, 2021a) have argued, (...)
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  50.  9
    Marius Jucan, Singuratatea salvata/ Redemption of Solitude.Lorin Ghiman - 2003 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 2 (4):182-185.
    Marius Jucan, Singuratatea salvata. O încercare asupra operei lui Henry David Thoreau din perspectiva modernitatii americane Editura Fundatiei pentru Studii Europene, Cluj Napoca, 2001.
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