BackgroundThe emphasis on impact factors and the quantity of publications intensifies competition between researchers. This competition was traditionally considered an incentive to produce high-quality work, but there are unwanted side-effects of this competition like publication pressure. To measure the effect of publication pressure on researchers, the Publication Pressure Questionnaire was developed. Upon using the PPQ, some issues came to light that motivated a revision.MethodWe constructed two new subscales based on work stress models using the facet method. We administered the revised (...) PPQ to a convenience sample together with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Work Design Questionnaire. To assess which items best measured publication pressure, we carried out a principal component analysis. Reliability was sufficient when Cronbach’s alpha > 0.7. Finally, we administered the PPQr in a larger, independent sample of researchers to check the reliability of the revised version.ResultsThree components were identified as ‘stress’, ‘attitude’, and ‘resources’. We selected 3 × 6 = 18 items with high loadings in the three-component solution. Based on the convenience sample, Cronbach’s alphas were 0.83 for stress, 0.80 for attitude, and 0.76 for resources. We checked the validity of the PPQr by inspecting the correlations with the MBI and the WDQ. Stress correlated 0.62 with MBI’s emotional exhaustion. Resources correlated 0.50 with relevant WDQ subscales. To assess the internal structure of the PPQr in the independent reliability sample, we conducted the principal component analysis. The three-component solution explains 50% of the variance. Cronbach’s alphas were 0.80, 0.78, and 0.75 for stress, attitude, and resources, respectively.ConclusionWe conclude that the PPQr is a valid and reliable instrument to measure publication pressure in academic researchers from all disciplinary fields. The PPQr strongly relates to burnout and could also be beneficial for policy makers and research institutions to assess the degree of publication pressure in their institute. (shrink)
Insofar as man belongs to a political community, all his activities and ends are prescribed by the 'laws' in view of the common good. But is man just a part of the whole? Are there no virtues that concern man as an individual and not just as a part of the community? Is the education of man identical with his political education as a citizen? This would be the case if the good man and the good citizen were identical. The (...) present article examines the relation between ethics and politics in Aristotle starting from ananalysis of Politics III, 4 where the question is raised whether the virtues of the good man and the good citizen are identical. Since the rediscovery of the Politics in the thirteenth century, Aristotle's argumentation has been used to detach the finality of the life of the individual from the finality of the state as a whole. (shrink)
Catholic ethicists faithful to the magisterium of the Church are currently divided on the permissibility of using methotrexate to treat ectopic pregnancies. This paper examines the defenses of Rev. Albert Moraczewski, OP, and Christopher Kaczor, who argue that its use is morally permissible, in an attempt to demonstrate that methotrexate constitutes a direct abortion by virtue of its object. Specifically, the paper challenges the claims that methotrexate is aimed at inhibiting pathological tissues, that the trophoblast is not an organ of (...) the embryo, and that direct removal of a nonviable fetus is not a direct abortion. National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 14.4 : 625–635. (shrink)
Securing the internet has arguably become paradigmatic for modern security practice, not only because modern life is considered to be impossible or valueless if disconnected, but also because emergent cyber-relations and their complex interconnections are refashioning traditional security logics. This paper analyses European modes of governing geared toward securing vital, emergent cyber-systems in the face of the interconnected emergency. It develops the concept of ‘bureaucratic vitalism’ to get at the tension between the hierarchical organization and reductive knowledge frames of security (...) apparatuses on the one hand, and the increasing desire for building ‘resilient’, dispersed, and flexible security assemblages on the other. The bureaucratic/vital juxtaposition seeks to capture the way in which cybersecurity governance takes emergent, complex systems as object and model without fully replicating this ideal in practice. Thus, we are concerned with the question of what happens when security apparatuses appropriate and translate vitalist concepts into practice. Our case renders visible the banal bureaucratic manoeuvres that seek to operate upon security emergencies by fostering connectivities, producing agencies, and staging exercises. (shrink)
Besides offering opportunities in both clinical and non-clinical domains, the application of novel neuroimaging technologies raises pressing dilemmas. ‘Responsible Research and Innovation’ aims to stimulate research and innovation activities that take ethical and social considerations into account from the outset. We previously identified that Dutch neuroscientists interpret “responsible innovation” as educating the public on neuroimaging technologies via the popular press. Their aim is to mitigate hype, an aim shared with the wider emerging RRI community. Here, we present results of a (...) media-analysis undertaken to establish whether the body of articles in the Dutch popular press presents balanced conversations on neuroimaging research to the public. We found that reporting was mostly positive and framed in terms of progress. There was rarely a balance between technology opportunities and limitations, and even fewer articles addressed societal or ethical aspects of neuroimaging research. Furthermore, neuroimaging metaphors seem to favour oversimplification. Current reporting is therefore more likely to enable hype than to mitigate it. How can neuroscientists, given their self-ascribed social responsibility, address this conundrum? We make a case for a collective and shared responsibility among neuroscientists, journalists and other stakeholders, including funders, committed to responsible reporting on neuroimaging research. (shrink)
Veel wetenschappers, filosofen en theologen zijn van mening dat God nooit opgevoerd mag worden als verklaring voor een verschijnsel. Eén argument dat ze hiervoor aandragen is dat het op de een of andere manier in de aard van wetenschap zit dat God er geen rol in kan spelen. In dit artikel ga ik in op een specifieke versie van dit argument. Ik vraag me af of de aard van wetenschappelijke verklaringen uitsluit dat God als verklaringsgrond wordt genoemd. Om die vraag (...) te beantwoorden ga ik na of de door wetenschapsfilosofen ontwikkelde standaardmodellen van wetenschappelijk verklaren ruimte bieden aan theïstische verklaringen. Dat blijkt inderdaad zo te zijn, enige kwalificaties daargelaten. De conclusie moet dan ook luiden dat de aard van wetenschappelijke verklaringen niet zodanig is dat theïstische verklaringen uitgesloten zijn. (shrink)
This volume collects Late Ancient, Byzantine and Medieval appropriations of Aristotle's Posterior Analytics, addressing the logic of inquiry, concept formation, the question whether metaphysics is a science, and the theory of demonstration.
Este escrito presenta el tema del cuerpo y de la corporeidad en la Scienza nuova de Vico, confrontando las dos interpretaciones, que la autora opone, de Alberto M. Damiani y de Giuseppe Patella.Palabras clave: Vico, cuerpo, corporeidad, A. Damiani, G. Patella.This paper focusses on the subject of body and embodiment in Vico’s Scienza nuova, by confronting the interpretations of Alberto M. Damiani and Giuseppe Patella.Keywords: Vico, body, embodiment, A. Damiani, G. Patella.
Stress is increasingly being recognized as one of the main factors that is negatively affecting our health, and therefore there is a need to regulate daily stress and prevent long-term stress. This need seems particularly important for adults with mild intellectual disabilities who have been shown to have more difficulties coping with stress than adults without intellectual disabilities. Hence, the development of music therapy interventions for stress reduction, particularly within populations where needs may be greater, is becoming increasingly important. In (...) order to gain more insight into the practice-based knowledge on how music therapists lower stress levels of their patients with MID during music therapy sessions, we conducted focus group interviews with music therapists working with adults with MID from different countries and clinical institutions in Europe. Results provide an overview of the most-used interventions for stress reduction within and outside of music. Data-analysis resulted in the further specification of therapeutic goals, intervention techniques, the use of musical instruments, and related therapeutic change factors. The main findings indicate that music therapists used little to no receptive interventions for stress reduction, but preferred to use active interventions, which were mainly based on musical improvisation. Results show that three therapy goals for stress relief could be distinguished. The goal of “synchronizing” can be seen as a sub goal because it often precedes working on the other two goals of “tension release” or “direct relaxation,” which can also be seen as two ways of reaching stress reduction in adults with MID through music therapy interventions. Furthermore, the tempo and the dynamics of the music are considered as the most important musical components to reduce stress in adults with MID. Practical implications for stress-reducing music therapy interventions for adults with MID are discussed as well as recommendations for future research. (shrink)
La adolescencia es un periodo crítico de la vida para el desarrollo de depresión. Durante este periodo la prevalencia de adolescentes que sufren trastornos depresivos aumenta considerablemente, debido a múltiples factores biológicos, sociales y psicológicos. Además entre los 14 y 18 años emergen importantes diferencias de género en depresión, de forma que al final de este periodo las tasas de depresión en las chicas llegan a doblar las observadas en los chicos (Hankin et al., 1998). Estas diferencias tenderán a mantenerse (...) a lo largo del ciclo vital. De este modo las estadísticas indican que en la vida adulta las mujeres experimentan el Trastorno Depresivo Mayor dos veces más que los hombres, siendo las diferencias aún mayores para el Trastorno Distímico. (shrink)
Both young children and agrammatic aphasic speakers have difficulty interpreting pronouns, but not reflexive elements. This phenomenon is known as the delay of Principle B effect in language acquisition. The interpretation of pronouns is non-adult-like for children and disturbed in agrammatic aphasia, yet there is evidence that interpretation of pronouns is not always problematic for these populations and that it seems to be governed by linguistic principles. This chapter examines the linguistic principles underlying the interpretation of pronouns and reflexives among (...) children and agrammatic aphasic speakers whose native languages were Dutch, Spanish, and Italian by focusing on two types of sentences: simple transitive sentences and Exceptional Case Marking constructions. It first looks at earlier research on language acquisition and agrammatism before discussing two important linguistic theories, Government and Binding Theory and Reflexivity and Primitives of Binding. (shrink)
Francesca Albertini's voluminous study, Die Konzeption des Messias bei Maimonides und die fruehmittelalterliche islamische Philosophie, wishes to put a fresh emphasis on the link between Maimonides' concept of the Messiah and his ideal of the leader as a political figure. For Maimonides, Albertini argues, the arrival of the Messiah will be realized only through human effort and appropriate behavior: it is man who bears responsibility for this event through his moral actions. The Messiah, on the other hand, as the leader (...) of the community, seeks to implement the new order in society through which Divine Law will be established and followed precisely. Hence, the Messiah's arrival is not an apocalyptic, eschatological .. (shrink)
El objetivo de este artículo es mostrar la Dialéctica negativa como una obra fundamental del pensamiento de Adorno. En ella el autor desarrolla las antinomias existentes en el concepto de razón instrumental, para proclamar después la necesidad de establecer una nueva noción de racionalidad: una razón de carácter dialéctico, negativo y material, que afirma, a su vez, la no identidad entre sujeto y objeto, entre pensamiento y realidad. De este modo, la filosofía deviene crítica del Idealismo, sistema filosófico que defiende (...) el pensamiento identificador y la sociedad irracional que éste fundamenta, imposibilitando una auténtica libertad. Frente a él Adorno define la reflexión metafísica como "dialéctica negativa" y antisistema, cuyo método de proceder es el análisis de "modelos" de pensamiento, consecuencia de su propia epistemología crítica. The main goal of this article is to present Negative Dialectics as a central theme in the Adorno¿s thought. In this work Adorno develops the antinomies that there are in the concept of instrumental reason, in order to assert the necessity for a new notion of rationality: a dialectical, negative and materialistic reason, which holds, at the same time, the non identity between subject-object, thought and reality. In this way Philosophy becomes critique of Idealism because this philosophical system defends the "identity thinking" and the irrational society that supports, making a true freedom impossible. Instead of this conception Adorno defines Metaphysics as "negative dialectics¿"and antisystem, whose method is the analysis of thinking¿s models, as a result of his own critical epistemology. (shrink)
This article contains an outline of the most important theoretical approaches that have addressed the role of women within the family. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, in which women training Liberal created partnerships to claim their rights, to radical questioning paradigms all social relationships to eliminate gender inequalities. An evolution of the social and political theory with feminism as a hub, affecting every aspect of life women: motherhood, work and, of course, family.
The main goal of this article is to present Negative Dialectics as a central theme in the Adorno’s thought. In this work Adorno develops the antinomies that there are in the concept of instrumental reason, in order to assert the necessity for a new notion of rationality: a dialectical, negative and materialistic reason, which holds, at the same time, the non identity between subject-object, thought and reality. In this way Philosophy becomes critique of Idealism because this philosophical system defends the (...) “identity thinking” and the irrational society that supports, making a true freedom impossible. Instead of this conception Adorno defines Metaphysics as “negative dialectics” and antisystem, whose method is the analysis of thinking’s models, as a result of his own critical epistemology. (shrink)
Nous étions des survivantes, des veuves, condamnées à vivre. Mais petit à petit notre lutte a été de se dire : « On veut quand même être vivantes, vivantes ! », SurVivantes.Survivre, cela veut dire qu’auparavant on avait vécu.Je me suis mariée en 1987. En 1988, nous avons eu notre première fille Anna et nous sommes allés voir la famille de mon mari. Une photo a été..