Results for 'Marietta Elliott-Kleerkoper'

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  1. Art Instinct?Marietta Elliott-Kleerkoper - 2013 - The Australian Humanist 109 (109):7.
    Elliott-Kleerkoper, Marietta It was Charles Darwin who first proposed an evolutionary theory of beauty. He surmised that art fulfilled two evolutionary functions. In respect of general selection, beauty is related to fitness. It also plays a part in sexual selection: the female selects the male on the basis of aesthetic criteria: think, for example, of the peacock's tail, the bowerbird's nest.
     
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  2. Spider.Marietta Elliot-Kleerkoper - forthcoming - Australian Humanist, The 123:24.
    Elliot-Kleerkoper, Marietta On the green glass wall of my shower recess...
     
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  3.  10
    I–Elliott Sober.Elliott Sober - 2000 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 74 (1):237-280.
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  4. The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus.Elliott Sober - 1984 - University of Chicago Press.
    The Nature of Selection is a straightforward, self-contained introduction to philosophical and biological problems in evolutionary theory. It presents a powerful analysis of the evolutionary concepts of natural selection, fitness, and adaptation and clarifies controversial issues concerning altruism, group selection, and the idea that organisms are survival machines built for the good of the genes that inhabit them. "Sober's is the answering philosophical voice, the voice of a first-rate philosopher and a knowledgeable student of contemporary evolutionary theory. His book merits (...)
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  5.  29
    Explanation in Biology: Let's Razor Ockham's Razor: Elliott Sober.Elliott Sober - 1990 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 27:73-93.
    When philosophers discuss the topic of explanation, they usually have in mind the following question: given the beliefs one has and some proposition that one wishes to explain, which subset of the beliefs constitutes an explanation of the target proposition? That is, the philosophical ‘problem of explanation’ typically has bracketed the issue of how one obtains the beliefs; they are taken as given. The problem of explanation has been the problem of understanding the relation ‘x explains y’. Since Hempel did (...)
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  6.  23
    Replies to Kristin Andrews’s, Gordon Belot’s, and Patrick Forber’s Reviews: Elliott Sober: Ockham’s Razors: A User’s Manual. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016, 322pp, $29.99 PB, $99.99 HB.Elliott Sober - 2016 - Metascience 25 (3):393-403.
  7.  5
    Outline of Greek Art. By J. R. Elliott. Pp. 107; 12 Pls. New Zealand: Whitcombe and Tombs, Ltd.1939. 7s. 6d.A. D. Trendall & J. R. Elliott - 1940 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 60:103-104.
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  8. Philosophy of Biology.Elliott Sober - 1993 - Westview Press.
    Perhaps because of it implications for our understanding of human nature, recent philosophy of biology has seen what might be the most dramatic work in the philosophies of the ”special” sciences. This drama has centered on evolutionary theory, and in the second edition of this textbook, Elliott Sober introduces the reader to the most important issues of these developments. With a rare combination of technical sophistication and clarity of expression, Sober engages both the higher level of theory and the (...)
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  9. The impossibility of a satisfactory population prospect axiology (independently of Finite Fine-Grainedness).Elliott Thornley - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (11):3671-3695.
    Arrhenius’s impossibility theorems purport to demonstrate that no population axiology can satisfy each of a small number of intuitively compelling adequacy conditions. However, it has recently been pointed out that each theorem depends on a dubious assumption: Finite Fine-Grainedness. This assumption states that there exists a finite sequence of slight welfare differences between any two welfare levels. Denying Finite Fine-Grainedness makes room for a lexical population axiology which satisfies all of the compelling adequacy conditions in each theorem. Therefore, Arrhenius’s theorems (...)
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  10.  77
    Evidence and Evolution: The Logic Behind the Science.Elliott Sober - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    How should the concept of evidence be understood? And how does the concept of evidence apply to the controversy about creationism as well as to work in evolutionary biology about natural selection and common ancestry? In this rich and wide-ranging book, Elliott Sober investigates general questions about probability and evidence and shows how the answers he develops to those questions apply to the specifics of evolutionary biology. Drawing on a set of fascinating examples, he analyzes whether claims about intelligent (...)
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  11. Introduction to Mathematical Logic.Elliott Mendelson - 1964 - Princeton: Van Nostrand.
    The Fourth Edition of this long-established text retains all the key features of the previous editions, covering the basic topics of a solid first course in ...
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  12.  55
    The Sufi Path of Knowledge: Ibn Al-'Arabi's Metaphysics of Imagination.Marietta Stepaniants - 1991 - Philosophy East and West 41 (2):255-258.
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  13.  49
    Deterritorialising Death: Queerfeminist Biophilosophy and Ecologies of the Non/Living in Contemporary Art.Marietta Radomska - 2020 - Australian Feminist Studies 35 (104).
    In the contemporary context of environmental crises and the degradation of resources, certain habitats become unliveable, leading to the death of individuals and species extinction. Whilst bioscience emphasises interdependency and relationality as crucial characteristics of life shared by all organisms, Western cultural imaginaries tend to draw a thick dividing line between humans and nonhumans, particularly evident in the context of death. On the one hand, death appears as a process common to all forms of life; on the other, as an (...)
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  14. A Dilemma for Lexical and Archimedean Views in Population Axiology.Elliott Thornley - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy.
    According to lexical views in population axiology, there are good lives x and y such that some number of lives equally good as x is not worse than any number of lives equally good as y. Such views can avoid the Repugnant Conclusion without violating Transitivity or Separability, but they imply a dilemma: either some good life is better than any number of slightly worse lives, or else the ‘at least as good as’ relation on populations is radically incomplete, in (...)
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  15.  21
    Uncontainable Life : A Biophilosophy of Bioart.Marietta Radomska - 2016 - Dissertation, Linköping University
    Uncontainable Life: A Biophilosophy of Bioart investigates the ways in which thinking through the contemporary hybrid artistico-scientific practices of bioart is a biophilosophical practice, one that contributes to a more nuanced understanding of life than we encounter in mainstream academic discourse. When examined from a Deleuzian feminist perspective and in dialogue with contemporary bioscience, bioartistic projects reveal the inadequacy of asking about life’s essence. They expose the enmeshment between the living and non-living, organic and inorganic, and, ultimately, life and death. (...)
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  16.  17
    Reconstructing The Past: Parsimony, Evolution, and Inference.Elliott Sober - 1988 - MIT Press.
    Reconstructing the Past seeks to clarify and help resolve the vexing methodological issues that arise when biologists try to answer such questions as whether human beings are more closely related to chimps than they are to gorillas. It explores the case for considering the philosophical idea of simplicity/parsimony as a useful principle for evaluating taxonomic theories of evolutionary relationships. For the past two decades, evolutionists have been vigorously debating the appropriate methods that should be used in systematics, the field that (...)
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  17. A Critical Review of Philosophical Work on the Units of Selection Problem.Elliott Sober & David Sloan Wilson - 1994 - Philosophy of Science 61 (4):534-555.
    The evolutionary problem of the units of selection has elicited a good deal of conceptual work from philosophers. We review this work to determine where the issues now stand.
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  18.  9
    An Embodied Tutoring System for Literal Vs. Metaphorical Concepts.Marietta Sionti, Thomas Schack & Yiannis Aloimonos - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  19.  29
    The Design Argument.Elliott Sober - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    This Element analyzes the various forms that design arguments for the existence of God can take, but the main focus is on two such arguments. The first concerns the complex adaptive features that organisms have. Creationists who advance this argument contend that evolution by natural selection cannot be the right explanation. The second design argument - the argument from fine-tuning - begins with the fact that life could not exist in our universe if the constants found in the laws of (...)
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  20.  6
    The Ethical Principle and its Application in State Relations.Marietta Kies - 1892 - Philosophical Review 1 (6):673-675.
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  21.  73
    From a Biological Point of View: Essays in Evolutionary Philosophy.Elliott Sober - 1994 - Cambridge University Press.
    Elliott Sober is one of the leading philosophers of science and is a former winner of the Lakatos Prize, the major award in the field. This new collection of essays will appeal to a readership that extends well beyond the frontiers of the philosophy of science. Sober shows how ideas in evolutionary biology bear in significant ways on traditional problems in philosophy of mind and language, epistemology, and metaphysics. Amongst the topics addressed are psychological egoism, solipsism, and the interpretation (...)
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  22.  29
    “Adjusting” People: Conceptions of the Self in Psychosurgery After World War II. [REVIEW]Marietta Meier - 2009 - Medicine Studies 1 (4):353-366.
    Between 1935 and 1970, tens of thousands of people worldwide underwent brain operations due to psychiatric indication that were intended to positively influence their mental state and behaviour. The majority of these psychosurgical procedures were prefrontal lobotomies. Developed in 1935, the procedure initially met with fierce opposition, but was introduced in numerous countries in the following decade, and was employed up until the late 1960s. This article investigates why psychosurgery was widely accepted after World War II. It examines the effects (...)
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  23.  9
    Promises of Non/Living Monsters and Uncontainable Life.Marietta Radomska - 2018 - Somatechnics 8 (2):215-231.
    In the Western cultural imaginaries the monstrous is defined – following Aristotelian categorisations – by its excess, deficiency or displacement of organic matter. These characteristics come to the fore in the field of bioart: a current in contemporary art that involves the use of biological materials (various kinds of soma: cells, tissues, organisms), and scientific procedures, technologies, protocols, and tools. Bioartistic projects and objects not only challenge the conventional ideas of embodiment and bodily boundaries, but also explore the relation between (...)
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  24.  28
    Ockham’s Razors: A User’s Manual.Elliott Sober - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    Ockham's razor, the principle of parsimony, states that simpler theories are better than theories that are more complex. It has a history dating back to Aristotle and it plays an important role in current physics, biology, and psychology. The razor also gets used outside of science - in everyday life and in philosophy. This book evaluates the principle and discusses its many applications. Fascinating examples from different domains provide a rich basis for contemplating the principle's promises and perils. It is (...)
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  25.  9
    Naive Set Theory.Axiomatic Set Theory.Elliott Mendelson - 1960 - Journal of Philosophy 57 (15):512-513.
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  26.  15
    From “Longshot” to “Fantasy”: Obligations to Pediatric Patients and Families When Last-Ditch Medical Efforts Fail.Elliott Mark Weiss & Autumn Fiester - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (1):3-11.
    Clinicians at quaternary centers see part of their mission as providing hope when others cannot. They tend to see sicker patients with more complex disease processes. Part of this mission is offering longshot treatment modalities that are unlikely to achieve their stated goal, but conceivably could. When patients embark on such a treatment plan, it may fail. Often treatment toward an initial goal continues beyond the point at which such a goal is feasible. We explore the progression of care from (...)
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  27.  11
    Queer Death Studies: Death, Dying and Mourning From a Queerfeminist Perspective.Marietta Radomska, Tara Mehrabi & Nina Lykke - 2020 - Australian Feminist Studies 35 (104):81-100.
    This introduction to the Queer Death Studies special issue explores an emerging transdisciplinary field of research. This field critically, reflexively and affirmatively investigates and challenges conventional normativities, assumptions, expectations, and regimes of truths that are brought to life and made evident by current planetary scale necropolitics and its framing of death, dying and mourning in the contemporary world. It is set against the background of traditional engagements with the question of death, often grounded in Western hegemonic and normative ideas of (...)
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  28. Apportioning Causal Responsibility.Elliott Sober - 1988 - Journal of Philosophy 85 (6):303.
    (Journal of Philosophy, 1988, 85:303-318).
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  29.  75
    Deterministic Chaos and the Evolution of Meaning.Elliott O. Wagner - 2012 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (3):547-575.
    Common wisdom holds that communication is impossible when messages are costless and communicators have totally opposed interests. This article demonstrates that such wisdom is false. Non-convergent dynamics can sustain partial information transfer even in a zero-sum signalling game. In particular, I investigate a signalling game in which messages are free, the state-act payoffs resemble rock–paper–scissors, and senders and receivers adjust their strategies according to the replicator dynamic. This system exhibits Hamiltonian chaos and trajectories do not converge to equilibria. This persistent (...)
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  30. How to Tell When Simpler, More Unified, or Less A D Hoc Theories Will Provide More Accurate Predictions.Malcolm R. Forster & Elliott Sober - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (1):1-35.
    Traditional analyses of the curve fitting problem maintain that the data do not indicate what form the fitted curve should take. Rather, this issue is said to be settled by prior probabilities, by simplicity, or by a background theory. In this paper, we describe a result due to Akaike [1973], which shows how the data can underwrite an inference concerning the curve's form based on an estimate of how predictively accurate it will be. We argue that this approach throws light (...)
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  31.  58
    The Poverty of Pluralism: A Reply to Sterelny and Kitcher.Elliott Sober - 1990 - Journal of Philosophy 87 (3):151-158.
    In a recent article, Kim Sterelny and Philip Kitcher5 defend a version of genic selectionism and attempt to refute the criticisms I made of that doctrine. Their defense has two components. First, they find fault with the account I gave of the units-of-selection controversy-an account which uses the idea of probabilistic causality as a tool of explication. Second, they provide a positive account of their own of what that controversy concerns, one which they think allows genic selectionism to emerge as (...)
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  32. Critical Levels, Critical Ranges, and Imprecise Exchange Rates in Population Axiology.Elliott Thornley - 2022 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 22 (3).
    According to Critical-Level Views in population axiology, an extra life improves a population only if that life’s welfare exceeds some fixed ‘critical level.’ An extra life at the critical level leaves the new population equally good as the original. According to Critical-Range Views, an extra life improves a population only if that life’s welfare exceeds some fixed ‘critical range.’ An extra life within the critical range leaves the new population incommensurable with the original. -/- In this paper, I sharpen some (...)
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  33.  61
    Reply to Alexander Rosenberg's Review of The Nature of Selection.Elliott Sober - 1986 - Behaviorism 14 (1):77-88.
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  34.  84
    Non/Living Matter, Bioscientific Imaginaries and Feminist Techno-Ecologies of Bioart.Marietta Radomska - 2017 - Australian Feminist Studies 32 (94):377-394.
    Bioart is a form of hybrid artistico-scientific practices in contemporary art that involve the use of bio-materials (such as living cells, tissues, organisms) and scientific techniques, protocols, and tools. Bioart-works embody vulnerability (intrinsic to all beings) and depend on (bio)technologies that allow these creations to come into being, endure and flourish but also discipline them. This article focuses on ‘semi-living’ sculptures by The Tissue Culture and Art Project (TC&A). TC&A’s artworks consist of bioengineered mammal tissues grown over biopolymer scaffoldings of (...)
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  35.  19
    The Risk of Fraud in Family Firms: Assessments of External Auditors.Gopal Krishnan & Marietta Peytcheva - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 157 (1):261-278.
    There is a dearth of business ethics research on family firms, despite the importance of such firms to the US economy. We answer Vazquez’s call to examine the intersection of family-firm research and business ethics, by investigating whether external auditors assess higher risk of fraud in family firms. We test the contradictory predictions of two dominant theoretical perspectives in family-firm research—entrenchment theory and alignment theory. We conduct an experiment with highly experienced external audit professionals, who assess the risk of fraud (...)
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  36.  35
    Author Responds to "Review of Carl Elliott, Better Than Well: American Medicine Meets the American Dream" by Paul Root Wolpe.Carl Elliott - 2004 - American Journal of Bioethics 4 (1):38-38.
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  37.  7
    When Ethical Tones at the Top Conflict: Adapting Priority Rules to Reconcile Conflicting Tones.Danielle E. Warren, Marietta Peytcheva & Joseph P. Gaspar - 2015 - Business Ethics Quarterly 25 (4):559-582.
    ABSTRACT:While tone at the top is widely regarded as an important predictor of ethical behavior in organizations, we argue that recent research overlooks the various conflicting ethical tones present in many multi-organizational work settings. Further, we propose that the resolution processes promulgated in many firms and professional associations to reconcile this conflict reinforce the tone at the bottom or a tone at the top of the employee’s organization, and that both of these approaches can conflict with the tone at the (...)
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  38. Wertekonstruktionen: Die Problematik Starker Orientierungen.Marietta Böning & Lutz Ellrich (eds.) - 2019 - De Gruyter.
    Wieso geraten in Informationszeitalter und globaler Marktwirtschaft Werte derart in Widerstreit miteinander, dass eine Krise entsteht? Vor ideengeschichtlichem Hintergrund sind ihre Ursachen mit Bezug auf realpolitische Sachverhalte zu untersuchen. Das Ende der Metaphysik, Probleme des Rationalismus, entfesselter Kapitalismus, Anthropotechnik, kultureller Wandel und Demokratiekrise sind wohlbekannte Phänomene, mit denen sie einhergeht oder die sie bedingen. Gibt es Möglichkeiten, diese Krise zu beenden? Oder bleibt es beim unvermeidbaren Kampf der Werte und ihrer Anhänger gegeneinander? Die Beiträge aus Kunst-, Kultur-, Literatur- und Medienwissenschaften, (...)
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  39. Evolution, Population Thinking, and Essentialism.Elliott Sober - 1980 - Philosophy of Science 47 (3):350-383.
    Ernst Mayr has argued that Darwinian theory discredited essentialist modes of thought and replaced them with what he has called "population thinking". In this paper, I characterize essentialism as embodying a certain conception of how variation in nature is to be explained, and show how this conception was undermined by evolutionary theory. The Darwinian doctrine of evolutionary gradualism makes it impossible to say exactly where one species ends and another begins; such line-drawing problems are often taken to be the decisive (...)
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  40.  29
    Imagination in the Experience of Art: R. K. Elliott.R. K. Elliott - 1972 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 6:88-105.
    In this paper I shall not be concerned with the imagination as insight, but only with certain aspects of ‘magical’ imagination, that division of the concept which centres upon the notion of an image. In the Philosophical Investigations Wittgenstein makes the extremely interesting remark that when a printed triangle is seen, for instance, as a mountain, it is as if an image came into contact, and for a time remained in contact, with the visual impression. He goes on to say (...)
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  41. Epiphenomenalism - the Do's and the Don 'Ts'.Lawrence A. Shapiro & Elliott Sober - 2007 - In G. Wolters & Peter K. Machamer (eds.), Thinking About Causes: From Greek Philosophy to Modern physics. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 235-264.
    When philosophers defend epiphenomenalist doctrines, they often do so by way of a priori arguments. Here we suggest an empirical approach that is modeled on August Weismann’s experimental arguments against the inheritance of acquired characters. This conception of how epiphenomenalism ought to be developed helps clarify some mistakes in two recent epiphenomenalist positions – Jaegwon Kim’s (1993) arguments against mental causation, and the arguments developed by Walsh (2000), Walsh, Lewens, and Ariew (2002), and Matthen and Ariew (2002) that natural selection (...)
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  42.  37
    Two Concepts of Cause.Elliott Sober - 1984 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:405 - 424.
    A distinction is drawn between property causation and token causation. According to the former, a positive causal factor in a population raises the probability of its effects within "background contexts". The latter, which concerns "actual physical connections" between token events, is not explicated here although its distinctness from the first concept and its importance are discussed. The applicability of both is illustrated by two currently controversial issues in evolutionary theory -- the units of selection controversy and the use of parsimony (...)
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  43.  8
    Doing Away with Life: On Biophilosophy, the Non/Living, Toxic Embodiment, and Reimagining Ethics.Marietta Radomska & Cecilia Åsberg - 2020 - In Erich Berger, Kasperi Mäki-Reinikka, Kira O'Reilly & Helena Sederholm (eds.), Art As We Don’t Know It. Helsinki, Finland: pp. 54-63.
    In this chapter we argue for biophilosophy as a queerfeminist and posthumanities methodology that attends to the question of life by focusing on multiple differences and transformations, materiality and processuality, as well as relations, intra-actions, and disconnections. By combining both the ontological and ethical concerns that go beyond what is conventionally seen as “life”, biophilosophy offers a critical and innovative approach to the issues of death, extinction, (un) liveability, terminality, and toxicity, among others, which all form the backbone of the (...)
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  44.  22
    A Tapestry of Values: An Introduction to Values in Science.Kevin C. Elliott - 2017 - Oxford University Press USA.
    The role of values in scientific research has become an important topic of discussion in both scholarly and popular debates. Pundits across the political spectrum worry that research on topics like climate change, evolutionary theory, vaccine safety, and genetically modified foods has become overly politicized. At the same time, it is clear that values play an important role in science by limiting unethical forms of research and by deciding what areas of research have the greatest relevance for society. Deciding how (...)
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  45. Pesach ; The Idea of a Rose.Marietta Elliot - 2012 - The Australian Humanist (105):11.
    Elliot, Marietta Hidden in their attic in Amsterdam..
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  46.  6
    Drinking Termination: Interactions Among Hydrational, Orogastric, and Behavioral Controls in Rats.Elliott M. Blass & Warren G. Hall - 1976 - Psychological Review 83 (5):356-374.
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  47.  20
    The Aim of This Chapter is to Help Readers Understand Their Responsibilities as Persons and as Journalists, and to Provide Them with a Framework for Addressing the Ethical Issues That Routinely Arise in the Practice of Journalism. Our Approach, Which is Informed by the Basic Tenets of Western Ethical Tradi-Tions and Which Borrows From Ozar's and Elliott's Previous Works, Develops From the Abstract to the Concrete. 1 That is, We Move From a Discussion of the Purpose of Journalism, and the Specific Values ... [REVIEW]Deni Elliott - 2010 - In Christopher Meyers (ed.), Journalism Ethics: A Philosophical Approach. Oxford University Press. pp. 9.
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  48. Book Review: Journalistic Truth: An Essay Review by Deni Elliott[REVIEW]Deni Elliott - 1994 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 9 (3):184 – 186.
     
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  49.  23
    Auditor Professionalism: The Importance of Internalizing Professional Standards and Detection of Severely-Sanctioned Professional Violations.Marietta Peytcheva & Danielle E. Warren - 2011 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 30 (1-2):33-57.
    The effectiveness of professional sanctions against violations rests upon the severity of sanctions and detection of violations. Here we examine perceptions of professional violation detection in auditing where the professional standards may conflict with the interests of the auditor’s firm. Using a sample of future and experienced auditors, we test the relationship between professional violations and auditors’ perceptions of the likelihood that severely-sanctioned violations will be discovered by the audit profession, and by the auditor’s firm. In our study, an auditor’s (...)
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  50. Philosophy of Biology.Elliott Sober - 2000 - Routledge.
    Perhaps because of it implications for our understanding of human nature, recent philosophy of biology has seen what might be the most dramatic work in the philosophies of the ?special? sciences. This drama has centered on evolutionary theory, and in the second edition of this textbook, Elliott Sober introduces the reader to the most important issues of these developments. With a rare combination of technical sophistication and clarity of expression, Sober engages both the higher level of theory and the (...)
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