The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of ethics committees in rural critical access hospitals across the United States. Several studies have investigated the presence of ethics committees in rural health care facilities. The limitation of these studies is in the definition of ‘rural hospital’ and a regional or state focus. These limitations have created large variations in the study findings. In this nation-wide study we used the criteria of a critical access hospital (CAH), as defined by (...) the Medicare Rural Hospital Flexibility Program (Flex Program, 2007), to bring consistency and clarity to the assessment of the presence of ethics committees in rural hospitals. The Flex Monitoring Team conducted a national telephone survey of 381 CAH administrators throughout the United States. The survey covered a wide variety of questions concerning hospitals’ community benefit, impact activities, and whether the hospital had a formally established an ethics committee. About 230 (60%) of the respondents indicated they had a formally established ethics committee or ethics consultation program at their CAH. The prevalence of ethics committees declined as the CAH location became increasingly rural along a rural–urban continuum. Unlike CAHs, all rural Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers have ethics committees. The results of this study provide an understanding of the limited presence of ethics committee in rural America and the need to consider new approaches for providing ethics assistance. A virtual ethics committee network may be the most efficient and effective way of providing rural hospitals access to a knowledgeable ethics committee or consultant. (shrink)
Flax seedlings grown in the absence of environmental stimuli, stresses and injuries do not form epidermal meristems in their hypocotyls. Such meristems do form when the stimuli are combined with a transient depletion of calcium. These stimuli include the “manipulation stimulus” resulting from transferring the seedlings from germination to growth conditions. If, after a stimulus, calcium depletion is delayed, meristem production is also delayed; in other words, the meristem-production instruction can be memorised. Memorisation includes both storage and recall of information. (...) Here, we focus on information recall. We show that if the first transient calcium depletion is followed by a second transient depletion there is a new round of meristem production. We also show that if an excess of calcium follows calcium depletion, meristem production is blocked; but if the excess of calcium is in turn followed by another calcium depletion, again there is a new round of meristem production. The same stored information can thus be recalled repeatedly . We describe a conceptual model that takes into account these findings. (shrink)
Guidelines advise that x-rays do not contribute to the clinical management of simple nasal fractures. However, in cases of simple nasal fracture secondary to assault, a facial x-ray may provide additional legal evidence should the victim wish to press charges, though there is no published guidance. We examine the ethical and medico-legal issues surrounding this controversial area.
Freed from “the storms of this world”, Giovanni Pico’s soul was deemed to be spending some time “in the dark fire of purgatory,” before its final place of abode “in the country of heaven,” with its “blessed citizens.” According to Savonarola, Pico had avoided hell, “that other side deputed unto perpetual pain.” This paper examines Thomas More and Giovanni Pico’s conceptions of afterlife through the imaginary representations of the three eschatological places: heaven, hell and purgatory, and concludes on an evolution (...) of the conception of heaven, from the Italian’s more medieval representation and the English author’s more modern conception. (shrink)
This study examines the notions of pleasure, individual liberty and consensus in Thomas More’s Utopia. The paradox inherent in Utopia, written before the Reformation, is especially visible in the affirmation of religious toleration coexisting with the need for a strict supervision of the citizens. The dream of an ideal republic is based on a Pauline vision of man which defines the individual mainly as a sinner. Consequently, it is the duty of the republic’s rulers to guide the citizens and establish (...) a consensus. This study tries to determine the part left to the individual’s free will and examines the nature and function of the structures that are supposed to ensure the happiness of each one and of the whole community. The notion of moral hierarchy is asserted as the linchpin of the Utopian social construction. (shrink)
L’article a pour but de décrire l’œuvre de More : The Last Things, à l’occasion de sa première traduction en français. Il analyse les différentes caractéristiques du traité et en rattache la filiation au Moyen Age, par certains aspects, et à la Renaissance par certains autres. L’originalité de More est mise en évidence : elle réside à la fois dans la forte cohérence du discours, dans son éloquence avérée, ainsi que dans le caractère pastoral de l’œuvre.
As it became more and more apparent, in early modern times, that the traditional conception of sin, based on the Seven Capital Sins, bore no scriptural authority, the Ten Commandments gradually replaced the former system in theological and moral literature. Thomas More’s theology of sin, throughout his work, still relies on the Seven Sins much more than on the Decalogue. This paper argues that the consequence of this conception is an emphasis on the sinner rather than on the sin committed, (...) on being evil rather than on acting evil. However, in his treatment of the tyrant, More uses a much broader range of sins than the Capital Sins and portrays the epitome of evil, likening the tyrant to the devil himself. The study will try to determine Thomas More’s modernity in his conception of the devil-tyrant. (shrink)
This article is to be understood as a general introduction to Thomas More, the humanist. Confronted with the new ideas coming from the rest of Europe, More is influenced by the rediscovery of Greek texts. With his humanist friends, William Lily and Erasmus, he becomes a translator, a poet, a polemicist and a fiction writer. The article starts by defining the terms Renaissance and Humanism, laying the stress of the secularization of thought, and continues by recalling Thomas More’s action against (...) the rigidity of Oxford University in the battle about Greek. The humanist’s portrait then continues with the evocation of More’s qualities as a pedagogue, a poet and a dialogue writer to finish with More’s role as a reformer and an Epicurean in his major work Utopia. The conclusion insists on the re-affirmation of man in the Renaissance world. (shrink)
The isle of Utopia might be seen as a possible earthly Paradise, achieved by enlightened people in quest of perfection on earth. It has most of the elements of an urban paradise but there remain aspects of the postlapsarian working world. In no way is it Eden. This paper will look for unexpected paradisiacal elements in Thomas More’s writings and propose an assessment of his representations of after-life. A rapid survey of his major works will show the evolution of a (...) lifetime in quest of heaven, and will attempt to draw a draught of More’s Paradise and of the road leading to it. (shrink)
This paper intends to challenge G.K. Chesterton’s assertion regarding Thomas More: “He was a mystic and a martyr.” It will draw material from studies on mysticism, with the aim of finding accurate definitions of the concept, and from the writings of well-known mystics such as Bernard of Clairvaux, Catherine of Sienna, Teresa of Avila and Saint John of the Cross. Our study focuses on More’s Tower Works,. It will analyze the mystical aspects in his writings and try to determine whether (...) Thomas More can reasonably rank among the Catholic mystics. (shrink)
This paper intends to study the poetics of water in various 16th and 17th utopias or imaginary tales: Thomas More’s Utopia, Francis Bacon’s New Atlantis and François Rabelais’s Gargantua, Pantagruel and Quart Livre. Based on Gaston Bachelard and Gilbert Durand’s research, the analysis intends to highlight the function of the aquatic element in the writing of fantastic tales inspired notably by Lucian. Water being the infinitely malleable substance, endowed with plural metaphors and in turn positively and negatively valued, it plays (...) multiple roles in poetic imagination, which this analysis attempts to determine. (shrink)
This paper shows how solidarity is one of the founding principles in Thomas More's Utopia. In the fictional republic of Utopia described in Book II, solidarity has a political and a moral function. The principle is at the center of the communal organization of Utopian society, exemplified in a number of practices such as the sharing of farm work, the management of surplus crops, or the democratic elections of the governor and the priests. Not only does solidarity benefit the individual (...) Utopian, but it is a prerequisite to ensure the prosperity of the island of Utopia and its moral preeminence over its neighboring countries. However, a limit to this principle is drawn when the republic of Utopia faces specific social difficulties, and also deals with the rest of the world. In order for the principle of solidarity to function perfectly, it is necessary to apply it exclusively within the island or the republic would be at risk. War is not out of the question then, and compassion does not apply to all human beings. This conception of solidarity, summed up as “Utopia first!,” could be dubbed a Machiavellian strategy, devised to ensure the durability of the republic. We will show how some of the recommendations of Realpolitik made by Machiavelli in The Prince correspond to the Utopian policy enforced to protect their commonwealth. (shrink)
The figure of Thomas More and his work Utopia have followed chaotic but often separate fates all along history. More wrote his Utopia in 1515, when he was under forty years of age and, more important, before the first expressions of the Lutheran movement in England. Ten years after the first edition of Utopia, Europe had become a different world, often a much more hostile one, a place in which Thomas More assured he would not have repeated the same adventure. (...) In 1532, when busy writing his great polemical work against William Tyndale, More went as far as thinking that Utopia, like Erasmus’s Praise of Folly, might have become subversive and the books needed to be destroyed. He added that he would “helpe to burne... (shrink)
ABSTRACT Thomas More's Utopia must have exercised a special hold on imaginations in France, as we count as many as four complete French translations in the two centuries following the first publication of the work in 1516. They are all translations of the original Latin text and most often that of 1518 rather than the first 1516 Louvain version. The presence of paratext varies a lot from one translator to the next, mostly according to each translator's design. French translations of (...) Utopia seem to have been more numerous at the time of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, when translators wished to vent their opinions against the regime and in favor of new political ideas, thereby warping More's text and producing fancy versions that suited them better. A return to greater accuracy and higher respect of the original finally became the norm in the second half of the twentieth century, when Utopia was no longer used for propaganda purposes or as a model to reform society but appreciated for its literary quality and the questioning of its author's intention. (shrink)
Rousseau est certainement un des écrivains français qui interroge le plus car la multiplicité de son oeuvre reflète une ambiguïté. C'est en effet l'homme du discours logique et de la rêverie, de l'oeuvre philosophique, politique, lyrique et intime: un long itinéraire ‘de la marche de la raison au tragique de la recherche d'un salut individuel’.1 Ce qui nous intéresse ici, c'est l'aspect intime, c'est Rousseau intimiste dans son rapport avec la culture ou les cultures; sa démarche et son interrogation sur (...) le monde sont au coeur de sa vie.Nous voudrions cerner dans quelle mesure les diaristes du XIXé siècle sont les héritiers de la révolution intérieure de Rousseau, révolution qui met en cause les cultures. Constate-t-on entre Rousseau et les grands intimistes un parallélisme fortuit, une influence, une donnée spécifique, intrinsèque à toute écriture intime? (shrink)
Based on a sociological survey carried out in a camp for asylum seekers in Belgium, the article questions the modes of existence in this “out of place” and “out of time” that is the camp. Behind the apparent emptiness of waiting in a decelerated present, the investigation highlights three temporalities that together shape the breathing of the camp and the living conditions of asylum seekers: the rhythm of the framework that holds together daily life, the cycle and the passage that (...) gives a sense of the ordeal and finally the singular time of the articulations between present, past and future which characterize the “being in time” of asylum seekers. After exploring these three temporalities, the author proposes a concept that allows them to hold together in order to understand the texture of time that unfolds in these “out of place”, “out of time” that are the camps. (shrink)