The outcome of very preterm infants is marked by the development of complications that can have an impact on the quality of life of the children and their families. The concept of quality of life and its evaluation in the long term raise semantic and ethical problems for French physicians in perinatal care. Our reflection aims to gain a better understanding of the representations surrounding quality of life in neonatal medicine.
BackgroundFrench military doctors are currently deployed in the Sahel to support the armed forces of Operation Barkhane, in medical or surgical units. As well as supporting French soldiers, their other missions are diverse and complex: medical assistance to civilians and persons under control (PUC), advice to commanding officers. These tasks can create ethical dilemmas when decisions are forced upon doctors that may be in conflict with medical values or fundamental principles. Little is known about the specific dilemmas experienced by French (...) military doctors in overseas operations. We therefore conducted a qualitative study among doctors and surgeons recently deployed to the Sahel to explore and better understand this question.MethodSemi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 20 French military doctors or surgeons deployed since January 2016 in medical or surgical facilities in Mali and Chad.ResultsAll interviewed doctors reported having faced several ethical dilemmas during missions. All reported dilemmas involved the treatment of civilians (while delivering community medical assistance) or of PUC. The dilemmas involved choices as to which patients to treat, the use of care as a means to an end by military authorities, and the level of care attainable in the absence of any possible hospital follow-up. Questions of delivering care at the risk of their own safety or the mission’s and of treating openly hostile patients were also brought up. Several dilemmas stemmed from the dual loyalty problem, namely the conflict between military doctors’ duty of care to patients and to the military institution, but this was not the only factor involved. Contextual factors (restricted resources and security constraints) and psychological factors (especially hostility towards the enemy) were also associated with many of the reported dilemmas.ConclusionThis is the first reported study focusing on the ethical dilemmas encountered by French military doctors in overseas operations. It provides unique insights into their ethical experiences and should prove useful in improving operational training for healthcare personnel deployed on overseas missions. (shrink)
CB1 receptors are functionally present within brain mitochondria, although they are usually considered specifically targeted to plasma membrane. Acute activation of mtCB1 alters mitochondrial ATP generation, synaptic transmission, and memory performance. However, the detailed mechanism linking disrupted mitochondrial metabolism and synaptic transmission is still uncharacterized. CB1 receptors are among the most abundant G protein-coupled receptors in the brain and impact on several processes, including fear coping, anxiety, stress, learning, and memory. Mitochondria perform several key physiological processes for neuronal homeostasis, including (...) production of ATP and reactive oxygen species, calcium buffering, metabolism of neurotransmitters, and apoptosis. It is therefore possible that acute activation of mtCB1 impacts on these different mitochondrial functions to modulate synaptic transmission. In reviewing and integrating across the literature in this area, we describe the possible mechanisms involved in the regulation of brain physiology by mtCB1 receptors. Activation of mitochondrial CB1 but not of plasma membrane CB1 decreases brain mitochondrial activity, glutamatergic synaptic transmission, and memory performance. Several processes can be involved in this alteration of brain physiology, including mitochondrial ATP and ROS production, axonal mitochondrial transport, Ca2+ homeostasis, and/or metabolism of the neurotransmitter glutamate. (shrink)
Partons d’un constat optimiste : depuis trente ans, non seulement les femmes sont devenues sujets d’histoire mais cette irruption assez soudaine a modifié la discipline elle-même, des sujets considérés comme neutres s’avérant sexués. Le regard scientifique est devenu plus ample, découvrant de nouvelles voies. Anne-Marie Sohn, en introduisant ce dossier du numéro 198 du Mouvement Social, rappelle que l’histoire des femmes a permis d’affirmer bien haut que la différence des sexes était d’abord...
Ernst Cassirer est un philosophe juif allemand, contemporain de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Auteur majeur pour l'histoire de la pensée occidentale, il est cependant resté dans l'ombre de Heidegger pendant de nombreuses années. Sa philosophie, centrée sur la question de la culture et du politique, trouve dans la forme symbolique du mythe une explication à la naissance du totalitarisme. Dans une démarche critique, Cassirer analyse l'apparition du mythe totalitaire en Allemagne comme une crise culturelle ayant engendré par la suite une (...) crise morale et politique. Cette crise culturelle trouve sa source au sein du courant romantique allemand, dont les mauvaises interprétations – ou réutilisations – par les idéologues nazis ont conduit aux dérives nationalistes et au culte du héros. À la pensée mythique, Cassirer oppose la pensée libre, éclairée et critique, seule voie de sortie possible selon lui pour dépasser le mythe totalitaire. « Sapere aude! », selon la formule kantienne : osons penser! Ayons le courage de nous servir de notre propre entendement. (shrink)
La question des migrations en Afrique subsaharienne, longtemps négligée, a émergé dans le champ scientifique dans le contexte de la volonté renouvelée des États de maîtriser les flux migratoires et les transformations des années 1990. Cependant, en dépit des progrès dans la connaissance historique, le rôle des femmes dans les processus migratoires en Afrique sahélienne francophone demeure un champ de recherches encore neuf, que le livre de Marie Rodet contribue à enrichir, en proposant une hi...
This study aims to investigate the relationship between job burnout and employee performance in the feed industry during the ASF outbreak. Further, the researchers employed a descriptive-correlational research design in order to analyze the acquired data and produce pertinent findings. Thus, the researchers gathered data from one hundred two (102) feed industry employees. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) were employed to ascertain the extent of job burnout experienced by the respondents and evaluate employee performance, (...) respectively. Based on the statistical analysis, there is a significant relationship between job burnout and employee performance. Moreover, the study's findings were thoroughly analyzed and discussed. (shrink)
L’ouvrage présente les résultats d’un travail de recherche mené sur une dizaine d’années. Il offre une mise en relation entre les statistiques de sites de rencontres, celles de l’INSEE et de l’INED et des éléments d’entretiens de 75 usagers hétérosexuels de ces sites de rencontre ayant entre 18 ans et 68 ans recueillis par la chercheuse. L’écriture suit une trame chronologique, de l’histoire de la rencontre à ses nouveaux usages, ce qui rend la compréhension aisée. Dès le début, l’auteure exp...
The Aesthetic Dimensions of Educational Administration and Leadership provides an aesthetic critique of educational administration and leadership. It demonstrates the importance of aesthetics on all aspects of the administrative and leadership world: the ways ideas and ideals are created, how their expression is conveyed, the impact they have on interpersonal relationships and the organizational environment that carries and reinforces them, and the moral boundaries or limits that can be established or exceeded. The book is divided into three sections. · Section (...) I examines various philosophical traditions in aesthetics as they inform administrative life, focussing on major modern traditions arising from Kant, romanticism and Nietzsche, Collingwood, the pragmatic school, and critical theory. · Section II explores four aesthetic sources for administrative critique - architecture, literature, film, and movement - as they serve both to understand the social construction of administration and leadership and provide a critique of values, roles, power and authority. · Section III examines more topical and applied problems of charisma, heroism, and authority in practice, concluding with a discussion of the aesthetic analysis of politics and power within the context of contemporary educational administration and leadership theory. While presenting a significant departure from conventional studies in the field, the international contributors reflect a continuity of thought on the creation, use and abuse of administrative and leadership authority from the writings of Plato through to contemporary theory. This book should appeal to school administrators and leaders and those aspiring to these roles. (shrink)
_Ideologies in Educational Administration and Leadership_ explores ideological dimensions of educational administration in a number of Western and Central European contexts as they influence or shape the understanding, analysis, and practice in the field covering a broad range of topics, such as ethics, governance, diversity, and power. The first section, Philosophical and Theoretical Foundations, includes a range of sociological, political and linguistic approaches to examining ideology in an educational context. The second section, Ideologies of Research and Teaching, includes examinations of (...) neoliberal and technological effects on research and teaching, as well as ideological shifts and challenges, in the West and in Eastern Europe. The last section, Contemporary and International Issues, includes critiques of social media, neoliberal impact on schooling, managerial leadership, university ideologies in Finland, the rationalisation of universities, and the impact of administrative ideologies on school systems. The book will appeal to researchers, practitioners, policy-makers, academics, as well as post-graduates in educational administration theory, and related courses in the ethics and politics of education, educational leadership, and organisational studies. (shrink)
During the last couple of decades, there has been an expansion in a number of related and overlapping fields producing evidence of covert activities: toxic cultures, destructive leadership styles, micropolitics, ethical problems in organisations and administration, abusive power and authority, and many other topics of dysfunctional management and leadership studies that frequently make reference to secretive and deceptive behaviour.In this book, Eugenie A. Samier draws on a range of disciplines including education, psychology, administration and management studies and organizational theory to (...) provide a comprehensive examination of the ways in which organisational leaders and administrators carry out their roles in a secretive or deceptive manner. Samier presents a theory of covert administration that can be used to:provide an analysis and interpretation of secretive and deceptive activity inform decision-making both theoretically and practically offer a means of diagnosing errant management using secretive and deceptive practicesprovide a general set of guidelines for determining when clandestine activities may be legitimate and moral. Alongside a detailed presentation of the theory of covert administration, the book explores covert administration in practice, factors leading to it, and the results of attempts to combat its many forms. It will be key reading for researchers and postgraduates with an interest in the field, as well as administrators and policy makers. (shrink)
En quelques pages, la philosophe Angèle Kremer-Marietti décrypte l'originalité du grand phénoménologue se posant au-delà de la représentation, dans le monde immense d'un univers qui nous échappe dans son pur objet.
Dès son introduction, J.-M. Salamito, professeur d’histoire du christianisme à la Sorbonne, inscrit sa réflexion dans le sillage des « intuitions lumineuses » de G. de Plinval, P. Brown et Ch. Pietri concernant la signification sociale des positions pélagiennes. Pour en présenter les enjeux, décisifs pour le christianisme au début du Ve siècle, et définir ce qui oppose si radicalement Augustin à Pélage et ses disciples, l’A. déploie sa connaissance des sources - on peut se réjouir que les tex..