Author looks into the problem of Marian Zdziechowski’s cooperation with the journal „Nový život”, the newsletter for Czech Catholic modernists. The background for author’s considerations is a historical outline of The Modernist Crisis, its intellectual origins and historic consequences. From 1902 to 1905 five Zdziechowski’s essays were translated and published in „Nový život”. The ideas of the Polish philosopher significantly influenced the development of the Catholic modernism in Bohemia. Zdziechowski discussed such issues as: the crisis and the revival of (...) religion at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the significance of the Catholic Modernism for the renewal of Roman Catholic Church and the relation between religion and modern art. (shrink)
Die Werke der beiden Philosophen, Soziologen und Asthetiker Walter Benjamin und Georg Simmel sind von der Frage nach der Kultur, genauer nach der Kultur der Moderne durchzogen. Entgegen anderen 'Klassikern' der Kulturwissenschaft konzipierten sie ihre Theorie und Kritik nicht von 'grossen Zusammenhangen' her, sondern erfassten die moderne Kultur in ihrer ganzen phanomenalen Breite, also in den alltaglichen Lebensweisen und der Dingkultur, und gelangten erst in Verdichtung dieser Beobachtungen zu Erkenntnissen des Allgemeinen, Typischen. Die Konfrontation der Schriften der Autoren erlaubt neben (...) einem langst uberfalligen Beitrag zur Rezeptionsgeschichte Simmels zugleich ein vertieftes Verstandnis beider Werke. Simmels Betrachtung der modernen Versachlichung, der Temposteigerung des Lebens sowie der Vielfalt moderner Lebensstile, die er zentral in seiner Philosophie des Geldes vorgenommen hatte, wurde von Benjamin besonders in seinem Passagen-Werk rezipiert und weitergefuhrt - wenn auch angesichts einer radikal veranderten geschichtlichen Wirklichkeit und mit anderen geschichtsphilosophischen Schlussfolgerungen. Beide Autoren teilen dabei einen rein deskriptiven Kulturbegriff, aus dem heraus sie Ansatze zu einer Phanomenologie der Moderne, Kulturphilosophie und Methodologie entwickeln, die sich noch in den heutigen Kulturwissenschaften als 'anschlussfahig' erweisen. (shrink)
Marian Smoluchowski solved the greatest scientific problem of his time. It was the explanation of the phenomenon of the Brownian motion. In the article, I show that Smoluchowski in fact in this explanation used an ontological interpretation of the causality principle, although in his writings he applied it also in the epistemological interpretation. This is understandable because in the scientific practice some kinds of ontological commitment are required.
The aim of tis article is to present the selected Marian Smoluchowski's manuscripts to be published in this volume. At the beginning, a history and current state of research of his manusript legacy was showed. Next there were characterized a philosophical significance of his unpublished manuscripts and a short analysis of the manuscripts published in this volume. At the end of the article the details about the current edition of Smoluchowski's manuscripts were described.
What is animal welfare? Why has it proved so difficult to find a definition that everyone can agree on? This concise and accessible guide is for anyone who is interested in animals and who has wondered how we can assess their welfare scientifically. It defines animal welfare as 'health and animals having what they want', a definition that can be easily understood by scientists and non-scientists alike, expresses in simple words what underlies many existing definitions, and shows what evidence we (...) need to collect to improve animal welfare in practice. Above all, it puts the animal's own point of view at the heart of an assessment of its welfare. But, can we really understand what animals want? A consistent theme running through the book is that not only is it possible to establish what animals want, but that this information is vital in helping us to make sense of the long and often confusing list of welfare measures that are now in use such as 'stress' and 'feel good hormones', expressive sounds and gestures, natural behaviour, cognitive bias, and stereotypies. Defining welfare as 'health and what animals want' allows us to distinguish between measures that are simply what an animal does when it is alert, aroused, or active and those measures that genuinely allow us to distinguish between situations the animals themselves see as positive or negative. Sentience (conscious feelings of pleasure, pain, and suffering) is for many people the essence of what is meant by welfare, but studying consciousness is notoriously difficult, particularly in non-human species. These difficulties are discussed in the context of our current - and as yet incomplete - knowledge of human and animal consciousness. Finally, the book highlights some key ideas in the relationship between animal welfare science and animal ethics and shows how closely the well-being of humans is linked to that of other animals. The Science of Animal Welfare is an ideal companion for undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in animal behaviour and welfare, as well as for professional researchers, practitioners and animal welfare consultants. At the same time, it is easily understandable to non-scientists and anyone without prior knowledge but with an interest in animals and the rapidly evolving science of animal welfare. (shrink)
Impliziert Wittgensteins Kritik der Metaphysik eine Absage an absolute Werte und Wahrheiten? Dies ist weitgehend Konsens in der Wittgensteinforschung. Die Ursünde der Metaphysik: Sie beruht auf einer mangelhaften Sichtung der Alltagssprache. Bestimmte Aspekte unseres Sprechens werden erst ohne hinreichende Gründe privilegiert - und dann in einer Theorie als absoluter Grund gesetzt - oder vergessen. Die führenden Wittgensteinianer führen zurecht vor, wie einige metaphysische Theorien über das Absolute als Resultat so einer Verwirrung gedeutet werden können. Sie wiederholen aber die Ursünde der (...) Metaphysik, wenn sie auf dieser Basis den Bezug auf das Absolute schlechthin verwerfen, da sie wichtige Aspekte jener ethischen Sprachspiele vergessen, in denen ursprünglich das Absolute vorkommt. Wittgensteins eigentliches Ziel ist es nicht, mit der Kritik der Metaphysik den Bezug auf das Absolute zu zerstören, sondern ihn wieder neu einzuordnen, gerade um ihn nicht zu verletzen. Für Leser mit Interesse an der aktuellen Wittgensteinforschung, an der Möglichkeit der Metaphysik und an den Kriterien für Wahrheit und Wirklichkeit. (shrink)
Marian Wesoły devoted a considerable part of his life and research to studying the philosophical thought of antiquity. He is, therefore, widely known to scientific community as an admirer of Hellas, outstanding scholar and expert on ancient philosophy, which is reflected in his many publications in the field. Importantly, however, Marian Wesoły, has also been a pioneer of research into a much lesser known field of research, namely Greek philosophy in Byzantium. While this neglected and often disdained area (...) of research has been the subject of Marian Wesoły’s numerous publications, this article presents an over view of his most important findings. (shrink)
In this volume, G. Marian Kinget's classic work, On Being Human, can be read for the first time in light of a second, previously unpublished work, Pleasure And Pain. Taken together, these two works offer a new generation of readers a comprehensive picture of the insights, principles, and goals of humanistic psychology. On Being Human, Kinget's pioneering work, which arose from the original humanistic revolution in psychology, systematically describes the characteristics that make human beings different from all other forms (...) of life. In this work, Kinget explores man in his full nature not solely as a biological organism modified by experience and culture. She presents a person as a symbolic entity capable of pondering his existence, and lending it meaning and direction. Man is the only animal who knowingly exists in space and time, manifesting transcendental and metaphysical concern throughout history and culture. On Being Human presents the fundamentals of any valid approach to psychology as well as to other fields concerned with the individuality of the human being. It describes the specific human capacities for reflective thought and declarative language, and it discusses the unique ability of humans to devise culture and question origins. Pleasure and Pain considers the interdependence of human pleasure and pain. This idea, which leads to unnecessary fears and unwarranted expectations, goes unrecognized in a contemporary western society focused on the accumulation of pleasure without any awareness of the duality of the pleasure-pain experience. Kinget refutes the widespread fallacy that fun lies in the means, when it actually lies in the subject, and she discusses the human potential for autonomous "management" of the pleasure-pain dimension of human existence. (shrink)
Professor Margaret Jo Osler of the University of Calgary, an historian of early modern science and philosophy (and a member of the Board of Directors of the Journal of the History of Philosophy since 2002) died on September 15, 2010. Born on November 27, 1942, she proudly proclaimed herself to be a "red diaper baby" and particularly delighted in telling her right-wing friends how her middle name was her parents' homage to Stalin. An energetic scholar with a vibrant and positive (...) personality, Maggie, as everyone who worked with her came to call her, never considered retirement and was actively working right up to her diagnosis with pancreatic cancer in early July, 2010.After graduating from Swarthmore College in .. (shrink)
The main goal of this paper is to present the Marian Smoluchowski’s work on thermal and primordial fluctuations which are the main cause of Brownian motion and one of the first empirical evidences for molecular structure of matter.